Demand for food has gone up in developing countries with high population growth.
It has stabilized in developed countries. Farm technology has greatly improved
in developed countries, while it has stagnated in developing countries. Thus,
food prices have typically risen in emerging countries, and those in developed
countries have reduced.
Declining food prices in developed countries have
lowered farmers 'incomes. The government sought to raise farmers' rates. This
brought more output and surplus. Those countries are typically exporters. Rising
food prices in developed countries have hurt consumers or other industry staff.
The government has been trying to lower food prices. This not only affects the
income of the farmers but also the output.
Food security, as defined by the United Nations' Committee on World Food
Security, means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and
economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food
preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
Developing countries like India tend to be food importers. Food security
comprises the accessibility and affordability of food. Economic development
and/or infrastructure construction are crucial to addressing a food shortage.
The housing of food stored for a rainy day or extension of the world food supply
is a safer way of coping with the problem. Maintaining agricultural capital,
including water and soil, serves the purpose of global food protection.
According to UN-India, there are nearly 195 million undernourished people in
India, which is a quarter of the world's hunger burden. Also, roughly 43% of
children in India are chronically undernourished. India ranks 71 out of 113
major countries in terms of food security index 2020.
Food Security Policy in India: Challenges and PerformanceScholarly article titled 'Food Security Policy in India: Challenges and
Performance' authored by Om Jee Ranjan extensively addresses the situation of
food availability for every person, examines the actual challenges of food
security, and tries to scrutinise related government policies and their efforts.
This paper is organized into three sections- the first section elaborates the
concept of Food Security and its dimensions. The second section of this paper
examines the issues and Indian Government's policies related to Food Security;
and the third and final section is the denouement of this paper.
Food security is one of the burning issues of this time. It is one of the
fundamental rights. Without food insurance, we cannot achieve our MDG. Today
about one-third Indians are not ensured to get food as required. For ensuring at
all times, basic food for all, we have to improve our production, improve our
purchasing power and make a sustainable strategy in this direction. Food
security is like a life improvement vehicle with four gears - availability,
approach, allocation and absorption.
The meeting point of these four components
might be called an optimum place for food security. Therefore, the need to
improve these four components in every place in India is sacrosanct. In
addition, food security behaves like a prism, where the convergence of many
(about seven points) necessity points, results in an outcome of a better plan to
ensure food security.
These days, India has a huge buffer stock and we gain surplus production of food
grains annually. After the first Green Revolution, famines similar to black
terror had been terminated. Even though, malnutrition, unavailability of
sufficient food grain are still creating huge barrier for our sustainable
Most people are now living below the poverty line, which means they
do not have any resource even to get two meals for survival. Many people are
still unemployed and want work to be able to live with one's own desires and
create one's own personal world as they envisioned. Without resolving this
problem, we cannot think of becoming an economic power in this century.
Consequently, a plethora of supporting programmes has been launched by the
Government of India for the achievement of desired goals, since 1960. Some
schemes were modified into successive schemes and some were demolished.
Food accessibility is increased through employment generation and employment can
be procreated by the government. The problem of malnutrition is much more
critical than food insecurity because it cannot be solved by surplus production
or employment generation. They can only be solved, when health status rises and
basic health facilities are affordable and reachable to all.
This paper attempted to examine and describe the realities, challenges and
policies in Food Security in India. As we know, food availability is a necessary
condition for food security and India has become well capable in this regard.
But due to change in consumption patterns, a need to increase diversification in
production and improvement in allied schemes is demanded.
The Government of India provides 25 kg rice and wheat at 3 rupees and 2 rupees
per kg under the National Food Security Law but this is not a sufficient effort
to achieve food security in the longer run.
Ultimately, India has in its sleeves, many schemes and policies to dissolve food
insecurity and malnutrition. Yet these problems are still staring at our face.
Having said that, the Self- help- group approaches, more dedicated and efficient
delivery system can play a decisive role in ensuring food security.
Food Security in India: Trends, Patterns and Determinants In an article titled 'Food Security in India: Trends, Patterns and Determinants'
written by Anjani Kumar, M.C.S. Bantilan, Praduman Kumar, Sant Kumar and Shiv
Jee has examined the trends in on food security in India with the latest
available evidences in terms of availability, access and absorption, and has
observed that all these dimensions are interrelated. The findings have also
shed light on food management policies and their impact on food security.
