What is a Trademark?
Trademark is a branch of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property
rights permit people to maintain ownership rights of their innovative product
and creative activity. The intellectual property came to light because of the
efforts of human labour, so it is limited by a number of charges for the
registration and charges for infringement. Types of intellectual property are
Trademarks, Copyright Act, Patent Act, and Designs Act.
A trademark includes a name, word, or sign that differentiates goods from the
goods of other enterprises. Marketing of goods or services by the procedure
becomes much easier with a trademark because recognition of product with the
trademark is assured and easier. The owner can prevent the use of his mark or
sign by another competitor.
Trademark is a marketing tool which increases financing of the business. A
trademark is not always a brand but the brand is always is a trademark.
Sometimes there is a confusion between trademark and brand. The brand name can
be simply a symbol or logo but the trademark is a distinguishing sign or
indicator in a business organization as it has a wider implication than brands.
People are more influenced by the distinctive trademark that reflects the
quality of the product. A trademark can be a logo, picture mark or a slogan.
Trademark law in India
Before 1940 there was no law on trademarks in India. A number of problems of
infringement of registered and unregistered trademark arose which were resolved
under Section 54 of the Specific Relief Act, 1877 and registration was
adjudicated under the Indian Registration Act,1908. To overcome these
difficulties, the Indian Trademark law was enforced in 1940. After the
enforcement of the trademark law, demand for protection of trademarks increased
as there was major growth in trade and commerce.
The Trademark law was replaced with the Trademark and Merchandise Act, 1958. It
provides better protection of trademark and prevents misuse or fraudulent use of
marks on merchandise. The Act provides registration of the trademark so that the
owner of the trademark may get a legal right for its exclusive use.
This previous Act got replaced with the Trademark Act, 1999 by the government of
India by complying it with TRIPS (Trade-related aspects of intellectual property
rights) obligation recommended by the World Trade Organization. The aim of the
Trademark Act is to grant protection to the users of trademark and direct the
conditions on the property and also provide legal remedies for the
implementation of trademark rights.
The Trademark Act, 1999 gives the right to the police to arrest in cases of
infringement of the trademark. The Act gives a complete definition for the term
infringement which is frequently used. In Trademark Act, it provides punishments
and penalties for the offenders. It also increases the time duration of
registration and also registration of a non-traditional trademark.
Types of Trademark
Uses of Trademark
- Service mark
A service mark is any symbol name, sign, device or word which is
intentionally used in trade to recognize and differentiate the services of
one provider from others. Service marks do not cover material goods but only
the allocation of services. Service marks are used in day to day services
A service mark is expected to play a critical role in promoting and selling a
product or services. A product is indicated by its service mark, and that
product's service mark is also known as a trademark.
- Hotel services
- Entertainment services
- Speed reading instruction
- Management and investment
- Housing development services
- Collective mark
A collective mark is used by employees and a collective group, or by members of
a collaborative association, or the other group or organization to identify the
source of goods or services. A collective mark indicates a mark which is used
for goods and services and for the group of organizations with similar
characteristics. The organization or group uses this mark for more than one
person who is acting in a group organization or legal entity for dividing the
different goods or services. Two types of collective marks for distinguishing
with other goods or services of similar nature:
Collective mark indicates that the marketer, trader or person is a part of the
specified group or organization.
Example: CA is a collective trademark which is
used by the Institute of the chartered accountant.
Collective trademark and collective service mark are used to indicate the origin
or source of the product.
A collective trademark is used by the single members of a group of an
organization but is registered as a whole group.
Example: CA is the title or
mark which given to the member of Institute of a chartered accountant. That
collective mark may be used by the group of association. This was added to the
Trademark Act, 1988.
- Certification mark
A certificate mark is verification or confirmation of matter by providing
assurance that some act has been done or some judicial formality has been
complied with. A certification mark indicates certain qualities of goods or
services with which the mark are used is certified, a certification mark is
defined in the Trademark Act, 1999.
Certification trade mark means a mark competent of identifying the goods or
services in connection with which it is used in the manner of trade, which is
certified by the owner of the mark in respect of source, body, mode of
manufacturer of goods or performances of assistance, quality, accuracy or other
Those goods or services which not so certified and registrable as such under
this Act, in respect of those goods or services in the name as the proprietor of
the certification trade mark, of that person. Registration of certification mark
is done according to the Trademark Act, 1999. Re
- quirements for registration is
the product must be competent to certify.
- Trade dress
Trade dress is a term that refers to features of the visual appearance of a
product or design of a building or its packaging that denote the source of the
product to customers. It is a form of intellectual property. Trade dress
protection is implemented to protect consumers from packaging or appearance of
products that framed to imitate other products.
Essential of trade dress:
- Anything that makes an overall look or overall dress and feel of brand in the
- The consumer believes that trade dress is the main indicator of differentiation
of one brand or goods from others.
- The requirement for the registration of trade dress is the same as the
registration of the logo, mark. The features in trade dress are size, colour,
texture, graphics, design, shape, packaging, and many more.
- Designation of trademark
Trademark is designated by:
- ™ (™ is used for an unregistered trademark. It is used to promote or brand
- ℠ ( used for an unregistered service mark. It is used to promote or brand
- R (letter R is surrounded by a circle and used for registered trademark).
Trademark identifies the owner of the product. Under any authorized agreement of
product, a trademark can be used, an example of trademarks goods names are, iPod
and a big mac. Company logos like the Golden Arches at McDonald's and McDonald's
"I'm lovin' it. Brand names like Apple, McDonald's, and Dolce & Gabbana.
The usage of the trademark by unauthorized means or illegal means by producing
it in trading is known as trademark piracy. If there is an infringement of
trademark, the owner of the registered trademark can take legal action and for
an unregistered trademark, the only option is passing off. Many countries like
the United States, Canada and many more also, accept the trademark policies, so
they also gave the right to the master of product to take the action for the
protection of their trademark A common concept of a trademark is that the owner
of a registered trademark has a more legal right for protection than the owner
of unregistered trademark.
The concept of usage of the non-physical trademark the Supreme Court held in the
case of Hardie trading Ltd. v. Addison paint and chemicals Ltd. The Supreme
Court gave a wider interpretation on the usage of a trademark that it could be
non-physical and that there were no grounds to restrict the user to use on the
commodities or to the sale of the commodities bearing the trademark.
