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Human Rights Of Workers And Marginalized Communities In The Times Of COVID-19: A Global View

The spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the breathing sickness from the most recent known variation of Coronavirus, [1] has in the previous months been determined and its effects dramatic. The infection, which is thought to have initially contaminated individuals close to live creature commercial centers in Wuhan city in Hubei territory in China, has today extended all throughout the planet.

Health systems are under severe strain, resulting in disturbing numbers of deaths and serious infection.[2] Despite the fact that we have an antibody there are still questions on its viability and productivity, additionally just lavish nations have a predominant situation in the immunization world.

Most business analysts accept the worldwide economy will shrivel significantly this year and keep on doing as such for quite a while to come..[3] Equity arcades have tumbled, trade has collapsed, planes are stranded, and in many countries, factories have closed. Vacation industry has declined across the world, with celebrated destinations and clamoring urban communities giving a creepy, abandoned look. Significant occasions including the Tokyo Olympics, planned for Summer 2020, have been delayed by at any rate a year.

Other significant business conversations, data innovation gatherings, [4] the hajj journey to Mecca,[5] music festivities, and competitions have been put off or canceled as a result of the infection. The planet is on stop. A huge number of laborers face dubious prospects, as organizations where they work may not get by."

With conflicting requests from governments and offices, organizations are following up on their own, finding a way ways to monitor their laborers, and at times their stock chains, with no sureness about when the emergency will end.

"The outburst of COVID-19 pandemic has threatened the whole of humanity. It has proved to be a lockdown on the basic human right of the citizens.[6] This commentary will help you to discern various human rights put at stake due to the cruel obstructive measures imposed by the administration due to the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. Human Rights can be considered as a socially shown standard and process that demands socially grounded humanoid activities, both at the national and international levels.

This eruption of COVID-19 pandemic has increased the global and nationwide responses and had shown a rapidly instable need for the protection and promotion of the well-being and human rights of all. On the outset this article will help you to appreciate human rights and its relation with the COVID-19 pandemic. In the successive section, this article will tell you the people who are affected and assaulted due to the coronavirus."

Additionally, this editorial will discuss the importance of global cooperation and building trust as a means to overcome this virus. It will also help you to appreciate various different human rights that are being disturbed due to the harsh preventive measure implemented throughout the nation. "Practices that can alleviate the undesirable impacts of this pandemic, and the future standpoint that the government must adopt are also deliberated in this article.

The biggest juncture in such critical situation is valuing the human rights as a source of harmony and not as a source of separation and this can only be achieved when the government is patent and open to the general public. Moreover there is a need for strengthening awareness regarding the safeguards which need to be taken in the current situation, intermittent growth of nongovernmental actors as facilitator of rights. The article[7] also tells the steps that the government could take when we recuperate from this pandemic. Everything in this article is discussed with practical illustrations."

Research Methodology
Statement of Problem:
The prime focus of this project is to human rights and its relation with the COVID-19 pandemic. The article also discusses about the people who are distressed and maltreated due to the coronavirus. It will also help you to understand various different human rights that are being affected due to the harsh restrictive measure employed throughout the nation.

Objectives:
  1. To analyze the current situation of COVID and how it has affected the human rights of different communities.
  2. To understand the concept of quarantines and restrictions.
  3. To study the issues relating to the types of human rights being affected during the crisis.
  4. To look into the effects of COVID 19 and lockdown on women, migrant workers and the poor.

Hypothesis:
The COVID-19 pandemic has mostly affected the marginalized communities such as women, migrant workers and the poor. The effects have been severe on low income countries particularly.

Research Questions:
  • How has COVID-19 affected the human rights disgrace and discrimination?
  • Who all are maltreated due to the COVID crisis and how are they affected?
  • How has the UNHRC and other international bodies reacted to the COVID-19 Pandemic?
  • Which is the most vulnerable among the all in the COVID pandemic time?

Research Methodology:
The present research work is a Descriptive and Analytical Research; and
  • It is Doctrinal in nature and;
  • It is a Mono-disciplinary Legal Research.
  • The research design is Exploratory and Descriptive.
  • The sources of information are both Secondary (Articles, Books, Journals, Websites etc.) and Primary (Statutes, International Instruments, and Government Statistics and reports etc.)