The persistence of nutritional deficiency suggests the need to vigorously pursue
long-term strategies for augmenting food production, especially through
enhancement in productivity. Streamlining and tightening of the food
distribution system is equally important. There is a need for further research
to understand the consistently poor performance of PDS in some states and
reasons behind improvement in others. The future of the NFSA depends a great
deal on the success of the PDS across the country.
The positive relationship between household income and nutritional intake
suggests that the anti-poverty programmes should be continued, broadened and
enhanced to achieve the desired outcome. Besides, increasing the efficiency of
public expenditure and strengthening of social safety net programmes (like
MNREGS, ICDS, NFSM, Mid-Day Meal, PDS, etc.) must be accorded high priority in
the future planning process of the country. The lessons learnt from the
successful states in PDS management should be replicated in poor-performing
states. An alternative system of PDS can also be explored in these states.
Food Security and Nutrition: Vision 2020 In a scholarly article named 'Food Security and Nutrition: Vision 2020' written
by R. Radhakrishna and K. Venkata Reddy mentioned that while India achieved
success in combating transient foodinsecurity causedby droughts or floods, it
miserably failed to make muchdent in chronic food insecurity as reflected
in the low energy intake and high incidences of malnutrition. The
overall improvement in nutritional statushas also beenvery slow.
There is a
chronic under-nourishment in about half of the population, particularly among
the vulnerable groups of children, women and elderly from the lower
half of the expenditure class. Curiously, theproportion of consumption
expenditure spent on food is slowly going down even in the households
with chronic under-nourishment. Under nourishment in the bottom 30% of
the expenditure class is alarming.
And even the middle 40% is not
free from it. The mounting food stocks miserably failed to banish mass
under-nourishment. While the current growth rate would significantly
reduce income poverty by 2010, chronic food insecurity is likely to
persist. Moreover, with the recent shift to a more market-oriented and
outward-looking macro-policies, the poor are likely to be exposed to
the resultant risk of market uncertainties. As a result several types of programmes need to be targeted exclusively to the poor.
Improvement in food consumption is a necessary but not a sufficient
condition for overcoming the problem of malnutrition in India. Apart
from inadequate food consumption, the other important causes of
malnutrition are high incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory
infections and behavioural factors such as faulty child feeding and
weaning practices, all of which contribute to the low absorption of
nutrients from the food consumed. Economic growth, left to itself, may
not have a dramatic impact on nutritional status in the near future,
although it provides greater opportunities for public intervention.
Effective and efficient food and environmental interventions are needed
until all the citizens are adequately fed.
Food and Nutrition in India: Facts and Interpretation In an article titled 'Food and Nutrition in India: Facts and Interpretation'
written by Angus Deaton, Jean Dreze r reviews recent evidence on food intake
and nutrition in India. It attempts to make sense of various puzzles,
particularly the decline of average calorie intake during the last 25 years.
This decline has occurred across the distribution of real per capita
expenditure, in spite of increases in real income and no long-term increase in
the relative price of food.
One hypothesis is that calorie requirements have
declined due to lower levels of physical activity or improvements in the
health environment. If correct, this does not imply that there are no calorie
deficits in the Indian population - nothing could be further from the truth.
These deficits are reflected in some of the worst anthropom�trie indicators in
the world, and the sluggish rate of improvement of these indicators is of major
concern. Yet recent trends remain confused and there is an urgent need for
better nutrition monitoring.
Food Security in India: Performance and ConcernsThe author Prof. Kalpana Singh has written an article named 'Food Security
in India: Performance and Concerns'. She described that, one of the
prime concerns of India's policies has been the food and nutritional
security to its population. The three important components of food
security are: availability, access, and absorption (nutrition). These
three are interrelated. The major aim of this paper is to examine
the performance in food security in India in respect of these three
components. In respect of availability.
The average annual growth rates
in Yields of Food grain Production and in Area under cultivation for
Food grain Production have been computed for five time periods; pre
green revolution 1950-51 to 66-67), early green revolution (1967-68 to
1979-80), mature green revolution (1980-81 to 1989-90), early economic
reforms (1990-91 to 1999-00), and economic reforms (2000-01 to
2011-12). The food grains production has deteriorated when India
entered in the era of globalization.