Owner of the Trademark
Trademark gives protection to the owner by assuring them with the exclusive
rights to use a trademark, to identify the goods or services or permit others to
use it in results of payment. It is a weapon for the registered proprietor to
stop the others from illegal use of the trademark. Under Section 28 the rights
conferred by registration.
The registration of a trademark is valid if the right is given to the certified
owner of the trademark, the owner has the exclusive right to use of the
trademark in respect of goods or services in which the trademark is registered
and to claim maintenance in respect of infringement of the trademark is given to
the holder of the trademark.
Wherever more than two persons are certified proprietors of the trademark which
are same with or nearly identical with each other. The exclusive right to use of
each of those trademarks shall not except if their own rights are related to any
conditions or limitations entered on the register be expected to be taken by one
of those persons as against of other persons only by registration of the
trademark, but each of those persons has the same rights as against other
India's obligations under the TRIPS Agreement for protection of trademarks,
inter alia, include protection to distinguishing marks, recognition of service
marks, indefinite periodical renewal of registration, abolition of compulsory
licensing of trademarks, etc.
With the globalization of trade, brand names, trade names, marks, etc. have
attained an immense value that require uniform minimum standards of protection
and efficient procedures for enforcement as were recognised under the TRIPS. In
view of the same, extensive review and consequential amendment of the old Indian
Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 was carried out and the new Trade Marks
Act, 1999 was enacted. The said Act of 1999, with subsequent amendments,
conforms to the TRIPS and is in accordance with the international systems and
The Trade Marks Act provides, inter alia, for registration of service marks,
filing of multiclass applications, increasing the term of registration of a
trademark to ten years as well as recognition of the concept of well-known
marks, etc. The Indian judiciary has been proactive in the protection of
trademarks, and it has extended the protection under the trademarks law to
Domain Names as demonstrated in landmark cases of Tata Sons Ltd. v. Manu Kosuri
& Ors, [90 (2001) DLT 659] and Yahoo Inc. v. Akash Arora [1999 PTC 201].
India, being a common law country, follows not only the codified law, but also
common law principles, and as such provides for infringement as well as passing
off actions against violation of trademarks. Section 135 of the Trade Marks Act
recognises both infringement as well as passing off actions. The Supreme Court
of India, in a path-breaking decision titled Justice K S Puttaswamy v. Union of
India, ruled that the right to privacy is a basic core fundamental right
protected by the Indian Constitution as an intrinsic part of Article 21, which
protects the right to life and personal liberty. Enshrined in the right to
privacy is also the right to publicity.
The Delhi High Court has recently been engaged with cases involving infringing
and counterfeiting activities on the internet and online marketplaces. In Kent
RO Systems Ltd v. Amit Kotak, the court held that under the provisions of the
Act and the Rules, an intermediary is only required to declare to all its users
its policy in regard to violation of IP rights of others and advise them not to
host any infringing information. The court held that eBay is entitled to be
protected under the safe harbour provisions of the Information Technology Act
and had complied with the Information Technology (Intermediaries Guidelines)
Rules 2011. In an appeal against this decision,4 the appeal court, however, held
that the court could not, on a demurrer, accept eBay as an intermediary and the
same would have to be established on trial.
In Christian Louboutin SAS v. Nakul Bajaj, the court set out the guidelines
under which an online marketplace could claim the exemptions available to an
'intermediary' under the Information Technology Act 2000. Similarly, in Amway
India Enterprises Pvt Ltd v. 1MG Technologies Pvt Ltd, the court held that
online marketplaces such as 1MG, Amazon, Flipkart and Snapdeal are not mere
passive platforms, but are massive facilitators providing warehousing,
logistical support, packaging, delivery services, payment services, collection
gateways and suchlike.
In an appeal against this decision the division bench of
the Delhi High Court set aside the order of the single judge and held that the
findings of the single judge ran contrary to the structure and frame of the
suits and also held that the single judge had misinterpreted Section 79 of the
Information Technology Act.
In another recent case, of Delhivery Pvt Ltd v. Treasure Vase Ventures Pvt Ltd,
recording the submissions of reliance on the US Supreme Court decision in
Booking.com, a single judge of the Delhi High Court formed a prima facie opinion
that the mark 'Delhivery' if pronounced in a routine manner shall mean
'delivery' and, being a generic word, cannot be registered as a trademark.
Other than these cases, Indian courts are currently hearing arguments on issues
such as use of registered trademarks as keywords or part of key words, a dispute
that involves search engines such as Google.
Registration of marks
The Trade Marks Act 1999 and the Trade Marks Rules 2017 provide for registration
of trade and service marks. The term 'trademark' in India includes service
marks. The Companies Act 2013 provides for registration of company names. The
Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act 1999
provides for registration of geographical indications (GIs) of goods.
India is also a member of the World Trade Organization and a signatory to the
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, the Paris
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and the Madrid Protocol for
the International Registration of Marks. India is also a member of the Nairobi
Treaty on the Protection of the Olympic Symbol. Additionally, India adopted the
Nice Agreement on the International Classification of Goods and Services and the
Vienna Classification, established by the Vienna Agreement.
The Registrar of Trade Marks under the Intellectual Property Office (IPO)
manages the filing and registration of trademarks. The registrar is empowered to
refuse or rectify marks based on absolute or relative grounds, or both. Appeals
from its orders can be filed with the Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB).
The GI Registry, also under the IPO, manages the filing and registration of GIs.
Company names can be registered with the Registrar of Companies (ROC). The ROC
also has powers to disapprove or rectify names of companies that are identical
to or too closely resemble the name by which a company in existence had been
Cooperative societies can be registered with the Department of Registrar
Domain name registration for .in and .co.in domain names can be undertaken
through registrars appointed by the .IN Registry working with the National
Internet Exchange of India, both of which, in turn, are under the Ministry of
Electronics and Information Technology. The .IN Registry has adopted the Uniform
Dispute Resolution Policy and is assisted by a Dispute Resolution Committee to
resolve disputes in this regard. It also has powers to appoint arbitrators to
address disputes involving registrars and registrants.
Disputes relating to print and television advertising, including comparative
advertising, are undertaken by the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI),
which is an industries body with representation from the industry. The ASCI Code
is recognised and enforceable under the Cable Television Networks Rules 1994,
which stipulate that 'No advertisement which violates the Code for
self-regulation in advertising, as adopted by the Advertising Standards Council
of India (ASCI), Mumbai for public exhibition in India, from time to time shall
be carried in the cable service'.
Remedies against the manufacture and sale of misbranded drugs and cosmetics can
be undertaken through the drug inspectors. Such products are licensed under the
office of the Drug Controller, all under the provisions of the Drugs and
Cosmetics Act 1940.