Review of Literature:
Here are some literature reviews that will illustrate that what is the approach in this research and what are the materials which have been searched for carrying on this project work.
  • International Migration Law by Vincent Chetail:
    This book provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the many different elements of international law that govern the movement of persons across borders)
     
  • Tax, Inequality, and Human Rights by Philip Alston and Nikki Reisch:
    This book showcases interdisciplinary perspectives on tax policy and human rights and provides topical analysis of recent international tax reforms and their implications for human rights


Human Rights and COVID-19
The most recent variation of Coronavirus, known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) is a type of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). [8] "Specialists all throughout the planet responded to the episode in an awkward manner despite admonitions from the World Health Organization to treat the danger appropriately, [9] ultimately announcing the infection as a pandemic.

A few governments were delayed to communicate the earnestness of the circumstance, forced oversight, and compromised writers. Some governments were slow to broadcast the seriousness of the situation,[10] imposed censorship,[11] and threatened journalists.[12] Some governments[13] denied the impact of the disease, views echoed by media outlets,[14] and their delay has cost thousands of lives. [15]

A couple of governments, shockingly, have made appropriate strides. Some acted early and showed momentous adaptability, however in an interlaced world, many couldn't remain insusceptible for long and have expected to cause further limitations." While the dithering goes on in some countries, propaganda [16] has proliferated, and complicated efforts to combat.

The right to health is a globally acclaimed human right. As early as 1946, the World Health Organization acknowledged the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health as a fundamental right. The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which 170 countries have supported, incorporates the right to wellbeing as a global lawful commitment that ought to be acknowledged continuously.

As the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has pushed, the right to health is an "comprehensive right covering not exclusively to convenient and proper medical services yet in addition to the basic variables of wellbeing, like admittance to protected and consumable water and decent disinfection, an adequate inventory of safe food, sustenance and lodging, sound proficient and natural conditions, and admittance to health related learning and data, remembering for sexual and regenerative wellbeing." A further significant perspective is the commitment of the populace in all wellbeing related dynamic at the local area, public and global levels.[17]

Talking at the UN Human Rights Council as of late, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, depicted the COVID-19 flare-up as "a genuine danger to the rights to life and to soundness of individuals all over," and added that the worldwide human rights system can bring "crucial guideposts that can strengthen the effectiveness" of global collective response.

What might that framework look like?
On 24 March 2020, the heads of ten UN human rights bodies required a human rights strategy in battling COVID-19. In approaching global pioneers to guarantee that human rights are esteemed when governments plan measures to handle the public health threat presented by the pestilence, [18] the experts said that the designs to battle the infection should incorporate everybody and stressed the importance for governments to secure the rights to life and wellbeing and guarantee admittance to medical services to all who needs it, without separation.

Explicit consideration ought to be paid to the helpless, including more seasoned individuals, individuals with handicaps, minorities, native people groups, exiles, haven searchers and transients, people denied of their freedom, vagrants, and those living in destitution. They added that females are at an unnecessarily high danger on the grounds that in numerous human advancements they are the primary parental figures for the debilitated inside families. [19]

The experts emphasized that organizations should offer proceeded with instruction through distance learning and defend admittance to the impaired. Arrangement of essential labor and products is likewise a state obligation. They additionally advised that feelings of trepidation and uncertainty that the pandemic stances can prompt scapegoating and bias, and states should forcefully uncover bigotry and xenophobia. Numerous states have authorized limitations on developments and helped observation, which should be done inside a lawful structure, and such measures ought to be excellent and brief, rigorously vital and advocated because of a danger to the existence of a country, and not be a pardon to suppress contradict. ."[20]

The following succinctly recapitulates the experts' key human rights worries that must be addressed in facing the the test presented by the pandemic, including a harmony between the certifiable utilization of state forces to secure general wellbeing, and cutoff points on those forces to guarantee human rights are regarded: [21]
  1. Respect rights
  2. Include everyone
  3. Guarantee access
  4. Protect the vulnerable
  5. Focus on females
  6. Eliminate racism and xenophobia
  7. Employ technology
  8. Limit restrictions and surveillance
  9. Permit dissent

Thus, 60 UN human rights specialists published a joint call accentuating that everybody has the privilege to life saving intercessions, and that the COVID-19 emergency can't be settled distinctly with public health and crisis methods, [22] but must address all other human rights too.. The call expressed that the ways of thinking of non-segregation, commitment, strengthening, and responsibility should be spread to all wellbeing related strategies.

In handling the emergency, states should take extra friendly guard gauges so their help arrives at the individuals who are all things considered danger of being unnecessarily influenced by the emergency. That incorporates females, who are as of now at a distraught financial position, bear an in any event, requesting care trouble, and live with an expanded danger of gender-based violence.

