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Geographical Indication: Challenges and Suggestions A study in context of Aranmula Kannadi

Geographical Indications (GI) are the signs that identify goods as originating in a specific geographical area/location. GI is a collective right that seeks to protect economic interests of a community of producers belonging to a particular region who have specialized in making or manufacturing of a product. At the domestic level, Indian law ensures that GI protection is available uniformly to all types of products. However, it is still seen that products like Basmati are not adequately protected under TRIPs Agreement.

While this kind of protection has the potential to improve economic opportunities to marginalized sections of society, the lack of it for goods such as Aranmula Kannadi has raised questions about the norms adopted by the authorities in protecting the expertise and diligent work of the labours of this unique mirror in Kerala, who recently had their years of scrupulous work washed away by a flood.

The article investigates the contentious issue of the lack of appropriate regulations for the protection of information associated with GI identification. GI recognition is given to a wide range of items in India, from the well-known Pashmina to Aranmula Kannadi, Basmati Rice to Madhubani Paintings. Even after the recognition, there are disputes regarding the legitimacy of origin of these GI acclaimed products.

This article looks into the protection of geographical indications in India. An attempt has been made to study this in the light of Aranmula Kannadi of Kerala, which was given a GI tag in 2005. This however currently stands disputed due to the allegations of false GI from another organisation which claims to be the true inventors of the product. Herein, an attempt has been made to look into the problems surrounding the covenant of a GI in India along with a few loopholes and some possible solutions to prevent any further malicious use of the products.

Geographical Indication (hereinafter referred to as GI) has emerged as one of the crucial instruments for protecting quality and reputation of a good having a specific geographical origin that indicates its source and quality. GI is an invention of TRIPS Agreement which requires members of World Trade Organization (WTO) to provide legal means for preventing the use of GIs in such a way that misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good or constitutes unfair competition.

GI is defined under Article 22(1) of TRIPS Agreement as an indication that indefinites a good as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geography. A product originating in a certain place must have ingredients, characteristics, quality and goodwill that establishes its connection with its geographical origin in order to function as a GI or acquire an indication mark.

A clear link has to be established between the product and its original place of production since the distinguishing factor of that product results from factors like specific climate or raw material obtained from that particular region.

The most popular and important GIs for India are Darjeeling tea and basmati rice. The hilly terrain of Darjeeling region in West Bengal claim ownership of its native tea. Geographical factors such as height, humidity, sunlight, and mist contribute to the tea's distinct flavour. The land is fertile, and the slopes of the hills have natural drainage. All these features are suitable for production of Darjeeling tea.

TRIPS Agreement and GI Act, 1999

Prior to 1999, there was no specific legislation in India regulating the geographical indication. However, the Indian Judiciary played a remarkable role in preventing the misuse of GIs even in the absence of a law. For instance, in Mohan v. Scotch Whiskey[i], the High Court of Delhi affirmed the order of registrar of Trademarks who refused to register the mark of applicant on a �proposed to be used� basis on whisky produced in India consisting of words Highland Chief and the device of the head and shoulders of a gentleman dressed in Scottish highland costume wearing, inter alia, feather bonnet and plaid and edged with tartan, a well-known symbol of Scottish origin.

The driving force for India to enact its own legislation for GI protection was the Basmati controversy when Ricetec Inc., a U.S. multinational company received a patent for new lines and grains in the name of Basmati rice. Despite several attempts from India, they could not successfully fight back against the contention that Basmati was not geographic indicator even in India as it was grown all over India, Pakistan and even in Thailand.

Additionally, it was observed that even according to the TRIPs, there was no obligation for other countries to extend reciprocal protection unless a geographical indication is protected in the country of its origin.[ii] In light of this event, India enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act in 1999.

The definition of GI under this act, though similar to TRIPs, is much more explanatory. It explicitly includes agricultural, natural or manufactured goods, the characteristics of which, apart from being attributable to geographical origin, one of the activities of either production or processing of the manufactured good takes place in that locality. The duration of protection for the geographical indication is ten years which can be repeatedly renewed for another ten years upon application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor.

Registration of GI is mandatory to claim any rights with respect to GI.[iii] The benefits of registration can be discussed as follows:[iv]

  1. The registered proprietor and authorized users can claim a right to infringement in the event of an infringement;
  2. The authorized users receive exclusive right to the use of the GI of the goods
Therefore, while registration of GI is not mandatory in India, Section 20 (1) doesn�t give legal backing to unregistered GIs. Thus, registration of a GI gives its registered owner and its authorized users the right to obtain relief for infringement.

