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Formation of the NATO And NAM

Formation of the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

  • One of the major formations after the 2nd WW was the formation of a regional power organization known as the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), formed by the US and its allies whose main aim was to ensure that the NATO countries would protect each other in case of a conflict with the USSR and its Allies.
  • NATO was headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, and had military bases in the US and throughout Europe.
  • The US also covertly started ad nuclear weapons program of developing both atomic and Hydrogen Bombs which would act as a deterrence against the soviet block.
  • To counter them, the Soviet Union and its allies formed a regional organization, called the Warsaw pact, to counter the growth of NATO in the region.
  • Most of the members of the Warsaw pact were anti-democracy and pro-communism and were led by the Soviet Union and the Leader was a Soviet Leader and politician Joseph Stalin.
  • Throughout the cold war from 1945 to 1991, the Warsaw pact and the nato were against each other and had ideological differences.
  • The cold war finally came to an end in 1991 when the Soviet Union disintegrated on December 25, 1991, and broke into 15 independent republics.

Formation of the NAM (Nonaligned Movement)

  • During the cold war, another 3rd organization arose which was in favor of neither NATO nor the Warsaw pact.
    Most of these countries had just got independence and were not wanting to join any power block.
  • The NAM was the idea and the brainchild of the following leaders:
    1. Pandit Jawarhal Nehru from India
    2. President Sukarno of Indonesia
    3. Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt
    4. Kwame Nkrumah of Gold Coast
    5. Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia
  • All these 5 leaders came together in the Bandung conference in Indonesia and were joined by a lot of countries that had just become independent.
  • The main aim of NATO was to also ensure that the Interest of the USA and its allies was protected.
  • The main aim of the Warsaw pact was to see that the interests of the USSR and its allies were protected
  • The main aim of the NAM was to see that its members remained neutral and did not join any power block
  • Throughout the cold war the NAM tried to play a balancing act and diplomatic role to ensure that the USA and USSR did not ensure that the USA and USSR did not come into conflict with each other and at many times of history, the Soviet Union and the U.S were very close to a regional conflict when a third world war was very much possible.
  • Some of these instances were as follows:
    1. The Korean War (1950-1953):

      • After the second world war both Korea was divided into North Korea and South Korea.
      • While South Korea was a democratic institution, North Korea was a communist regime.
      • South Korea was supported by the US and its allies while North Korea was supported by the U.S.A and its allies while North Korea was supported by the Soviet Union and its allies.
      • The two Koreas were constantly seeing a lot of tension and political problems.
      • It was in the background that North Korea invaded South Korea and North Korea had the support of the Soviet Union and Chinese troops.
      • The U.S.A, Great Britain, France, and some NATO allies Decided to support South Korea and thousands of troops were sent in support of South Korea.
      • The war went on for 3 years, and during this time 100s of troops from both sides were being killed by 1952, there was a very close chance that the USA and USSR might use nuclear weapons against each other.
      • However the UN brought about a ceasefire with the support of India and a few other countries and therefore a 3rd WW was averted by 1953.
      • However the Kim family became the eternal rulers of North Korea in 1953 and technically North Korea and South Korea are still at war with each other
    2. Cuban Missile Crisis 1963

      • The Cuban Missile crisis was initiated during 1963 when it was alleged by the American Secret Service, the CIA, and the FBI, that the Soviet Union had brought long-range missiles and weapons and had strategically placed them in Cuba to target the American mainland.
      • Further the Cuban communist party, which had come to power in 1959 under Fidel Castro & Che Guevara were openly anti-US and pro-Soviet Union.
      • The then-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was openly anti-US and had very strong differences of opinion with the then US president John F. Kennedy.
      • American forces openly threatened to take counter to retaliate measures against Soviet and Cuban forces.
      • In 1963 tensions were at an all-time high between the USA and USSR.
      • However at the end of 1963, owing to the worldwide diplomatic negotiations, USSR decided to withdraw its Nuclear Weapons from Cuban soil, and the USA also decided to withdraw its troops from attacking positions.
    3. Bangladesh Liberation war 1970-71

      • The Bangladesh Liberation war was fought from 1970-71 between the Indian Gov and the Bengali rebels on one hand and the West Pakistani administration on the other hand.
      • The main point of contention or dispute was the creation of a separate homeland for the Bengalis of East Pakistan by the name of Bangladesh.
      • The West Pakistani administration was against this move and committed a number of atrocities and an act of genocides, war crimes, from 26th March to 17th December 1971.
      • During the entire war, the American forces openly supported the Pakistani administration
      • It has also been alleged that the American Administration provided the Pakistani dictatorship of General Yahya Khan with arms, ammunition, and weapons.
      • Further the Soviet Union Openly supported Indian and during the Indo Pak war of 1971, the Soviet Navy under its 6th fleet was stationed in the Bay of Bengal to prevent any interference by the Americans or the Britishers in favor of Pakistan.
    4. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan(1979-187)

      • Another instance during the cold war when the Soviet Union and America were at the border of a major collision was when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1978, on the invitation of the communist party of Afghanistan.
      • Even though the democratically elected government of Afghanistan acutely failed and was replaced by a Soviet Controlled Afghan Communist Party.
      • However, the General Population of Afghanistan did not give up, and with the covert support of the Pakistan Secret Service ICI and American Secret Service, CIA, Afghan resistance fighters known as the Mujahideen started fighting against the Soviet occupation, with the covert support of Pakistan and the U.S.A.
      • The American Secret Service was alleged to have trained, aided, and financed the Afghan Mujahideen in the training camps of Peshawar, Quetta, and Multan.
      • The American forces also supplied the Mujahideen with critical missiles and ammunition to counter the Soviet Army.
      • It is also that the American establishment was stationed for many years in Peshawar, Pakistan, and oversaw court military operations against the Soviets in Afghanistan.
      • Therefore, even though the USA and USSR were not directly fighting the war in Afghanistan but yet they were covertly planning and plotting against each other. It was also during the time that America recruited a Saudi militaire Osama Bin Laden and other influential members of the Saudi Royal Family to fight the so-called religious war against the USSR in Afghanistan.
      • The American involvement came to an end in 1987, the Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan and the American Forces withdrew from Afghanistan and the American forces left Afghanistan to its condition.
      • This indirectly led to the rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan in the 1990s.

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