They lauded health workers all throughout the planet who face gigantic responsibilities and hazard their own lives and face pitiful issues when assets are insufficient. Calling COVID-19 a grave worldwide test, "the business sector in particular continues to have human rights responsibilities in this crisis. Only with concerted multilateral efforts, solidarity and mutual trust, will we defeat the pandemic while becoming more resilient, mature, and united."[23]

All governments bear the main duty to regard, secure, and satisfy human rights. International human rights law permits governments to check certain rights while guaranteeing satisfaction of different rights, given the suspension follows certain particular standards.

For instance, the Siracusa Principles[24] set out where rights can be suspended to ensure general wellbeing, so that a "state can take estimates managing a genuine danger to the strength of the populace… . (these) actions should be explicitly pointed toward forestalling sickness… (and) due respect will be hard to the global health guidelines of the World Health Organization.

International law specialists say such delay should be properly approved, time-bound, and adjusted, and the Principles list tyrannical standards, or certain rights which can't be banished under any conditions. In reality, human rights restrictions frustrate, as opposed to help reactions to general wellbeing crisis and debilitate their productivity.

"Undoubtedly, governments should utilize every one of the resources at their order to put resources into general wellbeing foundation and shield lives. In any case, the COVID-19 commonality likewise shows that going ahead, governments should be clear, genuine and perfectly clear; not limit free flow of data; not arraign or punish the individuals who moot questions or disputes about public health. Governments declaring lockdowns will likewise have a commitment to guarantee that the lockdowns are benevolent not deteriorate the circumstances of the helpless, specifically traveler work.

Under-revealing isn't an alternative, nor is it a choice to minimalize danger." Governments should anticipate most pessimistic scenario circumstances with the goal that they are not under-arranged. Unambiguousness is a successful weapon during emergency, as the Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen's way breaking research looking at starvations in India and China has appeared. [25]

Quarantines, Lockdowns, and Restrictions
Quarantining huge gatherings of individuals or separating them must be done according to the law, be rigorously fundamental to accomplish a particular and certified goal, depend on specialized proof, and ought not be discretionary or biased. Law and order and lawful cycles do put constraints on a state's activities in such circumstances, which means force should be used only where severely necessary, and the actions should be transparent and fair.

The judgment to quarantine should be time-bound, respect human dignity, and be subject to review. Isolated people ought to approach simple necessities of life, including food, water, asylum, and medical care. Human rights experts likewise suggest that isolates where needed ought to be viable with human rights standards and laws, which means power ought to be utilized just where seriously essential, and the activities ought to be straightforward and reasonable. These decisions are resource-dependent.[26]

The isolation of patients and suspected carriers of COVID-19 has gotten fundamental and setting up devoted clinics and wards also is basic. In any case, such isolate periods ought to be controlled, should regard the dignity of those being isolated, and give way to deal with facilities that they need to lead their everyday lives. Indeed, even where isolating territories or urban areas may turn out to be quickly essential, it ought to be noticed that mass constraints hit the denied more than the individuals who are in an ideal situation.[27]

"Human rights law permits states to force transient limitations on specific rights in the midst of crisis. These rights can contain the right of free articulation (to forestall scattering of tales, for instance), the right to free get together (to forestall the spread of the infection), and the right of free development (to forestall the scattering of the infection in unaffected zones). As the risk of spread of the infection is genuine, it is veritable for states to force restricted constraints on those rights.

Yet, as noted prior, such discrediting ought to be restricted, time-bound, explicit because of the emergency and not wide-running, and be directed by fitting specialists. There are not kidding human rights dangers of organization assuming control over more powers nd building up an observation foundation that may get ceaseless."[28]

Surveillance Risks
Technology can give valuable insights to governments attempting to follow the spread of the infection by examining telecom traffic, and telecom partnerships can give valuable bits of knowledge that can help in perceiving territories and people that require exceptional attention. Corporations have provided[29] authorities with 'heat maps' that can help regulate movements of people during the coverage of the disease.

"Simultaneously, such observation is a certified danger to regard for human rights. A few governments have apparently utilized facial acknowledgment innovation to perceive tainted people in the event that they challenge limitations on their exercises. In different pieces of the world, machine-intelligible codes are being utilized. Other reconnaissance techniques[30] have included discourse empowered robots worked by police to screen secured roads. Uber drivers in certain towns are being alarmed about potential infection conveying travelers. [31] More simple however meddlesome structures incorporate stepping people with permanent ink." [32]

Technological advances have huge long haul implications. For instance, experts accept future airplane travelers may need to agreement to permit carriers to follow their developments following flights. [33] "While not yet executed, it is workable for travellers to be observed through their phone and imparted should it become important, for instance, for a situation where different commuters on their past flight were subsequently found to have a transmittable illness.

