Under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution, the right to life has been offered
a principal status by the judiciary. Article 21 and 22 ensure against arbitrary
detainment and arrest and the legal judiciary now. In a few cases, it has
defended this interest and restricted the leader's power to make pointless
arrest and confinement.
Police have been charged over and over for making an
unlawful arrest with no justification, and because of this, an average person,
particularly from lower strata of society, needs to suffer a greater amount of
this since he/she doesn't know about the law at the hour of arrest and the
subsequent reason being that he/she can't draw in an Attorney soon the arrest is
made, due to which the Police utilizing their capacity, abuse individuals under
their authority and gets away with it without any problem. This Article attempts
to analyze Section 41A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
What Is Section 41a of Cr. P.C.?
As per Section 41 A of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter, 'Cr. P.C.'),
if any police officer requires the participation of any individual who is not
requiredto be fundamentally arrested under Section 41(1) of Cr.P.C. or against
whom a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been
received, or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognizable
offence, the official can give a notice for the equivalent.
The individual to
whom the Notice is served is obliged to show up at the specified place and time.
The individual confirming to the Notice will not be arrested except if in any
case considered fit by the Police for which the official is duty-bound to record
reasons in writing. Inability to consent to the Notice is a ground for arrest.
History of The 'Notice Of Appearance'
Section 41A was added by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2008 (5
of 2009). However, recently after the enactment of this Amendment,
representations were received by the Union Government. Thus, some specific
amendments were brought in by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act,
2010 (41 of 2010).
The earlier sub-section (1) of Section 41A read: The police officer may, in all
cases where the arrest of a person is not required under the provisions of
sub-section (1) of section 41, issue a notice directing the person against whom
a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received,
or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognizable offence, to
appear before him or at such other place as may be specified in the notice.
The 2010 amendment ensured that a police officer issues such Notice by
substituting 'shall' in place of may
vide section 3(a) of the 2010 amendment
Act. The Amendment also enacted a proviso to section 41(1)(b)(ii) providing for
recording of reasons for not arresting an accused. However, the Supreme Court
directed in Arnesh Kumar case that issuing a notice of appearance under Section
41A was thoughtfully implemented. The Supreme Court held that their endeavour in
this judgment is to ensure that a police officer does not arrest any accused
unnecessarily, and the Magistrate does not authorize detention casually and
To confirm what the Top Court observed above, it gave the following direction:
- All the State Governments instruct its police officers not to
automatically arrest when a case under Section 498-A of the I.P.C. is registered but to
satisfy themselves about the necessary details before that arrest under the
parameters laid down above flowing from Section 41 of Cr. P.C.;
- All police officers must be given a checklist that contains specified
sub-clauses under Section 41(1)(b)(ii) of Cr.P.C.;
- The police officer should forward the checklist duly filed and produce
the reasons and materials which necessitated the arrest while taking the
accused before the Magistrate for his further detention;
- The Magistrate while authorizing detention of the accused shall pursue
the report produced by the police officer in terms aforesaid and only after
recording their satisfaction, the Magistrate will authorize detention;
- The decision of not arresting an accused, must be forwarded to the
Magistrate within two weeks from the date of the institution of the case
with Police to the Magistrate which may be extended further by the
Superintendent of Police of the district for the reasons to be recorded in
- The Notice of appearance in terms of Section 41A of Cr. P.C. must be
served on the accused within two weeks from the date of institution of the
case, which may further be extended by the Superintendent of Police of the
District for the reasons to be recorded in writing;
- A failure to comply with the directions aforesaid shall apart from
rendering the police officers concerned liable for their departmental
action; shall also be held liable for contempt of court, which is to be
instituted before High Court having territorial jurisdiction.
- Authorizing detention without recording reasons as aforesaid by the
judicial Magistrate concerned shall be liable for their departmental action
by the High Court having territorial jurisdiction.
Finally, the Supreme Court added that the directions as mentioned earlier do not
apply to the cases that fall under Section 498-A of the I.P.C. or Section 4 of
the Dowry Prohibition Act, the matter in hand, but also such instances in which
the offence is punishable with imprisonment for a term not less than seven
years, or which may extend to seven years; either with fine or without fine.