- Substantive law
Registered trade and service marks protected by the Trade Marks Act 1999,
registered GIs, unregistered and well-known trademarks protected by common law,
can all be protected through the filing of civil suits. Trademark violations
also attract criminal liabilities (see Section V.i).
The Trade Marks Register itself can be rectified by filing proceedings with
either the Registrar of Trade Marks or the IPAB.
Company names can be enforced either through filing substantive suits in civil
courts or through the mechanism provided in the Companies Act 2013, empowering
the ROC to rectify names of objectionable companies.
India has been at the forefront of protection of internationally well known
trademarks, even if the trademarks are not used in India. The Trade Marks Act
stipulates the following criteria for determining whether a trademark is
well-known in India:
the knowledge or recognition in the relevant section of the public, including
knowledge in India obtained as a result of promotion;
the duration, extent and geographical area of any use;
the duration, extent and geographical area of any promotion, including
advertising or publicity and presentation, at fairs or exhibitions;
the duration and geographical area of any registration of or any application for
registration to the extent that they reflect the use or recognition of the
the record of successful enforcement of the rights mark; in particular, the
extent to which the trademark has been recognised as a well-known trademark by
any court or registrar under that record.
The term 'relevant section of the public' takes into account: (1) the number of
actual or potential consumers; (2) the number of persons involved in the
channels of distribution; and (3) the business circles dealing with the goods or
services to which that trademark applies.
Where a trademark has been determined to be well known in at least one relevant
section of the public in India by any court or registrar, that trademark is
considered as a well-known trademark for registration. There is no requirement
that the trademark is well known to the public at large.
The trademark is neither required to be used nor registered to be declared a
well-known trademark. The Registrar maintains a list of declared well-known
trademarks in India, which it also publishes.
The Information Technology Act 2000 and the Intermediary Guidelines Rules 2011
enacted under the said Act provide rules and regulations, terms and conditions
or user agreements informing users of computer resources not to host, display,
upload, modify, publish, transmit, update or share any information that
infringes any patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary rights.
The manufacture and sale of misbranded drugs and cosmetics, which includes
adulterated and spurious drugs and cosmetics, can also be enforced through the
provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940.
Registration of trademarks can be undertaken by filing an application with the
IPO. The fee for a physical filing is 10,000 rupees. For e-filing, the fee is
reduced by 10 per cent. There is a new expedited process for registration for
which an additional expedited processing fee of 40,000 rupees is payable. The
fee for renewal of a registered trademark is identical to the filing fee (i.e.,
10,000 rupees for a physical filing and 9,000 rupees for an e-filing).
Once an application is filed, it is given an exclusive number and a date. Based
on the priority of filing it is taken in its turn and examined. The process of
examination includes an assessment of inherent registrability and acquired
distinctiveness and prior rights. If no objections are found, the trademark is
published in the Trade Marks Journal to invite oppositions (see Section III.iii)
from members of the public at large. If no objections are filed within four
months of the publication, the registration certificate is issued. The
registration dates back to the date of the application and is thereafter
renewable every 10 years.
There is no requirement for the mark to have been used in India to make it
eligible for registration in India. Trademarks can also be registered on a
proposed user basis. If, however, use of the trademark is not commenced for a
period of five years, it can be a ground for removal of the trademark from the
Register of Trade Marks.
- Inherent registrability
The following trademarks are not registrable in India on grounds of inherent
In Bata India Ltd v. Chawla Boot House, the court held that while generic marks
are least distinctive, descriptive marks require secondary meaning to be
established before they can be registered. However, suggestive marks and
arbitrary and invented marks are all inherently distinctive, not requiring any
evidence of secondary meaning.
- those devoid of any distinctive character; that is to say, not capable of
distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of another person;
- those that consist exclusively of marks or indications that may serve in trade
to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical
origin or the time of production of the goods or rendering of the service or
other characteristics of the goods or service;
- those consisting exclusively of marks or indications that have become customary
in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the
- those of such nature as to deceive the public or cause confusion;
- those containing or comprising any matter likely to hurt the religious
susceptibilities of any class or section of citizens of India;
- those comprising or containing scandalous or obscene matter;
- those whose use is prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of
Improper Use) Act 1950; or
- those consisting exclusively of a shape:
- of goods that results from the nature of the goods themselves;
- of goods that is necessary to obtain a technical result; or
- that gives substantial value to the goods
In the case of descriptive marks, registration can be obtained by producing
evidence that, before the date of application for registration, the mark
acquired a distinctive character as a result of the use made of it or it was a
A trademark may be limited wholly or in part to any combination of colours. If a
trademark is registered without limitation of colour, it is deemed to be
registered for all colours.
- Prior rights
A trademark can be denied registration if there exists a likelihood of public
confusion with an earlier trademark, which includes the likelihood of
association with the earlier trademark, and if either of the following relative
grounds (based on prior rights) applies:
A trademark may be denied registration even in a case where it is sought to be
registered for goods or services that are not similar to those for which the
earlier trademark is registered in the name of a different proprietor or if the
earlier trademark is a well-known trademark in India, if the use of the later
mark without due cause would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the
distinctive character or repute of the earlier trademark. An earlier trademark
is one that is either registered or used prior to the later trademark.
- the mark is identical to an earlier trademark within a similar goods or services
- the mark is similar to an earlier trademark within an identical or similar goods
or services sector.
Similarly, a trademark can be denied registration if its use in India is liable
to be prevented by the laws of passing off or copyright.
- Inter partes proceedings
All trademark applications are published in the Trade Marks Journal to enable
members of the public to oppose such registrations within a period of four
months. It is also possible to initiate proceedings with the Registrar to
initiate rectification or cancellation proceedings against granted
registrations. These can also be initiated with the IPAB. While opposition
proceedings can be initiated by any member of the public, rectification
Appeals against the orders of the Registrar can be filed with the IPAB. Orders
of the IPAB can be challenged in the Supreme Court of India by way of a special
leave petition. It may also be possible to challenge such orders of the IPAB by
way or writ petition to a high court.
Other enforcement proceedings
The district court is considered the court of first instance for trademark
disputes. An appeal therefrom lies to the high courts, and, finally, an appeal
by way of special leave petition lies with the Supreme Court. There are 29
states in India, divided into 731 districts, with each district having a
district judge (DJ) who is the administrative head of the district, and there
are additional district judges who have the same judicial powers as the DJ.