Such innovation may even send alerts to travelers in the event that others in their area has been tainted. Similar requirements may turn out to be essential for the future when approaching enormous incoming large venues and arenas, such as sports stadia, halls, political rallies, performance halls, with ubiquitous temperature scanners assessing individuals. Similarly, work environment gadgets which can permit partners to discover where their counterparts are in huge workplaces can be inserted with innovation that can permit allow employers to track their activities."[34]

The genuine expenses of such invasive surveillance will be borne by the marginalized and economically weak segments of the society. "They are likely to have insufficient access to healthcare or may live in choked localities such as urban slums, and where illnesses may break out more easily. They are less likely to travel easily, and their jobs will become more precarious. Immigrants, asylum seekers, undocumented workers, and those who may have a prison record may find another constraint in their attempt to belong and prosper."[35]

Organizations that make gadgets and programming that permit observation on a mass scale should remember the conceivable abuse of such technology and decide protections against such abuse through legally binding duties and make different moves to minimalize the potential for abuse.

Migrant Workers
Migrant Laborers worldwide just as inside India have been overwhelmingly powerless during this emergency. Sometimes, migrant labors have either been isolated in where they work, or have confronted restrictions in the places where they grew up, as they are currently unable to get back to work. Now and again, migrant labors are caused to feel undesirable back home, [36] out of dread that they may be infection ridden or have needed to walk many kilometers to get back to their countries, as public conveyance had been conceded because of the spike. Some feel stuck in a choice between starvation or Covid, and have sometimes been gathering in enormous numbers, which makes them considerably more helpless to contracting to the infection. [37]

Migrant labors typically despise similar rights as nationals of the host country, which leaves them in an unsafe circumstance during a calamity like the one as of now. Many have lost their positions heedlessly, their wages not being paid to them; they have been compelled to abandon the places where they reside; and they need reasonable wellbeing inclusion or different advantages, including joblessness protection, should they lose work.

Their admittance to wellbeing conveniences accessible to residents is restricted. They also lack access to technology, such as high-speed internet, to do their jobs, and often they are hired to perform jobs that can only be performed at the site itself, e.g. farms, mines, oilfields, and construction projects. During the current Covid disaster, migrant workers getting back to Myanmar from China introduced a horrendous problem. [38]

As per reports, [39] a considerable lot of the large numbers level intersection the boundary into China since late January had relinquished their positions working in stew and eggplant ranches without their compensation or reserve funds on the grounds that their bosses didn't need them to leave. Numerous migrant laborers in India were constrained to walk many kilometers to get back to their homes when their supervisors left them without housing or wages when the government abruptly announced a three-month cross country lockdown. [40]

Women
The effect of COVID-19 on females is significant. Women may not find it easy to work from home because in many cultures, they are expected to bear a unreasonably large workload at home. This contains focusing on kids and the old, cooking, and performing other family errands, which their male accomplices might be reluctant to perform.

Ladies in discourteous, fierce, or manipulative relations with their companions or inside their families might be at escalated hazard when they are compelled to remain at home for longer hours, expanding their weakness. [41] There has been a alarming surge in abusive behavior at home against ladies during the current COVID-19 flare-up.

Moreover, being principle parental figures, they are more inclined to be presented to the infection and fall debilitated. There is likewise different issue, including their admittance to medical care and administrations. [42]

"The fact that 70% of the world's health and social workers worldwide are women means they are more imperiled to the virus at hospitals. "Traditional hierarchy roles where menfolk enjoy more privileges means that even if a household has access to a personal computer, the woman working from home may get access to it for fewer hours than her male partner or youngsters.[43]"

Misgivings have been raised that the factual information of COVID19-influenced patients doesn't recognize people, making it harder to plan strategy reactions that influence ladies. A few illnesses, for instance, are more serious for pregnant ladies. [44]

Marginalized and Poor
The infection is undiscriminating and influences everybody. Wealth, religion, dietary propensities, sex, actual wellness, or societal position offer no protection from people or gatherings. In any case, it is at this point clear that COVID-19 nonsensically impacts poor people, to some extent since they do not have the assets to take sufficient safeguards.

In A World At Risk, [45] the WHO's Global Preparedness Monitoring Board has shown how the denied endure the most during a tremendous Disease outbreaks. " Disease outbreaks disturb the whole wellbeing framework, decreasing admittance to wellbeing administrations for all infections and conditions, which prompts significantly more prominent mortality and further financial downturn.

