Violence against women in India refer to physical or sexual violence
committed against Indian women, typically by a man. Common forms of violence
against women in India include acts such as domestic abuse, sexual assault, and
murder. In order to be considered violence against women, the act must be
committed solely because the victim is female. Most typically, these acts are
committed by men as a result of the long-standing gender inequalities present in
Violence against women in India is actually more present than it may appear at
first glance, as many expressions of violence are not considered crimes, or may
otherwise go unreported or undocumented due to certain Indian cultural values
and beliefs. These reasons all contribute to India's Gender Inequality Index
rating of 0.524 in 2017, putting it in the bottom 20% of ranked countries for
According to the National Crime Records Bureau of India, reported incidents of
crime against women increased 6.4% during 2012, and a crime against a woman is
committed every three minutes.
According to the National Crime Records Bureau
- In 2011, there were greater than 228,650 reported incidents of crime
- while in 2015, there were over 300,000 reported incidents, a 44%
increase. Of the women living in
India, 7.5% live in West Bengal where 12.7% of the total reported crime
against women occurs. Andhra Pradesh is home to 7.3% of India's female
population and accounts for 11.5% of the total reported crimes against women.
65% of Indian men believe women should tolerate violence in order to keep the
family together, and women sometimes deserve to be beaten.
In January 2011, the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)
Questionnaire reported that 24% of Indian men had committed sexual violence at
some point during their lives.
Exact statistics on the extent case occurrences are very difficult to obtain, as
a large number of cases go unreported. This is due in large part to the threat
of ridicule or shame on the part of the potential reporter, as well as an
immense pressure not to damage the family's honor.
For similar reasons, law enforcement officers are more motivated to accept
offers of bribery from the family of the accused, or perhaps in fear of more
grave consequences, such as Honor Killings.
To combat violence and other abuses against women, Telangana Police have
established SHE Teams to focus on the safety of women.
Crime in India exists in various forms.
A dowry death is the murder or suicide of a married woman caused by a dispute
over her dowry. In some cases, husbands and in-laws will attempt to extort a
greater dowry through continuous harassment and torture which sometimes results
in the wife committing suicide, or the exchange of gifts, money, or property
upon marriage of a family's daughter.
The majority of these suicides are done through hanging, poisoning or
self-immolation. When a dowry death is done by setting the woman on fire, it is
called bride burning. Bride burning murder is often set up to appear to be a
suicide or accident, sometimes by setting the woman on fire in such a way that
it appears she ignited while cooking at a kerosene stove. Dowry is illegal in
India, but it is still common practice to give expensive gifts to the groom and
his relatives at weddings which are hosted by the family of the bride.
In Uttar Pradesh, 2,244 cases were reported, accounting for 27.3% of the dowry
deaths nationwide. In, Bihar, 1,275 cases were reported, accounting for 15.5% of
Incidents of dowry deaths have decreased 4.5% from 2011 to 2012.
In 2018, still as many as 5,000 dowry deaths are recorded each year.
Female infanticide is the elected killing of a newborn female child or the
termination of a female fetus through sex-selective abortion. In India, there is
incentive to have a son, because they offer security to the family in old age
and are able to conduct rituals for deceased parents and ancestors. In contrast,
daughters are considered to be a social and economic burden.
An example of this is dowry. The fear of not being able to pay an acceptable
dowry and becoming socially ostracised can lead to female infanticide in poorer
Modern medical technology has allowed for the sex of a child to be determined
while the child is still a fetus.
Once these modern prenatal diagnostic techniques determine the sex of the fetus,
families then are able to decide if they would like to abort based on sex. One
study found that 7,997 of 8,000 abortions were of female fetuses. The fetal sex
determination and sex-selective abortion by medical professionals is now a R.s
1,000 crore (US$244 million) industry.
The Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act of 1994 (PCPNDT Act
1994) was modified in 2003 in order to target medical professionals. The Act has
proven ineffective due to the lack of implementation. Sex-selective abortions
have totaled approximately 4.2-12.1 million from 1980-2010.
There was a greater increase in the number of sex-selective abortions in the
1990s than the 2000s. Poorer families are responsible for a higher proportion of
abortions than wealthier families. Significantly more abortions occur in rural
areas versus urban areas when the first child is female.
The map shows the comparative rate of violence against women in Indian states
and union territories in 2012, based on crimes reported to the police. Crime
rate data per 100,000 women in this map is the broadest definition of crime
against women under Indian law. It includes rape, sexual assault, insult to
modesty, kidnapping, abduction, cruelty by intimate partner or relatives,
trafficking, persecution for dowry, dowry deaths, indecency, and all other
crimes listed in Indian Penal Code.
India is considered to be the world’s most dangerous country for sexual violence
against women. Rape is one of the most common crimes in India. Criminal Law
(Amendment) Act, 2013 defines rape as penile and non-penile penetration in
bodily orifices of a woman by a man, without the consent of the woman.
According to the National Crime Records Bureau, one woman is raped every 20
minutes in India. Incidents of reported rape increased 3% from 2011 to
2012.Incidents of reported incest rape increased 46.8% from 268 cases in 2011
to 392 cases in 2012. Despite its prevalence, rape accounted for 10.9% of
reported cases of Victims of rape are increasingly reporting their rapes and
confronting the perpetrators. Women are becoming more independent and educated,
which is increasing their likelihood to report their rape.