Additionally, there are 24 high courts in India, all of which have appellate
jurisdiction over the district courts and some quasi-judicial bodies or
tribunals. Six high courts (of Delhi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Jammu and
Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh) have original jurisdiction and can entertain
trademark suits. These suits are filed before a single judge, and a bench of two
judges has appellate jurisdiction over the single judge.
The territorial jurisdiction of a court is decided by the residence or place of
business of the defendant (the infringer) or the place where the infringement
(cause of action) takes place. It is also possible to claim jurisdiction on the
basis of a threat in the jurisdiction. Under the Trade Marks Act, it is also
possible to confer jurisdiction on courts where the trademark owner resides or
carries on business or has its principal place of business. The Supreme Court of
India has recently ruled on these issues in the case of IPRS v. Sanjay Dalia.
Other relevant rulings of the Supreme Court include Dhodha House v. S K Maingi
and Patel Roadways Ltd v. Prasad Trading Company.
There have also been rulings of the Delhi High Court (Division Bench) conferring
jurisdiction on courts on the basis of interactive websites, which include
Banyan Trade Holding v. A Murali Krishan Reddy and WWE v. Reshma Collection.
As far as pecuniary jurisdiction is concerned, claims must be for at least 20
million rupees for a case to be eligible for filing in the Delhi High Court. For
the Bombay High Court, it is half this amount. The court fee payable is 1 per
cent of the amount claimed.
- Pre-action conduct
It is advisable to conduct appropriate investigations before commencing actions.
This should include, among other things, online and on ground investigations,
and searches on the Trade Marks Register and Registrar of Companies. Based on
the results, litigation strategies should be devised, which could include
obtaining and executing ex parte search and seizure orders, serving the opposite
party with cease-and-desist notices, and initiating pre-litigation mediation
proceedings15 under the Commercial Courts Act.16.
- Causes of action
Cause of action for a trademark case may be triggered by (1) actual infringing
use of the mark, including use on business paper or packaging material; (2)
likelihood of passing off; (3) threat of use or passing off; (4) advertising,
including online advertising through an interactive website; (5) import or
export of infringing goods; (6) infringing use by use in a company or firm name;
or (7) adoption of infringing domain name, key words, meta tags, etc.
- Conduct of proceedings
The recently enacted Commercial Courts Act mandates each state government to
constitute commercial courts at district levels. High courts have original civil
jurisdiction and are mandated with having commercial divisions within them. Over
250 commercial courts have already been constituted. The Delhi High Court itself
has six commercial divisions. Trademark suits relating to registered or
unregistered trademarks are considered commercial disputes.
The Commercial Courts Act provides for strict timelines to conclude
trademark suits. Some significant enactments are as follows:
- A written statement is required to be filed within 30 days (up to a maximum of
120 days) of the date of service of summons. This period is not extendable.17
The written statement is required to be accompanied by an affidavit of admission
and denial of the plaintiff's documents.
- All documents in support of the plaint and the written statement are required to
be submitted along with the respective documents.
- Inspection of documents of both parties are liable to be concluded within 30
days of filing of the written statement.
- Within 15 days of inspection, the first case management hearing is liable to be
- The Commercial Courts Act mandates for trial and arguments to be concluded
within six months of conducting the first case management hearing. The judge is
required to pronounce a decision within 90 days thereafter.
- One important strategy for a speedy trial is to seek appointment of trial
including examination and cross-examination of witnesses to be conducted before
a court-appointed commissioner. Using this strategy, there are already examples
of trials, including complicated patent trials, being concluded in less than six
- Under the Commercial Courts Act, costs are liable to be imposed on the
defaulting party that does not adhere to the timelines. Actual costs are also
liable to be granted for fees and expenses of witnesses incurred, legal fees and
expenses incurred and any other expenses incurred in connection with the
proceedings. There are several precedents of courts awarding actual costs with
the unsuccessful party ordered to pay the costs of the successful party. In
Merck Sharp and Dohme v. Abhayakumar Deepak, the court ordered costs of 8
million rupees. In Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV v. Rajesh Bansal, a case
of patent infringement, the court ordered an order of injunction and actual
costs to the tune of 31.571 million rupees. In Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd v.
Curetech Skincare, the Bombay High Court granted costs to the tune of 15 million
rupees, payable to a relief fund in charity.
In civil proceedings, courts have powers to pass the following orders:
- injunctions against future violations (also ex parte);
- civil search and seizure orders (also ex parte);
- damages or accounts for profits;
- discovery of documents;
- preservation of infringement goods or documents or other evidence; and
- preservation of assets of the defendant (also ex parte).
Well-known Trademark and Trans Border Reputation
- Criminal enforcement
Trademark violations under the Trade Marks Act 1999 also invite penal
consequences that may include imprisonment of up to three years and fines of up
to 200,000 rupees.
Under the Act, a police officer of or above the rank of deputy superintendent of
police or its equivalent can conduct search and seizure operations against a
prospective infringer after obtaining an opinion on the same from the Registrar
of Trade Marks. It is also possible to obtain open-ended search and seizure
orders from magistrates' courts against known or unknown parties.
The National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy recognises the need to
build the capacity of the enforcement agencies at various levels, including
strengthening of IPR cells in state police forces. Since the adoption of the
National IPR Policy in 2016, IPR cells have been established in various states'
police departments. Some states, such as Telangana and Maharashtra, have also
established intellectual property (IP) crime units. IPR enforcement training and
capacity-building of police officials is regularly conducted, which includes
working from the IPR Enforcement Toolkit for Police, which is a handbook that
serves as a ready reckoner for police officials in dealing with IPC.in
particular, trademark counterfeiting.
Notification 47/2007-Customs (NT), dated 8 May 2007, and Circular No.
41/2007-Customs, dated 29 October 2007, empower customs authorities to interject
goods suspected to be counterfeit or pirated at the border. The said rules are
applicable on import of goods that infringe IP registered in India. Apart from
registration with the appropriate authority for obtaining IP rights,
registration with the Customs Department is also necessary for obtaining
protection at the border.
Once IP is registered with the customs authorities, seizure of suspected
counterfeit goods is carried out suo moto (on its own initiative) by Customs.
The IP right holder is also required to furnish the details of the country or
person suspected of exporting counterfeit goods to India in order to keep a
check on the activities of those persons or consignments from those countries.
Even where the IP is not registered with Customs, the clearance of imported
goods can be suspended if Customs has prima facie evidence or reasonable grounds
to believe that they infringe IP rights. The right holder may then be asked to
comply with the filing of notice, among others, within five days of the date of
suspension of clearance of goods.