Adverse consequences are especially significant in delicate and weak settings, where neediness, helpless administration, frail wellbeing frameworks, absence of trust in wellbeing administrations, explicit social and strict perspectives and here and there continuous outfitted clash enormously confuse episode readiness and reaction," the WHO report said. ."[46]

Importance of rights
All in all, it merits recalling that human rights are general, associated, unavoidable, interrelated and resolute. "The COVID-19 emergency has uncovered that notwithstanding the right to wellbeing and life, other significant rights, including the rights to fairness, vocation, security, security, lodging and food, are additionally in question. As a portion of these rights are not effectively enforceable, and statute on monetary, social, and social rights relies upon liberal acknowledgment, there is the danger of disaggregating the rights, inferring that certain are a higher priority than others. In such conditions, human rights bunches must choose the option to engage the state to offer more bighearted advantages and help bundles, or urge organizations and well off people to make altruistic commitments." What are in common sense rights are time and again found regarding needs, and the state concedes them as advantages. [47]

"Not all authorities have similar reserves and not all societies are at a similar stage of progress. Hence, partnerships which have the ability to act (on account of their resources or the assets at their order)[48] are regularly expected to assume a bigger part in aiding the state meet its destinations to shield human rights, regardless of whether they might not have any lawful commitment to do as such." It is likewise obvious that organizations sometimes are truth be told incapable to meet their commitments (because of absence of assets or the idea of the emergency) while in others they are basically reluctant to do as such, which also raises openings among some that organizations should accomplish more.[49]

Personal views and suggestions
"There are many individuals going through sorrow due to the rapid spread of COVID-19. The situation is worsening throughout the world and the governments throughout the world are taking quick and variety of steps to save the populace. In such a situation it is vital that the government takes sufficient measures which are not prejudiced, arbitrary, and must be proportionate. Access to health must be made available to all." Special extents must be taken to meet the need of people who are at a higher health risk like aged people.

Further the government must take immediate steps against the people disgrace, stigma, discrimination, and must, make plans to spread adequate information to all in an unbiased manner.[50] "Moreover the government must enhance spreading positive information through Social Media platform. Transparency and Accessibility is the key to achieve public confidence at national level.[51]

At worldwide level World Health Organization plays an important role by supporting its member state to address these challenges of Human Rights and it provides support in developing a comprehensive approach to tackle the spread of COVID-19. Focusing on Human Rights as an integral part of public health and is not only an moral requirement but a set of foundation on how the country responds. At such a interval the biggest key to defeat this critical situation is by valuing the Human Rights, and these human rights must be a source of unity not division." And this harmony can only be achieved when the government is transparent and open to the general public.

Few of the steps that the government could take after we recover are mention below:[52]
  • The retrieval plans must identify and include special measures for all the susceptible groups that that are excessively impacted due to this pandemic like migrants, homeless people, refugees, people without adequate sanitization facilities, people with disabilities etc. Ensure nourishment, water, accommodation and other basic facilities to all those highly impacted due to this virus, income security must also be given
  • Mitigate the impact of the crisis on women and girls, including on their access to sexual and reproductive health/rights, and protection from domestic and other forms of gender-based violence and ensure their full and equal representation in all decision-making on short-term mitigation and long-term recovery [53]
  • Increase the universal cooperation with other advanced nations, and work cooperatively to discover defeat this pandemic.
  • All the political leaders, spiritual leaders, actors, entrepreneurs, and all other stars must encourage unity and must take strict actions against discriminatory policies.
  • The administration must ensure that every person is well informed about the assistances given to them by the government, more importantly the government must try to stop rumors that are spread on Social Media.
  • Ensure that proportional funds are provided to all the states regardless of the party ruling there.[54
  • Take the lessons learned from this pandemic to refocus action on ending poverty and inequalities and addressing the underlying human rights concerns that have left us vulnerable to the pandemic and greatly exacerbated its effects with a view to building a more inclusive and sustainable world including for future generations.[55]
  • Ensure right to privacy on the newly introduced apps which are used for surveillance in the COVID-19 response.
  • Guarantee participation of all in any decision relating this matter.
  • Ensure protection of Human Rights without discrimination, specially the Right to Life must be protected throughout.

How to improve the current situation?[56]
There are many ways in which the undesirable impacts of COVID-19 can be mitigated. Numerous countries have adopted certain practice to lessen the evil impact of harsh steps taken to decrease the spread of virus and protect the human rights.