In Arnesh Kumar's case,
the directions laid down are a statutory set of
instructions to avoid unnecessary arrest. However, in this case, the safeguards
deal with the incident of arrest and the power of arrest itself is not curtailed
In the case of Amandeep Singh Johar vs State of N.C.T. of Delhi and Anr
Delhi High Court has laid down a model format for issuance of Notice under
section 41A of the Cr.P.C., containing a warning at the end of the model notice
format which states that the failure to comply with the terms of this Notice,
can render a person liable for arrest under Section 41A (3) and (4) of Cr. P.C.
Sub-section 3 of Section 41A contains a broader premise for arresting even
though an accused appears before the investigating officer responds to the
Notice of appearance. The said sub-section reads:
where such person complies and continues to comply with the notice, he shall not
be arrested in respect of the offence referred to in the notice unless, for
reasons to be recorded, the police officer believes that he ought to be
Difficulties underlying Section 41-A
Section 41 A orders Notice's issuance to the blamed where the arrest for the
individual isn't needed according to Section 41(1). Nonetheless, two
peculiarities surface up;firstly, the authoritative content of Section 41(1)
itself offers discretion to the Police in issues of arrest, as is obvious from
the utilization of the word 'may' in the provision. Henceforth, it is open for
the Police to decide whether a specific issue falls inside the ambit of Section
41(1) or 41A.
Along these lines, the provision which was consolidated to
restrict the power of arrest vested to Police under 41(1) has left it upon the
Police himself to choose the relevance of the equivalent. Hence, if the Police
consider the issue to be good for arrest under Section 41(1), he can at present
do as such without any respect to the provisions of Section 41A.
Also, the utilization of subjective terms in the provision, for example, reasonable complaint
, credible information'
', reasonable suspicion
space for maltreatment of such powers and leaving tremendous degree for the
Police to practice their prudence. Further, 41A (3) furnishes the Police with an
occasion to arrest an individual even after confirming with the Notice if the
Police believes that the arrest is vital. Additionally, the quick attentiveness
to choose consistency with the Notice is vested in the Police.
especially builds the Police's ambit to arrest without a warrant � extending it
to violations that don't fall under the limits of Section 41(1). The current
peculiarities have not controlled themselves to administrative provisions, there
have been various cases where abuse of the force vested under Section 41A has
been affirmed or demonstrated.
In Tanuja Roy v. State of Assam and Ors
., an F.I.R. under Section 420 and 406
being held up against the accused, three police officers from the Dispur Police
Station powerfully took the Petitioner to the police headquarters at 1:00 am
regardless of opposition from the candidate. She was confined discretionarily,
for extended periods without being given any explanation, after which Notice was
served to her under Section 41A.
The game-plan received by the Police in the
current case was uncalled-for. The Court descended intensely upon the Police
Officials while holding their activities to be in contradiction of Section 46(4)
of the Cr. P.C. Furthermore, not following what Section 41A specifies to deter
the force under Section 41A of Cr.P.C., the investigatingofficer may control the
F.I.R. Although the control of F.I.R. was not demonstrated in the moment case,
such action isn't altogether uncommon.
According to Section 41- A of the Cr.P.C., on the off chance that Police feels
that arrest isn't of need, at that point it would be legitimately judicious to
give a notice which coordinates an individual against whom a sensible protest
has been made and wherein a sensible doubt keeps on continuing, guiding the
blamed being referred to show up before the official or at any place determined
by Notice. It is the lawful obligation of the individual against whom the Notice
has been coordinated to follow the Notice, and as long as he keeps on conforming
to the states of the Notice, he will not be arrested, and wherein he neglects to
do as such, he is subject to be detained relying on requests passed by a
The Police's optional power is practically limitless as they have limitless
powers, particularly upon the perspective on the sub-section (3) of Section 41A
which records that the Police can make arrests notwithstanding consistency from
the charged. One should address whether this is in rebellion of the
administrative aim of the provision.
A line of argument can be created which centres around a potential polarity
between arrests made under Section 41 and 41A. Section 41A is summoned simply
after; the Police utilizing their tact concludes that arrest of the speculated
individual or people isn't needed. This is to state that, the Police have mulled
over the entirety of the conditions referenced under Section 41 (1), preceding
sending the speculated individual a notice according to Section 41A.
the High Court of Orissa held that this implies that the cases covered by
Section 41(1) have been barred from the domain of Section 41-A. Thus, it is most
likely to contend that the idea of arrests under the two sections is unique.
This would also imply that the rules and the strategy set up in resulting
decisions aremade under Section 41 and hence can't be applied to arrests made
under Section 41A.