Although India is notorious for what is perceived as inefficient legal and
administrative systems with inherent delays, things in the past few years have
been very different.
The IPO, itself, has undertaken several measures to cut delays. Comprehensive
amendments by way of the Trademark (Amendment) Rules 2017, which were made
effective from 6 March 2017, streamline and simplify the trademark procedures.
The number of forms has been reduced from 74 to eight. There is now one
application form for all types of trademark applications. Emails have been
introduced as a mode of service, and hearings can be held through video
conferencing. SMS alert facilities have also been introduced. Registration
certificates are automatically processed and despatched to designated email IDs,
and are also uploaded to the electronic register. Similar processes have been
initiated for renewals processes. Allotment of applications for examination has
been automated to be examined by seniority of filing.
A 10 per cent concession has been provided for filing applications online, and
online filing of trademark applications has increased by more than 80 per cent.
To promote filing, there is a 50 per cent concession in the prescribed fee for
start-ups, individuals and small enterprises. Procedures that provided for
filing extensions of time for submissions of affidavits and evidence have been
removed. Adjournment of hearings has been restricted to a maximum of two, with
the provision that each adjournment shall not be for more than 30 days.
The website of the IPO is one of the more efficient ones from a global
perspective. The entire e-file of applications and prosecution history is
available through an easy-to-navigate search mechanism. Documents are uploaded
in PDF format and are available publicly. With its online register, along with
provisions of the Right to Information Act, it can safely be said that the
Indian IPO is perhaps one of the most transparent intellectual property offices
in the world. As a result of these changes, registration of trademarks has
increased by over 20 per cent, and final disposal of cases by over 90 per cent.
Indeed, it is not unusual for registrations to be granted within six to eight
On the enforcement front, with the introduction of the Commercial Courts Act,
efficiency of handling cases has improved tremendously, reducing timelines
significantly. The number of judges at the district level has increased with
new, and better, infrastructure.
E-court services have been introduced across courts in India with an enhanced
and improved website containing details of all cases filed and their current
status.21 There have been several improvements in the working of the site
itself, and a mobile app has also been introduced.
In conclusion, it would be safe to say that India recognises the importance of
soft assets such as intellectual property and the role that they can play in the
development of the economy. Several measures have been and are being taken to
smooth the processes, making it more transparent and enhancing the aspect of
timeliness and efficiency. There are still constraints on resources, and much
still needs to be done; however, the country is moving in the right direction
and that, too, at a fairly rapid pace.
India recognises the concept of the "Well-known Trademark" and the "Principle of
Trans Border Reputation". A well-known Trademark in relation to any goods or
services means a mark that has become so to the substantial segment of the
public, which uses such goods or receives such services such that the use of
such a mark in relation to other goods and services is likely to be taken as
indicating a connection between the two marks.
Trans Border Reputation concept was recognised and discussed by the Apex Indian
Court in the landmark case of N. R. Dongre v. Whirlpool (1996) 5SCC 714. The
Trademark "WHIRLPOOL" was held to have acquired reputation and goodwill in
India. The Mark "WHIRLPOOL" was also held to have become associated in the minds
of the public with Whirlpool Corporation on account of circulation of the
advertisements in the magazines despite no evidence of actual sale. Hence, the
trademark WHIRLPOOL was held to have acquired trans-border reputation which
enjoys protection in India, irrespective of its actual user or registration in
Legal Remedies against Infringement and/or Passing off
Under the Trade Marks Act, both civil and criminal remedies are simultaneously
available against infringement and passing off.
Infringement of trademark is violation of the exclusive rights granted to the
registered proprietor of the trademark to use the same. A trademark is said to
be infringed by a person, who, not being a permitted user, uses an identical/
similar/ deceptively similar mark to the registered trademark without the
authorization of the registered proprietor of the trademark. However, it is
pertinent to note that the Indian trademark law protects the vested rights of a
prior user against a registered proprietor which is based on common law
Passing off is a common law tort used to enforce unregistered trademark rights.
Passing off essentially occurs where the reputation in the trademark of party A
is misappropriated by party B, such that party B misrepresents as being the
owner of the trademark or having some affiliation/nexus with party A, thereby
damaging the goodwill of party A. For an action of passing off, registration of
a trademark is irrelevant.
Registration of a trademark is not a pre-requisite in order to sustain a civil
or criminal action against violation of trademarks in India. In India, a
combined civil action for infringement of trademark and passing off can be
Significantly, infringement of a trademark is a cognizable offence and criminal
proceedings can be initiated against the infringers. Such enforcement mechanisms
are expected to boost the protection of marks in India and reduce infringement
and contravention of trademarks.
Relief granted by Courts in Suits for Infringement and Passing off
The relief which a court may usually grant in a suit for infringement or passing
off includes permanent and interim injunction, damages or account of profits,
delivery of the infringing goods for destruction and cost of the legal
The order of interim injunction may be passed ex parte or after notice. The
Interim reliefs in the suit may also include order for:
Offences and Penalties
- Appointment of a local commissioner, which is akin to an "Anton Pillar Order",
for search, seizure and preservation of infringing goods, account books and
preparation of inventory, etc.
- Restraining the infringer from disposing of or dealing with the assets in a
manner which may adversely affect plaintiff's ability to recover damages, costs
or other pecuniary remedies which may be finally awarded to the plaintiff.
In case of a criminal action for infringement or passing off, the offence is
punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months
but which may extend to three years and fine which shall not be less than INR
50,000 but may extend to INR 200,000.
Procedure of Registration of Trademark in India
The procedure for registration of a trademark in India is given below:
In order to fulfill the obligations of any treaty, convention or arrangement
with a country or countries that are members of inter-governmental
organizations, which accord to Indian citizens similar privileges as granted to
their own citizens, the Central Government notifies such countries to be
Convention Countries. In case of an application for registration of a trademark
made in any of the Convention countries, a priority date can be claimed with
regard to the application in India, provided that the application is made within
six months of the application having been filed in the Convention country. The
Government has notified and extended this privilege of priority to the members
who have ratified the Paris Convention on Protection of Industrial Property.