Some of such practices are:
  • Suspension of house eviction on non-payment of monthly rent for some months
  • Providing special preventive measures to essential service workers.
  • Ensuring proper water, sanitization, and health facility to all the slum area peoples.
  • Preserving jobs through economic measures, and providing economic support to laborers in this tough time.[57]
  • Providing emergency shelter to homeless people.
  • Expanding knowledge regarding women's rights to protect them from domestic violence.[58]
  • Announcing huge economic package to revive the economy, and help every sector to start the work more efficiently.[59]

Conclusion
On denouement, it can be said that regarding Human Rights in this pandemic situation is one of the principal key to defeat this virus. This pandemic has threatened the whole of Humanity, and now it's the time when the world must fight back against it. "This virus has evidenced to be a lockdown on the basic Human Rights. It is very vital to respond to the unprecedented challenge that we are facing currently.

There is a necessity for an effective structure that can strengthen the global efforts to bring the world out of this pandemic situation, and the Human Rights Framework is one such structure that may help the world coming out of the present situation. International Collaboration is the requirement of the time, building trust among the countries will help us to beat this virus.

As we saw that there are several human rights which are being curtailed due to the harsh restrictive measures adopted by the government in order to curb the increasing number of cases." And thus there is an immediate need for introducing such measures which may protect the basic human rights of all. Pleasure of highest standard of health is the biggest human right which deserves safeguard in the current situation.

