The ideals and idealism of regional hegemony and super-power
status since 1991 have been one of bitter rivalries and contested claims. Kindly
throw light on this issue, with your own explanation and views.
Superpower Status since 1991:
- Regional hegemony occurs when one country in a region asserts dominance
over the rest. It strives to become the dominant power in the region. A
regional hegemony's connection with its neighbours is always similar to a
world hegemony's engagement with its neighbours.
- Idealism asserts that reality is made up of ideas, thoughts, brains, or
selves rather than physical forces. Idealism is a perspective on life
experiences and the globe that, in some way, values mind over matter.
Idealism emphasises thinking in the same manner that materialism emphasises
substance. Because there is no commonly accepted definition of idealism, it
is amongst the most complex terms in the international relations dictionary
to define. Similarly, no commonly accepted idealist tradition or model from
which to generate meaning exists.
- A superpower is a nation with a significant military or economic
advantage, or both, as well as broad influence over other nations.
Reasons behind Origination of Superpowers:
- In the early 20th century, the world was governed by numerous hegemonic
powers. Consequently, a new generation of major powers arose after and
during the First and Second World Wars. Of them were the Soviet Union,
France, the United Kingdom, China, and the United States of America.
- The two most influential nations among the five were the Soviet Union
and the United States. They symbolized two competing ideologies: Communism
and Capitalism. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union during 1991,
the United States achieved global hegemony.
- Only when the Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991, the United States of
America hegemony was complete. Without credible challengers for world
leadership, the USA placed atop the international order.
- China has succeeded in at least 3 different of the four areas, namely
armed services, economical, and political domination. China's economy has
become one of the fastest growing among the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India,
China, and South Africa) nations.
- The USA is now commonly considered as the world's only actual
superpower. The United Kingdom, Russia, India, France, Saudi Arabia and
Germany all spend more on defence than the USA.
- China is categorised as a "potential superpower" or a "rising
superpower." China spends a tiny amount of what the United States does on
defence. China makes up for this by enhancing its diplomatic efforts,
emerging to be amongst the world's largest economic contributors, and
technological achievements, especially in artificial intelligence (AI).
- Russia is another emerging global superpower. It is the world's biggest
country in the globe of land surface, comprising much of Eastern Europe and
northern Asia sharing borders with over a handful other countries.
- To begin with, many superpowers exert influence through their military
force. In the present era, this primarily refers to nuclear weapons, however
the capability of monitoring the universe via satellite and spy technology
is now becoming highly significant.
- Consequently, numerous superpowers obtain significant impact through
using their economic power. Nations with wealth may extract their control
over the universe, buy resources, and impact trade flows. Economic strength
is the most important form of power because it is required to maintain
military dominance, expand cultural impact by trade and the press, and
provide global geographic coverage.
- Another method through which superpowers establish their influence is
via cultural power. This can involve projecting a particular way of life or
cultural ideals that affect how someone else thinks and acts. Superpowers
have an influence on the concept of a developing universal culture of ideas
- Superpowers gain influence in two fundamental ways: through political
and demographic power. The ideal way wherein superpowers gain influence is
by using geographical power. The radius of influence of a powerful country
is referred to as this. A widespread physical or cultural presence might be
Written By: Shashwata Sahu, Advocate
- Developing and regional powers lack some sort of authority. Japan is a
strong economic power, however it is a poor military power. Brazil functions
as a regional power mediator in Latin America, despite its weak economic and
military influence. China lacks the cultural and geographic dominance which
the USA enjoys.
- Depending on the situation, a superpower can exert influence in a number
of different ways. One might argue that a nation is not a superpower till it
employs all or most of the aforementioned strategies, although this is
questionable. Nonetheless, it is clear that every technique, by itself, can
have a huge worldwide impact. It has a sizable military force including the
world's most powerful economy. Its cultural values have spread over the
globe, and its cultural icons may be seen everywhere.
, LL.M., KIIT School of Law