Aranmula Kannadi

History and Origin
Aranmula kannadi, meaning the Aranmula mirror, is a handmade metal-alloy mirror, made in Aranmula, a small town in Pathanamthitta, Kerala, India. It is an ancient and unique combination of craft that had existed even during the Vedic period of Indian history. The history of the Aranmula Kannadi (Aranmula Metal Mirror) lies across centuries, and its making is deeply rooted in the transcendence of tradition, the strength of devotion and purity of dedication.

Existing since the Vedic period, the Aranmula Kannadi is a rare and unique piece of craft whose creation is only known to a few families in the Aranmula village in Kerala�s Pathanamthitta district. The inimitable feature of this exclusive product is that it does not require the silver nitrate coating to develop a reflective nature to be called a mirror. The distinguishing feature of the Aranmula Kannadi from a regular mirror is that while the latter reflects images from its coated layer, the former does so directly from its surface. The makers, who are extremely skilled artisans claim no distortions in the images.

The origins of the Aranmula mirror are fascinating to learn about. According to the locals, the king had invited many Viswabrahmana artisans to Aranmula at the time. These artisans were brought in from Sankarankovil, Tamil Nadu, for some excellent building work inside the Parthasarathy Temple. Before returning home, these artisans presented the King with a magnificent crown that featured a gleaming metal mirror in the middle.

The King was so taken aback by these artisans' unique metallurgical abilities that he allowed them to stay and even arranged for them to live near the temple's 'Theke Nada.' Although two of those families were said to have settled quickly, one was said to have returned due to a decrease in employment. Since then, generations of Aranmula Kannadi artisans have guarded the recipe as a Vishwakarma family secret. They used to produce mirrors for royal families using the secret recipe for several years before selling them to visitors and pilgrims.[v]

Uniqueness/ Features

It is not just the craftsmanship that distinguishes the Aranmula mirror. It's one-of-a-kind because it's a front-reflecting metal mirror. This distinguishes it from plane glass mirrors, which absorb light from the back side of the glass.

This unique product has the unique feature of not requiring the silver nitrate coating to acquire a reflective quality in order to be considered a mirror. The difference between the Aranmula Kannadi and a normal mirror is that the former displays images directly from its base, while the latter does so from its coated substrate. The makers of Arnamula Kannadi, who are extremely skilled artisans, claim that the images do not get distorted in these mirrors.

Since light is refracted as it travels through the glass and back, we can see a blurred reflection in plane mirrors. Coating a standard plane mirror increases reflection, which is most noticeable in smaller mirrors or bathroom mirrors. This is why, based on the height, consistency, and location of a traditional household mirror, it can appear differently.[vi] The light shines directly from the upper surface of the Aranmula mirror. When an index finger is positioned on an ordinary mirror, a slight distance appears between the finger edge and its reflection; however, this gap disappears when the finger is placed on an Aranmula.[vii]

Process of Creation

Craftsmen continue to use conventional, indigenous methods and materials to create the refracting marvel known as Aranmula Kannadi. To make a great mirror product, it takes years of practise, a lot of attention, and a lot of patience. Built from the scratch, Aranmula mirrors are typically divided into three types: back stand, fixed stand, and hand mirror.

There are two distinct stages involved in the making of Aranmula Kannadi:

The first stage involves creating a mould centred on the desired form of the mirror, and then casting approximately 80 mirrors from the single mould. The artisans labour with utmost diligence under the scorching sun in a thatched workshop to produce a flawless mirror. The procedure begins with the development of the alloy. Craftsmen use a method similar to the lost wax process to melt all of the metals, the names of which are only recognised by the Aranmula Kannadi making families and craftsmen in the village. They call it the Vishwakarma family password, and no one else knows what metals make up this mirror.

The next step is to cast the mould with the alloy in a furnace that has been stoked by a fire. The crude mirror that is made from the molten alloy is then cut, filed, polished, and eventually placed on a brass frame after the moulds are cooled and broken. To ensure the optimal finish and the mirror's refletive surface, the mirrors are normally cleaned for weeks at a time. Once the whole process is complete, the beautiful mirrors are fixed in elegant ornamental frames. This entire process is time consuming and scrupulously done.

