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Dynamic Role Of Hamid Karzai In Afghanistan

Karzai was recognized across the world for his charming diplomacy in attracting foreign direct investment to Afghanistan. Controlling the country's powerful traditional leaders and deterring the Taliban from seizing control were among Karzai's many problems. He also aimed to reconstruct the country, which had been devastated by war. Afghanistan was still plagued by violence, and Karzai was the victim of multiple assassination attempts. A new constitution was formed in January 2004 that provided for a president to be directly elected.

This study employed normative method of research with qualitative approach to examine the conundrum that Hamid Karzai faced to bring absolute peace. This study is expected to be significant for the academician, politician, judges, and diplomats and executive to enrich their knowledge establishing a firm idea on the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Due to time constrain, the study will briefly highlights the Hamid Karzai role post-Taliban 1.0 to the Taliban 2.0. the study will not be based on the biased, however highlights based on the literature available at hand.

Prologue
Hamid Karzai born in Kandahar on 24 December 1957 is an Afghan politician who served as President of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014. He is also leading the Popalzai Durrani Pashtun tribe of Kandahar Province. Karzai graduated from Kabul's Habibia High School and went on to study in India for a master's degree in the 1980s. In the administration of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, he temporarily served as Deputy Foreign Minister.

Karzai's father was slain in July 1999, and Karzai took over as leader of the Popalzai tribe. When the US invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, Karzai led the Pashtun tribes in and around Kandahar in an uprising against the Taliban; when the Taliban rule was deposed in late 2001, he became a powerful political figure. Karzai was chosen by key Afghan political figures to serve as chairman of the Interim Administration for a six-month term during the December 2001 International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany.

During the 2002 loya jirga (Grand Assembly) in Kabul, Afghanistan, he was elected for a two-year tenure as temporary president. Karzai was proclaimed the winner of the 2004 presidential election and was elected President of Afghanistan. In the 2009 presidential election, he won a second five-year term, which concluded in September 2014.

Hamid Karzai Holds Cordial Relations With India

Relations between Karzai and India have always been friendly; he attended university there. Afghanistan–India relations began getting stronger in 2011, especially after the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan. In October 2011, Karzai signed a strategic partnership agreement with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. India and Afghanistan have a strong relationship based on historical and cultural links.

India has played a significant role in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Afghanistan. We believe that democracy and development are the key instruments to ensure that Afghanistan becomes a source of regional stability. This has been reflected in the Strategic Partnership Agreement, signed between Afghanistan and India during Afghan President Hamid Karzai's visit to India in October 2011, which reinforced the strong, vibrant and multi-faceted relations between the two countries and at the same time formalized a framework for cooperation in various areas between the two countries: political & security cooperation; trade & economic cooperation; capacity development and education; and social, cultural, civil society & people-to-people relations.

This agreement is a strong signal of our abiding commitment to peace, stability and prosperity in Afghanistan. [1] Hamid Karzai facilitated education opportunities to all Afghan students particularly one thousand ICCR scholarship for all the Afghan student every year to India.

Hamid Karzai due to his diplomatic relations and mutual understanding of government of India has spent enormous budget over the capacity building of Afghanistan that Includes the education of Afghan boys and girls irrespective race, tribe, sects, region and political opinion. In education and institution development, India is providing every year 1000 long-term university scholarships, sponsored by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) for under-graduate and post-graduate studies for Afghan students in India.

Similarly, another 675 annual short-term India Technical and Educational Cooperation (ITEC) training scholarships for Afghan public servants are provided in Indian technical and professional institutions. India hosted at Delhi on June 28 2011 for the Delhi Investment Summit on Afghanistan, which sought to provide a forum for potential investors from the region and beyond to meet and explore possible cross-country company partnerships on investments in and around Afghanistan in various sectors where Afghanistan holds the promise of significant potential, opportunity and need, as a means of bringing stability and development to Afghanistan through economic means in the challenging post-2014 phase.