Although rapes are becoming more frequently reported, many go unreported or have
the complaint files withdrawn due to the perception of family honour being
compromised. Women frequently do not receive justice for their rapes, because
police often do not give a fair hearing, and/or medical evidence is often
unrecorded which makes it easy for offenders to get away with their crimes under
the current laws.
Increased attention in the media and awareness among both Indians and the
outside world is both bringing attention to the issue of rape in India and
helping empower women to report the crime.
After international news reported the gang rape of a 23-year-old student on a
moving bus that occurred in Delhi, in December 2012, Delhi experienced a
significant increase in reported rapes. The number of reported rapes nearly
doubled from 143 reported in January–March 2012 to 359 during the three months
after the rape. After the Delhi rape case, Indian media has committed to report
each and every rape case.
In India, marital rape is not a criminal offense. India is one of fifty
countries that have not yet outlawed marital rape. 20% of Indian men admit to
forcing their wives or partners to have sex.
Marital rape can be classified into one of three types: Battering rape: This
includes both physical and sexual violence. The majority of marital rape victims
experience battering rape.
- Force-only rape:
Husbands use the minimum amount of force necessary to coerce his wife.
- Compulsive or obsessive rape:
Torture and/or "perverse" sexual acts occur and are often physically
Domestic violence is abuse by one partner against another in an intimate
relationship such as dating, marriage, cohabitation or a familial relationship.
Domestic violence is also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering,
family violence, dating abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV). Domestic
violence can be physical, emotional, verbal, economic and sexual abuse. Domestic
violence can be subtle, coercive or violent. In India, 70% of women are victims
of domestic violence.
-38% of Indian men admit they have physically abused their partners. The Indian
government has taken measures to try to reduce domestic violence through
legislation such as the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005.
Every 9 minutes, a case of cruelty is committed by either of husband or a
relative of the husband. Cruelty by a husband or his relatives is the greatest
occurring crime against women.
Adhyayan Foundation for Policy and Research Page 8
From 2011 to 2012, there was a 7.5% increase in cruelty by husbands and
Forced and child marriage
Girls are vulnerable to being forced into marriage at young ages, suffering from
a double vulnerability: both for being a child and for being female. Child
brides often do not understand the meaning and responsibilities of marriage.
Causes of such marriages include the view that girls are a burden for their
parents, and the fear of girls losing their chastity before marriage.
Acid throwing, also called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a
form of violent assault used against women in India. Acid throwing is the act of
throwing acid or an alternative corrosive substance onto a person's body "with
the intention to disfigure, maim, torture, or kill.
" Acid attacks are
usually directed at a victim's face which burns the skin causing damage and
often exposing or dissolving bone. Acid attacks can lead to permanent scarring,
blindness, as well as social, psychological and economic difficulties.
The Indian legislature has regulated the sale of acid. Compared to women
throughout the world, women in India are at a higher risk of being victims of
acid attacks. At least 72% of reported acid attacks in India have involved
women. India has been experiencing an increasing trend of acid attacks over the
Analysis Of Crimes Against Women In India
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV), collectively, also known as Violence
Against Women (VAW), are violent acts that are predominantly committed against
women and girls.
This type of violence is gender-based, meaning that these crimes are committed
against women and girls just because of the sole reason that they are female.
Violence against women can be classified into several categories and these
include violence carried out by "individuals" as well as "states".
Some of the forms of violence carried out by individuals are: rape, domestic
violence, sexual harassment, female infanticide, etc; as well as harmful
customary or traditional practices such as dowry violence, honor killings,
female genital mutilation, and forced marriage.
Some forms of violence are inflicted by the state such as war rape, sexual
violence and slavery during conflict, forced abortion, violence by the police
and authoritative personnel, stoning and flogging. Often crimes like forced
prostitution and trafficking in women are perpetrated by organized crime. The
analyses these crimes based upon the age groups of the offenders and states they
belong to by analyzing the data available. This analysis involves several steps
like data processing, data cleaning, data modeling and analysis and finally,
This analysis was done by using datasets from 2002-2012. Several modules were
kept in mind while performing the data analysis. The data which was been
received was not efficient, and thus data cleaning, preprocessing was done
extensively to make the data efficient for use. The prediction of the data is
significantly higher than it would have been had the data been used as such.
The objective of the analysis to provide efficient and clear solution was
achieved, thus proving that the data is reliable enough to be used for framing
new laws, preventing new crimes, bringing into place new strategies to curb
these activities. As future work, newer datasets could be analyzed, so that new
policies can be framed. Detection technologies can improve incident detection
and engage safety resources for the public sooner.
This will lead to improved response times and will help the general public.
Technology will help increase accuracy and efficiency of incident response and
reporting and, thus resources, like police force, can be allocated better.
This in turn, will enhance incident investigation efficiency and help increase
clearance rates. Analytics can also help discover and identify trends to improve
operational effectiveness. Proactive policing can help stop crime before it
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