India Parliament has passed the Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2009 for enacting
special provisions relating to protection of trademarks through international
registration under the Madrid Protocol. As per the Amendment Bill, from the date
of the international registration of a trademark where India has been designated
or the date of the recording in the register of the International Bureau about
the extension of the protection resulting from an international registration of
a trademark to India, the protection of the trademark in India shall be the same
as if the trademark had been registered in India. The Amendment Bill is yet to
Classification of goods and services
For the purpose of classification of goods and services for registration of
trademarks, India follows the International Classification of Goods and Services
(Nice Classification) published by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
For the purpose of classification of the figurative elements of marks, India
follows the Vienna Agreement.
After advertisement of a trademark in the Trade Marks Journal, (which is
available online at the website of Office of Registrar of Trademarks) an
opposition challenging the application for registration can be filed by any
person within a period of 3 months (which may be extended by a period not
exceeding 1 month).
Renewal of registration
The trademark is initially registered for a period of 10 years, which is
calculated from the date of filing of the application and in case of convention
application, from the date of priority. The registration is required to be
renewed within 6 months before the date of expiry of the registration, i.e., 10
years from the date of the application or subsequent renewals.
The failure in renewing the trademark within the stipulated period of time and a
grace period of maximum 1 year granted for restoration of the trademark,
automatically leads to removal of the trademark from the Register of Trademarks.
Rectification of Trademark
An aggrieved person may file an application before the Registrar of Trademarks
or to the Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB) for cancellation or
varying the registration of the trademark on the ground of any contravention or
failure to observe a condition entered on the Register in relation thereto.
The application for rectification can also be filed for removal of an entry made
in Register, without sufficient cause or wrongly remaining on the Register and
for correction of any error or defect in any entry in the Register.
Assignment, Transmission and Licensing of Trademarks in India
"Assignment" means an assignment in writing by an act of the parties concerned.
While in case of licensing, the right in the trademark continues to vest with
the proprietor, the assignment of the trademark leads to a change in the
ownership of the mark. A registered trademark is assignable with or without the
goodwill in respect of all or only some of the goods/services for which the mark
India is a member to TRIPS and Article 21 of the TRIPS dealing
with Licensing and Assignment mandates that "... the owner of a registered
trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the
transfer of the business to which the trademark belongs." Section 39 of the
(Indian) Trade Marks Act, 1999 allows for the assignment of an unregistered
trademark with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.
Indian law contains embargo on the assignments of trademark, whether registered
or unregistered, whereby multiple exclusive rights would be created in more than
one person which would result in deception/confusion. However, the assignment
with limitations imposed, such as goods to be sold in different markets, i.e.,
within India or for exports are valid. The Registrar is authorized to issue a
certificate of validity of the proposed assignment on a statement of case by the
proprietor of a registered trademark who proposes to assign the mark. The said
certificate as to validity is conclusive unless vitiated by fraud.
Registration of Trademark
Any person claiming to be the owner of the trademark or supposed to used the
trademark by him in future for this he may apply in writing to the appropriate
registrar in a prescribed manner. The application must contain the name of the
goods, mark and services, class of goods and the services in which it falls,
name and address of the applicant and duration of use of the mark. Here the
person means an association of firms, partnership firm, a company, trust, state
government or the central government.
Conditions of registration
The central government by mentioning in the official gazette appoint a person to
be known as the controller, general of patents, designs and trademark who shall
be the registrar of the trademark. The central government may appoint other
officers also if they think that they are appropriate, for the purpose of
discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the registrar, the
registrar may authorize them to discharge.
The registrar has the power to transfer or withdraw the cases by in writing with
reasons mentioned. Under Section 6 of the Act, discussed the maintenance of a
registered trademark. At head office wherein particulars of registered
trademarks and other prescribed, particulars, except notice of the trust, shall
be recorded. The copy of the register is to be kept at each branch office. It
gives for the preservation of records in computer or diskettes or in any other
Absolute grounds for refusal of registration
Absolute grounds for the refusal of registration is defined in Section 9 of the
Act. The trademarks which can be lacking any distinctive characteristics or
which consists exclusively of marks or signals, which can be used in trade to
indicate the kind, fine, quantity, supposed grounds, values, geographical
And also a time of production of goods or rendering of the offerings or
different characteristics of the goods or offerings which consists solely of
marks or indications which have come to be average in the present language. That
marks are not entitled to registration. Except it is confirmed that the mark has
in fact acquired a new character as a result of use before the date of
It gives that a mark shall not be registered as trademarks if:
- It frauds the public or causes confusion.
- There is any matter to hurt religious susceptibility.
- There is an obscene or scandalous matter.
Its use is prohibited. It provides that if a mark contains exclusively of (a)
the shape of goods which form the nature of goods or, (b) the shape of good
which is needed to obtain a technical result or, (c) the shape of goods which
gives substantial value of goods then it shall not be registered as trademark.
Test of similarity
For the conclusion, if one mark is deceptively similar to another the essential
features of the two are to be considered. They should not be placed side by side
to find out if there are any differences in the design and if they are of such a
character to prevent one design from being mistaken for the other. It would be
enough if the disputed mark has such an overall similarity to the registered
mark as it likely to deceive a person usually dealing with one to accept the
other if offered to him. Apart from the structural, visual, and phonetic
similarity or dissimilarity, the query needs to be viewed from the factor of
view of man typical intelligence and imperfect collection secondly. It's
regarded as an entire thirdly it is the query of his impressions.
In Mohd. Iqbal v. Mohd. Wasim
it was held that "it is common knowledge that
'bidis' are being used by persons belonging to the poorer and illiterate or
semi-literate class. Their level of knowledge is not high. It cannot be expected
of them that they would comprehend and understand the fine differences between
the two labels, which may be detected on comparing the two labels are common. In
view of the above, there appears to be a deceptive similarity between the two
Relative grounds for refusal of registration
Under Section 11 of the Act, it gives relative grounds for the refusal of
registration of a trademark. A trademark cannot be registered if because of:
- its identity with an earlier trademark and similarity of goods or
- its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the similarity of the goods
and there is a probability of confusion.
It also gives that a trademark cannot be registered which is identical or
similar to an earlier trademark. And also which is to be registered for goods
and services which are not similar to those for which earlier trademark is
registered in the name of a different proprietor if, or to the extent, the
earlier trademark is well known in India. It further gives that a trademark is
cannot be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be
prevented by virtue of any law.
Procedure and Duration of registration
The registrar on the application made by the proprietor of the trademark in the
prescribed manner within the given period of time with adequate payment of
fees. Registration of a trademark shall be of ten years and renewal of the
registered trademark is also for a period of ten years from the date of
expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration.