The free market play has
adversely affected the production of food grains and the rate of
growth of food grains production declined after the introduction of
New Economic Policy (NEP) in India. So far as the accessibility
aspect of food security is concerned, long term trend in consumption
pattern at household level shows that per capita direct consumption of
food grains has been declining. Further India's performance in food
security on nutritional outcomes has not been very satisfactory.
Global Food Security Index 2012 released in New Delhi in September,
2012, placed India in a "moderate" category. It ranked India 66th
among 105 nations and cited affordability rather than availability as
a key food security threat for Indians. India scored highest in food
availability (51.3) but lowest (38.4) in terms of food access. It
also points to its poor ability to move food efficiently because of
infrastructure problems. Similarly, in the food security index 2013,
India slipped to 70th position. We live in paradoxical times, and it
is not the shortage of food but the lack of a proper food
distribution network that is to blame.
Food Security in India: Issues and ChallengesThe scholarly article titled 'Food Security in India: Issues and Challenges'
written by Pramod Kumar, P. Anbukkani, D.R. Singh and Amit Kar described
that, India's half of population is struggling to find food on their
plate, coping with stern starvation and droughts on the flipper side.
India is home to the largest number of hungry people in the world
with over 200 million people.
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2013
ranks India at the bottom with 63rd position (out of 84 countries)with
a GHI of 23.90, which the index characterizes as "alarming" food
security situation. Major issues of food security in India are what
will be the impact of such large government foodgrain procurement on
the open market prices.
Given the inefficiencies and leakages in the
current distribution system, identify the principal areas of reform of
the PDS and the alternative mechanisms of reaching the foodgrain/subsidy
to the entitled households. Ways to forward is go for a universal right
to food under which everyone is entitled to get subsidised foodgrains
from the PDS.
It is also suggested that instead of identifying the
poor, it would be much easier to identify the rich to exclude them.
Systems of storage, distribution, accountability and monitoring have to
be put in place to ensure that there is minimal leakage. Provision of
decentralized procurement needs to be implemented.
More states need to
be brought under the procurement net and the procurement of coarse
cereals increased. The food coupon or Aadhaar card-linked entitlement
would eliminate the problem of having to procure and distribute more
than 500 lakh tonnes of foodgrains every year as also the problem of
Food Security in India: Concepts, Realities & Innovations A article named 'Food Security in India: Concepts, Realities &
Innovations' is penned by Prof. BJ Lathi and Prof. Parag Narkhede. They
described that, Food security, in general, is increasingly affected by
global economic and environmental phenomena. Under this, the food
prices are affected due to food scarcity which causes social and
political instability, and can escalate humanitarian crises.
context it is better to study the definition of food security given
by the Rome Declaration on World Food Security at the World Food
Summit, held in 1996. Here the researchers wanted to understand the
impact of food security w.r.t. a Global concern. The definition as
per the Rome Declaration is, "food security exists when all people,
at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe
and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an
active and healthy life."
On the same guidelines India‟s initiatives to ensure food security
for its citizen‟s ranges from concerted efforts to boost agricultural
production to far-ranging market interventions aimed at price
stabilisation. Besides, measures have been introduced to improve the
access to food of the poor people through public distribution and
income generating schemes. (Some of the schemes have been highlighted
in the paper.)
The problem of underinvestment in agriculture as far
as the status of India w.r.t. world is compounded during economic
turmoil, because when both private and public budgets contract,
investments tend to be cut to a greater extent than other expenditures
in all sectors � including agriculture.
In trying to cope with the burden of consecutive food and economic
crises certain advances in the area of bio-nanotechnology would go a
long way in helping food security. Bionanotechnology will take
agriculture from the era of genetically modified (GM) crops to the
brave new world of atomically modified organisms. This paper is
divided into three parts & deals with conceptual review,
realities-government measures & finally innovations towards food
Economic and Environmental Impact of National Food Security Act of
India In a research article titled 'Economic and Environmental Impact of National Food
Security Act of India' which is authored by Priyam Sengupta and Kakali
Mukhopadhyay mentioned that, the Government of India has enacted the National
Food Security Act (NFSA) on September 12, 2013.