Bibliography and References
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Web links:
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  • United Nations Human Rights Office: "COVID-19 and its human rights dimensions" at https:// www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/COVID-19.aspx
  • International Trade Union Confederation: "COVID-19 Pandemic: News From Unions" at https:// www.ituc-csi.org/covid-19-responses
  • International Chamber of Commerce: "COVID-19 Business Continuity Guide" at https://iccwbo. org/media-wall/news-speeches/icc-publishes-covid-19-business-continuity-guide/
  • International Organization of Employers: "COVID Platform" at https://www.ioe-emp.org/en/ policy-priorities/covid-19/
  • Business and Human Rights Resource Centre: "COVID-19 Outbreak Portal" at https://www. business-humanrights.org/en/covid-19-coronavirus-outbreak
End-Notes:
  1. Epidemic Data for COVID-19 (China). At https://www.wolframcloud.com/obj/examples/COVID-19China
  2. For the latest statistics see https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries. For visual representation see https:// medgic.co/virus/
  3. GILES Chris, ARNOLD Martin, GREELEY Brendan, 'OECD Warns coronavirus could halve global growth' Financial Times 2 March 2020. At https://www.ft.com/content/1356af8c-5c6c-11ea-8033-fa40a0d65a98
  4. GHAFFARY, Shireen 'Facebook canceled a 5,000-person conference in San Francisco because of coronavirus' Vox Recode 14 February 2020. https://www.vox.com/recode/2020/2/14/21138181/facebook-Coronavirus-conference-CoVid-19-san- francisco-google-china-silicon-valley-tech-san-francisco
  5. ASSOCIATED PRESS 'Saudi Arabia bans Citizens From Mecca Pilgrimage Over Virus Fears. 3 March 2020. https://www. huffpost.com/entry/saudi-arabia-bans-citizens-from-mecca-pilgrimage_n_5e5fa89ac5b6732f50eb67fd
  6. The fatality rate in Hubei, whose population is 59 million, is 2.9%; in the rest of the country it is 0.4%
  7. PDF) Esteeming Human Rights in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343139746_Esteeming_Human_Rights_in_the_Time_of_COVID-19_Pandemic [accessed March 05 2021].
  8. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTITIOUS DISEASES 'SARS-COV- https://www.viprbrc.org/brc/home. spg?decorator=corona_ncov
  9. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 'WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic' 12 March 2020 http://www.euro.who. int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-CoVid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-CoVid-19-outbreak-a- pandemic
  10. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 'Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) SITUATION REPORT – 1' 21 January 2020. https://www. who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf The first patient with symptoms was identified in Wuhan on December 1, 2019. Nearly a month later, on December 31, Wuhan authorities announced that there were 27 of an unknown type of pneumonia and alerted the World Health Organization; they identified the new virus, 2019- nCov, a week later. The first death was announced onJanuary 11. By January 29, 2019-nCov cases had been reported in 15 countries.
  11. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL 'Coronavirus: Stop censorship in China' https://www.amnesty.org/en/get-involved/take-action/ Coronavirus-end-censorship-in-china/
  12. PEN DELHI 'PEN Delhi on the importance of press freedom in India in the time of Coronavirus 2 April 2020. https:// pendelhistatements.wordpress.com/2020/04/02/pen-delhi-on-the-importance-of-press-freedom-in-india-during- coronavirus/
  13. ABUTALEB Yasmeen, DAWSEY Josh, NAKASHIMA Ellen, MILLER Greg 'The U.S. was beset by denial and dysfunction as the coronavirus raged' Washington Post 4 April 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2020/04/04/ coronavirus-government-dysfunction/?arc404=true
  14. ABUTALEB Yasmeen, DAWSEY Josh, NAKASHIMA Ellen, MILLER Greg 'The U.S. was beset by denial and dysfunction as the coronavirus raged' Washington Post 4 April 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2020/04/04/ coronavirus-government-dysfunction/?arc404=true
  15. DE VYNCK Gerrit, GRIFFIN Riley and SEBENIUS Alyza. Bloomberg. 'Coronavirus Misinformation Is Spreading All Over Social Media' 1 February 2020. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-01-29/Coronavirus-misinformation-is-incubating- all-over-social-media
  16. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 'UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies call for human rights approach in fighting COVID-19' 24 March 2020. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews. aspx?NewsID=25742&LangID=E
  17. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 'UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies call for human rights approach in fighting COVID-19' 24 March 2020. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews. aspx?NewsID=25742&LangID=E
  18. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH 'China's Censorship Fuels Distrust On Coronavirus' 30 January 2020. https://www.hrw.org/the-day- in-human-rights/2020/01/30. China initially attempted to suppress the news, which made the problem more acute. Later it imposed draconian curbs (such as imposing severe restrictions on movement) which had probably become necessary because they helped halt the spread of the virus.
  19. GABBATT Adam Guardian 'Mike Pence 'not up to task' of leading US coronavirus response, say experts' 27 February 2020. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/feb/27/mike-pence-Coronavirus-response-experts
  20. JOLLEY D and LAMBERTY 'From "deep state" leaks to drinking bleach, research shows these coronavirus conspiracy theories could be as dangerous as the disease itself' Prospect 2 March 2020. https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/science-and- technology/Coronavirus-conspiracy-reddit-theories-alcohol-mask-pope-positive
  21. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. "COVID-19 and Special Procedures. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ HRBodies/SP/Pages/COVID-19-and-Special-Procedures.aspx
  22. Office of the High Commissioner for Human rights. "No exceptions with COVID-19: "Everyone has the right to life- saving interventions" – UN experts say" 26 March, 2020. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews. aspx?NewsID=25746&LangID=E
  23. United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Siracusa Principles on the Limitation and Derogation Provisions in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1985/4, Annex (1985). http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/ siracusaprinciples.html. See also MILLER, Alan How a human rights-based approach can help us together get through the COVID-19 crisis: https://www.strath.ac.uk/humanities/lawschool/blog/CoVid-19andhumanrightsleadership/