Besides these, Karzai is involved with India in reconstruction of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health and the Habibia School in Kabul. India has assisted in expansion of Afghan National TV network by providing an uplink from Kabul and downlinks in all 34 provincial capitals for promoting greater connectivity. It has also gifted around 1,000 vehicles including buses, utility vehicles and ambulances to Afghanistan.

Afghanistan joined SAARC at the 14th SAARC Summit held in Delhi in April 2007, opening possibilities of Afghanistan becoming a trade, transportation and energy hub linking together the countries of the region from Central to South Asia. India has also encouraged Afghanistan's efforts at capitalising on its unique geographical location at the heart of the Asian continent by supporting regional initiatives like the Istanbul process and RECCA that seek to assist in Afghanistan's development through cooperation in a various sectors of the economy.[2]

Post-Presidency

In the years following his presidency, Karzai remained critical of U.S. for commission of war crime in Afghanistan. The United States repeatedly expanded its drone strikes on indiscriminately on the innocent people in Afghanistan particularly in Helmand, Kandahar and other parts of Afghanistan. Meanwhile, he supported the pursuit of a peaceful arrangement to end conflict with the Taliban. Karzai who had served as the central government's chief negotiator under took a leading role in negotiations with the Taliban on the future of Afghanistan.

Karzai Role During The Taliban Regime 2.0 On Women Rights And Girl Education

Karzai completely contradicts that of the action of President Ashraf Ghani, who has escaped to a Central Asian country amid the conflict. and he added that I am here in Kabul with my girls and I ask the Taliban to provide security and safety for the people," he said in a video message in which his three daughters are seen.[3] He tried to coordinate with the Taliban for a peaceful transition.

As per experts believe Hamid Karzai[4] could play a vital role in resolving the country's woes. Karzai is a great proponent of education and he has remarked that Afghan females must return to school. The country's young girls must return to school. We must begin to build a stable and peaceful Afghanistan by taking into account the views and aspirations of all Afghans, adopting a constitution, and advancing on with the building of girls' schools. Hamid Karzai said .[5]

Karzai said, future Afghanistan has to have universal education rights for boys and girls, and women "must find their place in the Afghan polity, administration, economic activity, social activity, political activity and in all ways of life. That's an issue on which there cannot be any compromise.[6] Children of Afghanistan living in poverty often have the least access to quality preschool, high academic expectations, and safe schools. They often are cut off from challenging coursework and outstanding teachers.

While there are successes to celebrate … steadily increasing high school graduation rates and more students entering the country's universities during Hamid Karzai regime … there are significant challenges that need to be addressed such as poor education system in the rural area such as villages in the provinces of Afghanistan. Due to weak financial resource, corruption in the education administration the students does not privileged high good school buildings.

One of the biggest misconceptions around the term equity is that it means the same thing as equality, and that these words can be used interchangeably, especially in education that has not been made between a student students studying in Habibia High School and the student are studying in the Sayedal Khan High school in Trinkot of Urozgan etc.. historically underserved students need additional resources to achieve is a matter of equity, not equality. Students who have not been well served by our systems need more, not equal and certainly not less, supports in order to thrive.

He further remarked that:
The US and its allies in NATO came to Afghanistan in the name of fighting terrorism and extremism and to bring stability to Afghanistan, but are leaving nearly 20 years later after they failed at both and with an attempt to shift the burden to the Afghan people and the US' legacy is a war-ravaged nation in total disgrace and disaster.[7]

Karzai went on to frequently appear in the Afghan and international media where he campaigned for peace in his country through reconciliation among Afghans. He is now urging the Taliban to strengthen unity among Afghans and particularly women, which will help the regime gain recognition and continued aid from the global community.[8] Afghan girls must return to school: [9] said Hamid Karzai

Karzai is of the opinion that the aliban's International Recognition Requires Internal Legitimacy could only be achieved through the expression of the will of the Afghan people, either in the form of elections or holding the Loya Jirga, a traditional grand council of representatives from various parts of the country.[10] "Legitimacy within our own country for this government [Taliban] or for any other government is the foundation of recognition by countries and the international community,"

Karzai said, adding that governments derive legitimacy from the will of their people. The Taliban are notorious for their restrictions on women, on civil liberties and their harsh interpretation of Islamic law. Since the Taliban took control of Afghanistan in mid-August, the international community has strongly criticized the militant group for not fulfilling pledges to respect the rights of women and minorities, and for not including enough members from other ethnic groups in the Cabinet. Karzai has said that to prevent chaos and reduce the suffering of the people, and to better manage the affairs related to peace and for a peaceful transfer.

