FIR means First Information Report .It is the first information received
after the commission of the cognizable offence.
FIR is registered for cognizable offences under section 154(1) of crpc 1973.
Cognizable crimes are those crimes in which police can arrest an accused without
It is not always illegal when the officer in charge refuses to lodge an FIR. As
it all depends upon the reason because of which the police officer refuses to
lodge an FIR.
If the police officer refuses to lodge an FIR because:
- The case does not fall within their jurisdiction
- Deals with an offense which is non-cognizable in nature or it is outside
their legal capacity to take cognizance of such an offense,
in such circumstances the refusal to lodge an FIR is legitimate and justified.
Although, if an FIR is refused on the ground of jurisdiction, it is mandatory
for the police officer to record information about the commission of a
cognizable offense and forward the same to the police station having proper
Otherwise, it would amount to dereliction of duty.
Under section 154(3) CrPC:
When an informant's right to register an FIR is refused, he/she can approach
the Superintendent of Police and submit the substance of such information in
writing by post. If the Superintendent of Police is satisfied that such
information discloses the commission of a cognizable offense then, he might
investigate the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by any police
officer subordinate to him.
Under section 156(3), read with section 190 CrPC:
If an informant remains unsatisfied even after pursuing the remedy under section
154(3), he/she can further pursue the remedy mentioned under section 156(3) read
with section 190 CrPC.
This is a different channel to get the FIR registered. This remedy is similar to
the process of registering a complaint for non-cognizable offenses. As through
this channel, a magistrate first take cognizance of an offense under section 190
and then order for consequential investigations under section 156(3).
Under section 200 CrPC
A complaint can be submitted to the magistrate orally or in writing under
section 200 of the CrPC. After the submission of a complaint, the magistrate
will conduct a hearing, deciding upon the issue of cognizance. In this channel,
the complainant and the witnesses thereof are examined on oath in front of the
A writ of mandamus can be filed under Article 226 or Article 32 of the
Constitution of India, directing the police officials to perform their duty and
register an FIR.