GI to Aranmula Kannadi

An application was made by the Vishwa Brahmana Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman Society (VAMMNS) on 08-12-2003, to grant the Mirrors a Geographical Indication for its unique manufacturing process. The secretary of the Society, in Aranmula applied for it stating that the secret ingredients of the metal mirror are known only to his family. His application elucidated on the entire process down to every detail.

Once satisfied with the uniqueness and secrecy of the product, the Geographical Indications Registry granted the patent to VAMMNS in 2005 for the �Aranmula Kannadi� under Class 20 pertaining to �handicraft�. After the grant of GI certificate in 2005, the protection has been renewed after ten years and now the Geographical indication owned by the Society is valid till 2023. [viii]

Threat to Original GI

In 2015 a family constituted as the Thikkinampallil Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman Family Charitable Trust filed a petition in the GI Registry against the Vishwa Brahmana Society questioning its legacy over the Aranmula Kannadi. The Trust filed for its own GI under the name Thikkinampallil Aranmula Kannadi claiming that the process of manufacturing it is inherited from predeceased members of the Thikkinampallil family who are the actual inventors of the Kannadi.[ix] The inimitable method, which the Trust members claim to have inherited from their forefathers is more or less the same as described by VAMNNS with a few minor changes in the proportions of the metals. The application by this Trust is under examination by the Board and no final decision has been given as to which organisation should be the true owner of the GI.

Misfortune of 2018

Due to exceptionally high rainfall during the monsoon season, Kerala experienced the worst floods in nearly a century, putting all 14 districts of the state on red alert. The Indian government declared it a Level 3 Calamity, or a serious natural calamity. Thirty-five dams were opened for the first time in history, out of a total of fifty-four in the province. The floods wreaked havoc on people's lives, livelihoods, and land. A total of 483 people were killed, 15 went missing, and over a million people were displaced.

The producers of Aranmula Kannadi were also harmed by the disaster. The prepared mirrors were irreversibly destroyed, workstations were swept away, and raw materials became worthless.

When people were struggling to recover from the trauma of the flooding and resume their normal lives, the craftsmen brought to light the issues that had forced them to close their shop temporarily. The mirror moulds are constructed from clay collected from the paddy fields near Aranmula. However, the river deposited a dense layer of slush over the paddy fields as a result of the rains.[x]

This current coating of clay was unsuitable for the moulds, so a dense sheet of sand and mud had to be removed in order to get the proper content.
This time-consuming mission couldn't be completed quickly enough to get the craftsmen back in operation while still ensuring that their homes didn't fall apart. Second, when they were buried in water, weapons like chisels, hacksaw blades, and hammers rusted. These tarnished instruments, which are an important part of their trade, may not be used to fill, engrave, or embellish the frame's designs.

Aside from all of the advantages, making the mirror is also a relatively environmentally friendly operation. The material used is environmentally sustainable and locally sourced. The mould parts can be ground again, and the alloy fragments can be remelted, but there is very little waste and much of the stuff is recycled. As a result, it is critical to improve the Aranmula Community's current situation.

Problems in Protection of GI

The radical loosening of the territorial linkage between GI goods and GI regions in the concept of geographical indications is currently one of the most profound problems with GI. Although this territorial relation has never been absolute since the first appearance of national laws governing the usage of geographical names, the current tendency seems to favour a much looser concept of GIs in terms of the products' actual geographical origin, materials, and manufacturing method.[xi]

The conventional basis for awarding exclusive rights on GI specifically - the deep relation between the goods and the land - is the geographical linkage between the GI and the products and the regions.

When GIs fail to distinguish goods that are completely local, they no longer fulfil the purpose for which they are constitutionally covered � providing reliable knowledge about the geographical origin of products to customers, thus incentivizing local production. Instead, GIs are used as marketing tools to promote GI goods on the foreign market, using the GI brand.

In today's world, GI is becoming increasingly economic, and legal security is becoming increasingly important to ensure its business credibility. Unfair use of GI and market practises will result in revenue loss for legitimate right holders of GI and will also deceive customers. In recent years, there has been an increase in GI registrations in India. Though developed countries mainly use GI for food items, Indian legislation has expanded GI to a diverse range of goods ranging from handicrafts to flowers and spices. As a result, the Aranmula mirror, along with various silks, saris, textiles, and embroidery patterns, has joined soaps, incense, various varieties of jasmines, several strains of rice, tea, betel leaf, and chillies in receiving the GI label.

