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Vital Constitutional Amendments

The Constitution of India is a principle document that formulates rights, duties and powers of citizens, government and officials. It is regarded to be the world’s most extensive Constitution. Our Constitution of India came into force on 26th November, 1950 and it took nearly three years to get completed.

As the needs of our society are ever- evolving, our Constitution has to keep itself in pace otherwise it will become redundant. A special majority of two-third members are required to be present and voting is to be passed in Parliament.

Here are the most Significant Amendments:
  1. Abolition of states according to classes and the introduction of Union Territories and reorganisation of states by language (7th Amendment, 1956)-

    This was one of the most significant amendment/ reforms of the boundaries of Indian States and Territories that organized them by the language spoken in those areas. States were arranged systematically and the complexity of state boundaries was lowered. Classifications of states were also abolished by progress and per capita income of the states.
     
  2. Insertion of Socialism and Secularism in the Preamble by the mini- constitution (42nd Amendment, 1976)

    The terms Socialism and Secularism were added by 42nd Amendment to restore faith of the nation that minorities would be safe and not to be exploited by the rich strata. The main reason behind adding socialism was to promote social as well as economic quality in the country and the reason behind inserting secularism was to imply that there was no official state religion of the country.
     
  3. Right to property deleted from the list of fundamental rights (44th Amendment,1978)

    Right to property was removed from fundamental rights from Article 19(1) (f) and inserted in Article 300-A of the Constitution of India to permit the reorganisation of land as well as to facilitate land acquisition for developmental projects.
     
  4. Disqualification of lawmakers on the grounds defection (Law of Defection) (52nd Amendment, 1985)

    This was a controversial amendment and the reason behind this amendment was that this law would invade on the right of free speech of lawmakers. It provided disqualification of members from Parliament and Assembly in case of defection from one party to another.
     
  5. Reduction of voting age from 21 to 18 ( 61st Amendment, 1989)

    Under this, Article 326 was amended by lowering the voting age to provide an opportunity to the unrepresented youth of the nation to become part of the political process eventually by venting out their feelings and motivate them.
     
  6. Introduction of Nagarpalikas and Municipalities (74th Amendment,1993)

    74th Amendment took place with an immediate need to introduce effective authorities to execute numerous plans and programs that was felt by the government.
     
  7. Free and compulsory education to children between 6-14 years (86th Amendment, 2002)

    Under this, Article 21-A was inserted in which government directed private schools to take out 25% of their class strength from economically weaker sections of the society through a random selection process. This initiative was taken so as to provide compulsory elementary education to the children between 6-14 years of age.
     
  8. Allowed the government to pass laws relating to reservations to socially, economically backward classes, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in public and private higher educational institutions (2014)

    In India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are considered to be the most neglected people. Despite the abolition of Article 17 of the Indian Constitution, practice of untouchability is still prevailing in many subtle and not subtle ways.
     
  9. Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (101st Amendment, 2016)

    This is one of the most significant amendments where consumers would not be subjected to multiple taxations. While purchasing goods all the taxes will include both the central and state government’s taxes. The introduction of GST has deterred the state governments from randomly increasing taxes.

References
  1. http://www.egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2014/162235.pdf
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_of_the_Constitution_of_India
Written By: Adv.Shubham Mongia

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