The registrar shall send the notice before the expiration of last registration
in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor. The notice mentions the
date of expiration and payment of fees and upon which a renewal of registration
may be obtained if at the expiration of the time given in that behalf those
conditions have not duly complied with the registrar may remove the trademark
from the register.
But the registrar shall not remove the trademark from the register if
implication made within the prescribed form and the prescribed rate is paid
within six months from the expiration of the final registration of the trademark
and shall renew the registration of the trademark for an interval of ten years.
If the trademark is removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed
fee, the registrar shall after six months and within one year from the
expiration of the last registration of the trademark renew the registration,
And also on receipt of implication in the prescribed form and on payment of the
prescribed fee the registrar restores the trademark to the register and renew
the registration of the trademark, for a period of ten years from the expiration
of the last registration.
International registration of a trademark
The law of trademark passed by the Indian government is applicable only within
the territory of India. The trademark which is registered in has effect only in
India, for the protection of trademark in other countries needs to be registered
in another country as well. Each country has its own trademark law with rules
and law for the registration of a trademark in that country.
In other words, if
an individual desire to obtain trademark registration in any particular nation
then a separate application must be moved in all such international locations.
Within the year 2013, the Indian government agreed to the Madrid conference
which prescribes a methodology of submitting a worldwide application to the
contracting events from India by means of the workplace of the Registrar of
For example- India's mobile phone manufacturing Micromax received
1.25 millionth international trademark registration for its trademark 'MICROMAX'
protection in over 110 countries. The international trademark registration for
Micromax filed under the Madrid Protocol, under mark can be protected in many
jurisdictions by only filing an application for international registration.
There are two methods by which an international application can be filed:
International application in each foreign country: For the protection of
trademark in any foreign country, an international application must be filed to
the trademark office by following the rules and regulations of that country. For
this purpose the applicant must hire a firm dealing in trademark registration in
foreign, the applications to countries which is not a party to the Madrid system
can be filed as per above. It provides services that engaging an Attorney in the
foreign countries works closely for registration of a trademark in the foreign
The international application under the Madrid system: The trademark
registration may also be initiated by means of filing an international
application under Madrid protocol before the Registrar of Trademark for
different nations. The Indian Trademark office collects international Trademark
application and after finding it in conformity with the Madrid protocol
transmits such a global application to the WIPO (World Intellectual Property
Organization), which further transmits it to the situation overseas. Each and
every global software is processed by way of the overseas nation as per their
legislation and all communications are routed by means of Indian executive.
Effect of Registration
The registration of a trademark shall if valid give the exclusive right to the
registered proprietor to the use of trademarks in respect of goods and services
of which the trademark is registered, and also to obtain relief in respect of
the infringement of the trademark.
Infringement of trademark
A registered trademark is infringed by a person who not being a registered
proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use in the course of trade, a
mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the trademark in relation
to goods or services in respect of which the trademark is registered. After
infringement, the owner of the trademark can go for civil legal proceedings
against a party who infringes the registered trademark. Basically, Trademark
infringement means the unapproved use of a trademark on regarding products and
benefits in a way that is going to cause confusion, difficult, about the trader
or potentially benefits.
Infringement of trademark on the internet
The expansion of the web is also leading to an expansion of inappropriate
trademark infringement allegations. Probably, a company will assert trademark
infringement each time it views one among its trademarks on an online page of a
Third party. For example, an individual who develops a website online that
discusses her expertise with Microsoft software could use Microsoft's trademarks
to consult exact merchandise without the worry of infringement.
mainly would no longer be competent to use the marks in this kind of means as to
intent viewers of her internet web page to feel that she is affiliated with
Microsoft or that Microsoft is someway sponsoring her net web page. The honour
could simplest be analyzed upon seeing how the marks are sincerely used on the
web page. In this way, there is an infringement of trademark on the internet.
Case laws on Infringement
Hearst company Vs Dalal avenue verbal exchange Ltd.
The courtroom held that a trademark is infringed when a character in the course
of trade makes use of a mark which is same with or deceptively similar to the
trademark in terms of the goods in respect of which the trademark is registered.
Use of the mark by using such man or woman needs to be in a manner which is more
likely to be taken as getting used as a trademark.
Amritdhara Pharmacy Vs Satya Deo Gupta,
In this case for determining the connection in two words related to an
infringement action was stated by the Supreme Court that there must be taken two
words which are deceptively similar. And judge them by their appearance and by
their sound. There must be considered that the goods to which they are to be
utilised. There must be a consideration of the nature and kind of customer who
would be likely to buy those goods. In fact, it must be considered the
surrounding circumstances and also must consider what is likely to occur if each
of those trademarks is used in common ways as a trademark for the goods of the
particular owners of the marks.
After considering all those circumstances, they came to the conclusion that
there will be confusion. This is to say that, not significantly that one man
will be injured and the other will gain the illegal benefit, but it for that
there will be a mess in the mind of the public which will lead to confusion in
the goods then there may be the refusal of the registration.
No action for an unregistered trademark
This is defined under Section 27 of Act that no infringement will lie with
respect to an unregistered trademark, but recognises the common law rights of
the trademark owner to take action against any person for passing off goods as
the goods of another person as services provided by another person or the
Passing off is common legislation of tort, which can be used to put in force for
unregistered trademark rights. The regulation of passing off prevents one man or
woman from misrepresenting other items or services. The inspiration for passing
off has faced some changes in the duration of time. In the beginning, it was
restrained to the representation of one person goods to another.
Later it was
elevated to business and non- trading activities. Therefore it used to be
additionally accelerated to professions and non-trading movements. Today it is
applied to many types of unfair trading and unfair competitors where the
activity of one person cause damage to another person. The fundamental question
on this tort turns upon whether the defendant's conduct is such as deceive or
mislead the general public to the confusion between the industry activities of
In British Diabetic organization V Diabetic, both the parties have been
charitable societies. Their names have been deceptively identical. The phrases
'association' and 'society' both should be considering that they have been
similar in derivation and meaning and were not completely varied in kind. The
everlasting injunction was granted.
Difference between passing off and infringement
The measures for passing off is different from the measures of an infringement.
The claim for infringement is a lawful remedy whereas the claim for passing off
is a common law remedy. Therefore, in order to establish infringement with
respect to a registered trademark, it is only required to prove that the
infringing mark is same or deceptively similar to the certified mark and no more
proof is required. In the case of a passing off claim, proving that the marks
are same or deceptively similar only is not sufficient.