In nutshell, Karzai has remained a prominent Afghan political figure and he respected the democracy and he has peacefully transferred power to his successor. Karzai leadership to bring all the political leader with diverse political ideology and theological believe under one roof by building inclusive government and inviting international NGO to Afghanistan, providing employment opportunity to a war torn state is highly noteworthy to mention.

Karzai is the only politician who stressed the importance of women returning to the workplace, universities and schools. He said this desire primarily comes from the Afghan people, whether or not the international community demands it. "The rights of Afghan women to work and to be present in all walks of life in our country is primarily the demand of the Afghan people," he said. "So, even if the international community doesn't ask for it, it is our demand, the Afghan demand, and our need."

Karzai continues to live in Kabul with his family and is the father of two daughters and a son. He said he wants his daughters and son to be educated. Karzai administration facilitated the Capacity in the fields of diplomacy, media and information, civil aviation, agricultural research and education, health care and medicinal science, tourism, education, standardization, rural development, public administration, electoral management and administration and local governance.

Karzai brought democracy to Afghanistan, Afghanistan fir the first time hold freedom of press in order to safeguard transparency and make the Afghan government to be as welfare state. Karzai imbibed the constitution of Afghanistan from cross world nations and that make Afghan constitution to have the basic structure of legal pluralism with democracy, freedom of rights and fundamental freedoms.

End-Notes:
  1. Mea.gov.in, https://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/afghanistan-aug-2012.pdf (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  2. Mea.gov.in, https://www.mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/afghanistan-aug-2012.pdf (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  3. Afghan Ex-President Hamid Karzai Angles for National Role After Taliban Takeover WSJ, https://www.wsj.com/articles/afghan-ex-president-hamid-karzai-angles-for-national-role-after-taliban-takeover-11629557682 (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  4. Afghan Ex-President Hamid Karzai Angles for National Role After Taliban Takeover WSJ, https://www.wsj.com/articles/afghan-ex-president-hamid-karzai-angles-for-national-role-after-taliban-takeover-11629557682 (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  5. Afghan girls must return to school: Former Prez Hamid Karzai Business-standard.com, https://www.business-standard.com/article/international/afghan-girls-must-return-to-school-former-prez-hamid-karzai-122012500136_1.html (last visited Jan 1, 2022)
  6. Former Afghan president Hamid Karzai 'invited' Taliban to stop chaos The Indian Express, https://indianexpress.com/article/world/hamid-karzai-invited-taliban-to-stop-chaos7674369/ (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  7. Former president Karzai slams 'US legacy in Afghanistan of total disgrace and disaster,' hails China's role in bringing stability - Global Times Globaltimes.cn, https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202107/1227657.shtml (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  8. Former Afghan President Karzai Still Working For An Inclusive Taliban Government RFE/RL, https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/karzai-afghanistan-taliban/31460153.html (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  9. Afghan girls must return to school: Former Prez Hamid Karzai ANI News, https://www.aninews.in/news/world/us/afghan-girls-must-return-to-school-former-prez-hamid-karzai20220125064455/ (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
  10. Exclusive Interview: Karzai Says Taliban's International Recognition Requires Internal Legitimacy VOA, https://www.voanews.com/a/exclusive-interview-karzai-says-taliban-s-international-recognition-requires-internal-legitimacy/6274709.html (last visited Jan 3, 2022)
Written By: Souda Sama, Kabul- Afghanistan

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