The NFSA aims to provide
subsidized food grains to approximately two thirds of India's population. The
legislation is a landmark, and perhaps the largest food security program in the
world. The ambitious programme of the Government, besides offering several
opportunities, throws many challenges in its implementation. In this background,
the current paper evaluates the widespread impact of implementing NFSA on the
The study applied a modified Leontief and Ghosh model under
Input�output framework. The study also assessed the environmental impact of this
act focusing on various environmental indicators. Further, the additional land
requirement, labour generation and GDP growth that NFSA entails have also been
computed. The impacts on sectoral prices have also been calculated.
shows that the food grain sector has to grow by 3.75 % annually to match
provision of food grains according to the norm set by the act. Apart from the
targeted food grains sector, we noticed some indirect impact on other sectors
such as Chemicals and Chemical Products, Mineral Fuels, Live stock products and
Other Oilseeds and Crops.
Overall the country needs to gear up in terms of food
grain productivity, otherwise, NFSA must be supplemented by import, which would
entail huge burden to the country's exchequer. On the other hand, the additional
GDP and labour growth is expected to generate 1.51 % and 6.21 % respectively due
to NFSA compared to 2016�17. But the impact on the environment is also not
The economy is likely to generate additional GHG emissions of 10.39
million metric tons of CO2 equivalent due to this act. A significant generation
of water pollution is also expected. The overall land requirement on account of
NFSA has been found to be sizeable whose availability remains as a big
constraint. The study also throws some insight on the achievements of The
Millennium Development Goals in the context of NFSA.
In the context of the
Indian sub-continent, we find a perfect synergy between the basic objective of
the National Food Security Act and the Millennium Development Goal. Overall, NFSA impact will enhance the growth of the economy. However, additional pressure
on the environment and land cannot be ignored. For sustainable food grains
production in the economy, the nation should consider the improvement of
agricultural productivity as well as to minimize the environmental effect by
introducing more sustainable farming practices.
Indian Food Security From Problem to Solution Through Household Food
SecurityAuthor Rika Isnarti in her article 'Indian Food Security From Problem to
Solution Through Household Food Security' assesses food security in
India, especially in a rural area where food security conditions are
far behind. India is one of the countries suffering from food
insecurity that leads to nutrition insecurity.
To achieve food security
is not about how much food is being produced or analyzed the
availability of f ood but also about food utility, a condition where
everyone can achieve food nutrition with the amount of food being
produced. So, food security is also about how people can buy food
at a fair price and access to free from malnutrition and obtain good
dietary for a healthy life, the utility of food.
Therefore, if we
want to achieve food security, this is important to provide high
nutritional food at an affordable price rather than provide high food
production, but people have no access to it. Therefore, thi s paper
assesses India's problem in food security, impact, and solutions, Which
on food security at the household level. This research is qualitative
research that utilizes library research to gather and analyze the
It found that the Indian food security problem mostly occurs in
rural areas, which causes malnutrition. Therefore, to achieve food
security in India, the government combines government programs with household
and women programs such as giving subsidy for small and poor
households, giving food to children and subsidizing grain for farmers,
and create a home garden.
Food Security in India: Evolution, Efforts and Problems In the article titled 'Food Security in India: Evolution, Efforts and Problems'
author D. P. K. Pillay and T. K. Manoj Kumar examines India's efforts to achieve
food security. It traces the problem, from the inadequate production of food
grains during colonial times, to the challenges of procurement, storage and
distribution of cereals in post-independence India, after achieving
self-sufficiency in food production.
The establishment of the Public
Distribution System (PDS) and its evolution into the Targeted PDS and the
National Food Security Act are outlined. The role of the Food Corporation of
India and the efforts to improve it, are discussed. A critical analysis of
India's food security system is made in light of present day problems.
- Food security of a nation is ensured if all of its citizens have enough
nutritious food available, all persons have the capacity to buy food of
acceptable quality and there is no barrier on access to food.
- The right to food is a well established principle of international human
rights law. It has evolved to include an obligation for state parties to
respect, protect, and fulfil their citizens' right to food security.
- As a state party to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, India has
the obligation to ensure the right to be free from hunger and the right to
- India needs to adopt a policy that brings together diverse issues such
as inequality, food diversity, indigenous rights and environmental justice
to ensure sustainable food security.