The use of the mark should be likely to mislead or cause confusion. Moreover, in
a passing off claim it is necessary to verify that the use of the trademark by
the defendant is expected to cause injury or damage to the plaintiff's goodwill,
whereas, in an infringement suit, the use of the mark by the defendant must not
cause any injury to the plaintiff. But, when a trademark is registered,
registration is given only with respect to a particular category of goods.
Protection is, therefore, provided only to these goods. In a passing off action,
the defendant's goods must not be the same; it may be different.
In, Kaviraj Pandit Durga Dutt Sharma Vs. Navaratna Pharmaceutical laboratories
the Apex court held that there are some differences between the trial for
passing off and trial for infringement of a trademark. In American Home Products Corpn. Vs. Lupin Laboratories Ltd.
, the Court held that it is well-settled law
that when regarding the infringement of a registered trademark. It is important
to carry in mind the difference between the search for infringement and the
search in passing off the trial.
In a passing off action, the courts seem to see
whether there is deception whereas, in infringement matter, it is important to
note that the Trademark Act gives to the owner an exclusive right to the use of
the mark which will be infringed in the case of indistinguishable mark and in
the case of related marks, even though there is deception, infringement can
still take place.
In Satyam Infoway Ltd. Vs Sifynet Solutions (P) Ltd
. it was held by the Court
that to proceed action for passing off three elements are required to be
established, which are as follows:
In a trial for Passing off, as the expression passing off itself suggests, is to
restrict the defendant from passing off its goods or services to the public
which of the plaintiff's. It is a claim not only to preserve the status of the
plaintiff but also to protect the public. The defendant must have traded its
goods or given its services in a manner which was deceived or would be likely to
deceive the public into thinking that the defendant's goods or services are the
That second element that must be established by the plaintiff is a misconception
by the defendant to the public and what has to be placed in the possibility of
confusion in the minds of the public that the goods or services offered by the
defendant are the goods or the services of the plaintiff. In assessing the
possibility of such confusion the court must allow for the 'imperfect
recollection of a person or ordinary memory'.
The third element of a passing off action is loss or the possibility of it.
Notwithstanding, trademark registration under the Act only has effect in India.
To get trademark rights and protection in other countries it is required to
register the trademark in those countries. Trademark protection is regional in
nature. A single registration will have to be made in every country where
protection is wanted. To get protection outside India, it is required to file
applications in the respect of the countries individually.
In enhancement, there
should be registration in a country before you begin the use of the trademark in
that country. In some countries such as China, Japan, Continental Europe, and
Indonesia, the first person who applies for registration will get the rights of
a trademark, rather than the person who first uses the trademark. Hence, the
different party could legitimately take trademark by applying for registration
even if there is the first person using the trademark.
Expanding boundaries of the scope of trademark
Every company on the internet has a domain name with a different address in
cyberspace at which the website is located. Nowadays companies have internet
pages as the producer and consumer are far away located as well as every company
is going global. The other purpose is that the Internet has become an essential
tool in marketing. The rule came to be revealed as IP numbers are hard to
remember therefore they came up with the Domain Name System.
A user of the internet will find the domain name very useful in finding the
goods or services that he expected to find. But sometimes a distinct name of a
highly commended business may be allowed and passed off as the original one, For
example, Tata, Google and Maruti. People visit a website or domain name through
a website or a URL. Cybercrime generally means the registration of another
party's mark as a domain name for the purpose of misuse. A domain name has to be
related to the product given and it has to be different. While choosing a domain
name for a website it is desirable that it should be different. A high level of
distinctiveness is allowed that two domain names could not be alike. Two types
of disputes that occur which concerns with the domain name.
- That both the parties have the legal right to forming the words for the
domain name in use. In this way, the court decides that who is the original
owner and who the infringer is.
- The second type is cyber piracy where a party with no legal right questions
the real owner. In this type of problem, there is a number of ways by which a
trademark owner can fight with cyberpiracy.
It is a non-traditional type of trademark. There is a large problem in
registering this type of trademarks as there is no physical representation. Due
to its high level of distinctiveness, for example, the smell of a perfume
strawberry etc., it is difficult to register this kind of trademark. Smell marks
are accepted if they are represented with a graphical representation. But this
provision is only in some countries. Smell the trademark is protected under
copyright. In some instances a particular scent is also a commodity by itself in
other circumstances it is a scent used or attached to the commodity not the
natural smell of the product itself.
A sound may be trademark and can also be registered. A sound mark is a sound or
a theme with a different identification effect. A well-known sound mark is music
owned by Hemglass. When applying for a sound mark the mark can be expressed by a
sound file or by an accurate description of the sound in notation.
Distinguishing the one product from another assures that the customer doesn't
get confused by similar products. The shape of goods registered as a trademark
as long as the shape is not working. A shape is working if it affects the use or
performance of the product. The shape of goods can be a trademark if,
The shape doesn't superior working.
The shape has become connected with public and manufacturer.
A shape of goods may be registered as a trademark when the shape is not working.
Thus if a certain shape is delicate more than useful in daily life and serves no
purpose then it may be registered.
Intellectual Property reflects the meaning that it's subject body is the product
of the mind or the intellect. As it's the product of a productive and creative
mind, It can be traded, purchased, given and reserved. All this can be done but
there are issues related that to be dealt. Trademarks are very important aspects
of Intellectual Property so, the protection of the trademark has become
essential in the present day because, every generator of a good or service will
want his mark to be different, eye-catching and it should be easily
distinguishable from others.
Designing a mark like this is difficult and after this when infringing of the
mark takes place it will cause maximum difficulty to the producer. Capital
Protection is very important and there should be a step towards Global
Intellectual Property Order, if there is no IPR protection, it can be explained
that inventive activity will terminate. The reason for Intellectual Property
protection is that it can arouse creativity and discovery and prevent the
exploitation of inventions.
Public policy here points at keeping an Intellectual Property system which
promotes innovation through protection initiatives, while at the same time
assuring that this is not at the value of societal interests. In this meaning,
the challenge for the World Intellectual Property Organisation would be to
include public policy effects in applications carried out with developing
countries, such as increasing awareness of flexibilities in existing
international intellectual property treaties.
Intellectual Property is not an unusual concept, in fact, it is a concept which
is discussed in everyday life whether a movie, book, plant variety, food item,
cosmetics, electrical gadgets, software's etc. It has become a concept of
pervasiveness in everyday life. The World Intellectual Property Day on 26th
April every year.
Written By: Siddhartha Mohanty,
BBALLB, 8th Semester ( 2018-2023) - SOA
National Institute of Law