  24. SEN Amartya Development as Freedom (Oxford University Press 1999). Sen wrote: No famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy.
  25. https://www.epi.org/blog/employer-tax-credits-can-be-part-of-the-economic-response-to-covid-19-if-they-finance-direct-benefits-for-workers/
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822557/
  27. HARARI Yuval Noah "The World After Coronavirus" Financial Times 20 March 2020. https://www.ft.com/content/19d90308- 6858-11ea-a3c9-1fe6fedcca75 and APPLEBAUM Anne "The People in Charge see an Opportunity" The Atlantic 23 March 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/03/when-disease-comes-leaders-grab-more-power/608560/
  28. REITER Joakim 'Correct use of telecom data can help in this crisis' Politico 27 March 2020. https://www.politico.eu/ sponsored-content/correct-use-of-telecom-data-can-help-in-this-crisis/
  29. Known as QR Codes, these codes consist of an array of black and white squares, typically used for storing URLs or other information which a camera or smart phone can read, to identify people or objects.
  30. FRY Erika 'In business vs. coronavirus, coronavirus is winning' Fortune 13 February 2020. https://fortune.com/2020/02/13/ Coronavirus-business-impact-supply-chains/
  31. TÉTRAULT-FARBER Gabrielle 'Moscow deploys facial recognition technology for coronavirus quarantine' Reuters 21 February 2020 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-moscow-technology/moscow-deploys-facial-recognition-technology- for-coronavirus-quarantine-idUSKBN20F1RZ
  32. PRIVACY INTERNATIONAL 'United States: Proposed CDC rules would force airlines to collect contact tracing information' 12 February 2020. https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3457/united-states-proposed-cdc-rules-would-force-airlines- collect-contact-tracing
  33. Singapore has an app that enables such tracking. See HOLMES Aaron 'Singapore is using a high-tech surveillance app to track the coronavirus, keeping schools and businesses open. Here's how it works.' Business Insider 24 March 2020. https://www. businessinsider.com/singapore-coronavirus-app-tracking-testing-no-shutdown-how-it-works-2020-3
  34. TÉTRAULT-FARBER Gabrielle 'Moscow deploys facial recognition technology for coronavirus quarantine' Reuters 21 February 2020 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-health-moscow-technology/moscow-deploys-facial-recognition-technology- for-coronavirus-quarantine-idUSKBN20F1RZ
  35. LALWANI Vijayta 'Why has Modi done this?' Rajasthan workers walk back home from Gujarat. Scroll. 26 March 2020. https:// scroll.in/article/957245/coronavirus-after-lockdown-migrant-workers-take-a-long-walk-home-from-gujarat-to-rajasthan?fbcli d=IwAR3vzwor0eKgwQajop64XfD8lKKASEEhg8iXoo2qcDzWHLaD9o4cOgTIHnE
  36. EUROPEAN WEBSITE ON INTEGRATION 'Overcrowded reception centres and informal settlements make migrants vulnerable to COVID-19' 17 March 2020 https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/overcrowded-reception-centres-and- informal-settlements-make-migrants-vulnerable-to-covid-19
  37. RADIO FREE ASIA 'Myanmar Workers Leave China Without Pay, Fearing Virus' 5 February 2020 https://www.rfa.org/english/ news/myanmar/workers-02052020164000.html
  38. IDLE Tom 'What the Coronavirus Outbreak reveals about the current corporate response to human rights' Sustainable Brands https://sustainablebrands.com/read/organizational-change/what-the-Coronavirus-outbreak-reveals-about-the-current- corporate-response-to-human-rights
  39. FRAYER Lauren 'Coronavirus Lockdown Sends Migrant Workers On A Long And Risky Trip Home' National Public Radio 31 March 2020 https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/31/822642382/coronavirus-lockdown-sends-migrant- workers-on-a-long-and-risky-trip-home
  40. HARIDASANI GUPTA Alisha and STAHL Aviva 'For Abused Women, a Pandemic Lockdown Holds Dangers of Its Own' New York Times 24 March 2020 https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/24/us/coronavirus-lockdown-domestic-violence.html
  41. NEUMAN Scott 'Global Lockdowns Resulting In 'Horrifying Surge' In Domestic Violence, U.N. Warns' National Public Radio 6 April 2020 https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/04/06/827908402/global-lockdowns-resulting-in- horrifying-surge-in-domestic-violence-u-n-warns
  42. MORROW Amanda 'Not just a health issue': How Covid-19 is quietly eroding women's rights' National Public Radio 26 March 2020 http://www.rfi.fr/en/france/20200326-coronavirus-domestic-violence-gender-perspectives
  43. HARIDASANI GUPTA Alisha Does Covid-19 Hit Women and Men Differently? U.S. Isn't Keeping Track New York Times 3 April 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/03/us/coronavirus-male-female-data-bias.html
  44. Global Preparedness Monitoring Board A World At Risk Sept 2019. https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual_report/GPMB_ annualreport_2019.pdf
  45. Id.
  46. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights 'What Are Human Rights?' https://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/ whatarehumanrights.aspx
  47. https://www.unv.org/Success-stories/Protecting-human-rights-time-COVID-19
  48. https://www.coe.int/en/web/human-rights-rule-of-law/covid19
  49. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/01/upshot/coronavirus-sick-days-service-workers.html?utm_campaign=KHN%3A%20First%20Edition&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=84115304&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-80JKS-RPcDNplQT6IMHAX9mo10VUPT3AeJnMVpoJp30XdOfHUJIbJhOX3ikWrE1olgnmVHlfMTUl616pN-KiOjc5AmGS9VX1NOUmMPe175fgoo34A&_hsmi=84115304
  50. Supra note 10 at 52.
  51. 132 In India, Amazon's website offered some questionable products such as Nirogmaya Nocorona drops, Prasadhak Coronavirus Essential Oils, Kridha Anticoronavirus potli (bag) with three types of oils, and Ambrosial anti-corona oil. None of those were scientifically proven, but they were on sale on Amazon's site in India. After these were exposed in the following tweet, the company moved promptly to remove the products from its site. https://twitter.com/threader_app/ status/1243003377036013568?s=20.
  52. United Nations Report on COVID-19 and Human Right
  53. WHO COVID-19 and Violence against women
  54. COVID-19 and Human Rights: We all are in this together, United Nation's Report
  55. Addressing Human Rights as the key to the COVID-19 response: WHO's Report
  56. https://www.hrw.org/tag/coronavirus.
  57. Id.
  58. CDC, Reducing Stigma

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