Presently on the off chance that we fathom a circumstance where, the accused's
arrest is ordered under Section 41 (1), and the conditions and justification for
arrest as determined in Section 41 are satisfied, and still, at the end of the
day Section 41A can make a proviso helping the Police. It owns the Police itself
to determine if the conditions in Section 41 were met or not to raise a
reasonable ground for the utilization of Section 41A. It could offer ascent to
occasions where the Police apply Section 41A and send a notice of appearance
rather than straightforwardly capturing the individual.
The explanations behind
such an activity could be various. It may very well be done to dodge strategies
set down by Arnesh Kumar concerning arrests made by the Police without a
request. The methodology set up is to be followed compulsorily, and Section 41A
permits the Police to get away from these techniques and arrest discretionarily.
The Section likewise adds a purpose behind the Police to arrest a speculated
individual � arrest for rebelliousness with the Notice's conditionsand
consequently expanding the arrest forces.
Likewise, as the Section offers discretion to the Police, this all-around
degenerate police power can manhandle this one case, the Police may require the
presence of the blamed individual through Notice, while in a similar case
another indistinguishably arranged individual to arrest. Subsequently, there is
each probability that the Police will abuse this provision for ulterior
Another problematic part of the Section is that under the Section the Police can
arrange the presumed individual to show up before the official at:
place as determined in the notice
. This would imply that the individual could
be arranged to visit any place where the Police would require him and not merely
the police headquarters.
Henceforth, note that the Police have abused the provision of Section 41-A. The
said Section has exclusively vested its forces upon the Police along these
lines, leaving space for it to be misused. The validity of the reports delivered
by the Police to feature non-collaboration concerning the charges with exploring
organizations or showing that they didn't show up when gathered should likewise
be addressed. It isn't past the genuine to expect that a few notices are made
after the individual has been arrestedin order to show that Notice was given on
The extension for this provision to be authoritative is amazingly
huge and that it has been demonstrated that the Police have utilized this
provision to badger charged people, as found on account of Amandeep Singh Johar.
It was never the aim of the assembly to consider blameless people to be annoyed
by the Police, and it is incredibly remembered that while assessing the
utilization of the provision of 41-A by the Police.
Presently to handle these rising misbehaviors through a change, the governing
body set up a severe method to be followed while the issuance of a notice under
Section 41A. In any case, the judgment and the methodology are tricky in their
regard. A significant case for the assessment of Section 41-A is that of Amandeep
Singh Johar versus the State of N.C.T. of Delhi.
For this situation, the
applicant advanced that notwithstanding consistency before the specialists, an F.I.R. came to be enrolled against him under Sec 498A and 406 of the I.P.C. He
also featured how he was regularly brought to show up before the police
No composed notification was available in a few occurrences, which
is an essential condition under Section 41-A. He affirmed both that the rules of
Section 41-A disagreed and that these weren't sufficient to guarantee the
security of the individuals called subjects of criminal examinations. The
significant rules set somewhere near the Amandeep Singh Johar case included
allowing rescheduling of the gathering if it isn't adverse to the Police and
sensible. It additionally focused on the significance of consenting to the
provisions of Section 41-A concerning the issuance of a notification by the
Notwithstanding, what is additionally noteworthy is that the judgment gave a
route to the investigating officer to set down conditions other than those
referenced by the Court which essentially must be followed, the disappointment
of which would make an individual subject to be arrested as per Section 41-A
(3). Ongoing judgments that have referenced the rules have not set up an away
from the strategy given in Amandeep judgment; however, have marked the technique
to be rigidly and obligatorily applied.
From the above discussion, because an examining officer having powers under the
Cr.P.C can arrest an accused person for the reasons under Section 41 of the
Cr.P.C, it isn't important to arrest a charged individual for each situation
where a criminal offence is enlisted and is under scrutiny.
A decent measure of discretion must be left with the investigating officer to be
reasonable for the public purpose behind the investigation, which is to discover
reality on account of criminal offences, which are traditionally treated as
offences against the tranquillity of the general public at large.
Notwithstanding, this can't be at the expense of fundamental procedural
The off chance that procedure is codified for shielding an accused
from pointless arrest and for pre-FIR preliminary inquiry should be interpreted
to protect an accused from unnecessary harassment. Subsequently, such a method
can't be suggested by any implication to bias a prospective accused or accused
Written By: Kishan Dutt Kalaskar