Article 22 of TRIPs, according to some scholars, is not good enough. Originally drafted to defend GI effectively, it is now primarily being used as a statute against unfair trade practises and for consumer rights, detracting from its original aim of IPR protection. A manufacturer outside of a particular geographical area may still use the GI as long as the true origin of the commodity is shown on the label. This means that an Aranmula mirror could be produced from, say, Houston, Texas, enabling an American manufacturer to profit from the prestige and consumer goodwill developed by Keralite artisans over two centuries.

An excellent example will be premium quality tea grown in the hilly regions of Darjeeling in West Bengal�the formerly Darjeeling Tea in India's eastern province. This tea has a distinct consistency, flavour, and a worldwide reputation dating back more than a century. Geographic roots and manufacturing, in particular, have led to such an extraordinary and distinct taste. While Darjeeling tea is produced in 10,000 tonnes, it is estimated that 40,000 tonnes of tea is sold as Darjeeling tea in the world market. The consumers of these 30,000 tonnes of tea, which is not Darjeeling tea, are being misled into believing that they are consuming Darjeeling tea when in fact they are not.

Most of the tea coming into the world market as counterfeit Darjeeling tea seems to be coming from countries like Kenya and Sri Lanka. The other source is said to be Nepal. Nepalese tea is produced in similar geographic conditions to that of Darjeeling tea. Around 60 per cent of the Nepalese tea is exported to India and most of the Nepalese tea estates/gardens are owned by Indians.

There are allegations that Nepalese tea is imported into India which is then repackaged as Darjeeling tea and exported to other countries.[xii] Nepal is a small producer and exporter of tea in the world market. If contemporary commercial reputation becomes the benchmark, the boundary with trademark or unfair competition law breaks down and the justification for GIs, as a separate regime based on the causal connection between product and place, collapses.

The Aranmula Kannadi, for example, had sufficient security and legitimacy thanks to the GI tag it received more than a decade ago. The catastrophic floods, along with the Thikkinampallil Family's claims, have left the artisans in despair and have given up hope for the continuation of their divine art. You can also challenge the authenticity of the inventors of the mirror's latest argument by asking why they approached the GI Registry after almost a decade. While resolving this dispute, the government and the GI Registry must also investigate flood-related damages and work for the upliftment of artisans as well as the promotion of the art.

Furthermore, once GIs are registered, there are almost no arrangements for quality management, which explains the proliferation of applications in India. Quality management is a critical concern in European countries. Once a commodity is awarded GI after careful tests and testing, there is little chance of fakes, which is not the case in India.

A GI tag in India not only brings with itself a brand equity for the product but also demands premium in the market. Hence, a lot of background work needs to be conducted before an official application is made, and the absence of this in India leads to an enormous number of rejections. A recent instance for this is the �Hyderabadi Biryani� as the applicants could not prove its historical origin along with supporting documents. This provision will prove to be a formidable hurdle in India, a country where in regions like the North East, which boast of far wider oral history and conventions than written proof.

To exemplify, the case of Assam could be taken into deliberation because the traditional wine rice called �Judima� (made by Dimasa tribe of Dima Hasao, one of the autonomous hill districts of Assam). Assam government underwent difficulties in registering under Geographical Indicator category due to inability in gathering sufficient documentary evidence. It is only after recurrent efforts that recently Judima qualified to be registered as a GI. However, this is a growing issue in GI registration in India and our experts have again and again questioned the rationality of this law which is proving to be a hurdle towards India�s development in the IPR sector.

Owing to the economic and cultural value of GI, legal security is extremely important. Economically, GIs serve two functions: on the one hand, they allow indigenous producers to gain market awareness and create goodwill for their products, and on the other, they protect customers from counterfeit goods.[xiii] Without adequate legal safeguards, rivals who do not have valid rights to the GI can take unfair advantage of its prestige. Such unethical trading activities cause revenue loss for legitimate right-holders of the GI and even confuse customers. Furthermore, such activities could ultimately damage the GI's goodwill and credibility.

They provide enormous value to local communities by producing goods that are firmly rooted in their history, culture, and geography. They further encourage rural growth and new employment prospects in manufacturing, processing, and other related services.[xiv]

One of the key factors and foundations of geographical indication in India is the production of high-quality products and their preservation; as long as the geographical indication remains, the commodity is remembered for the original taste and flavour that drew it to the GI in the first place.[xv]

The European Union's regulation on the protection of names pertaining to agricultural commodities and foodstuffs allows consumers to make informed decisions by having detailed facts on the origin of particular items that relate to their hometown. Furthermore, they have a comparative edge to manufacturers who have the GI over their competitors.

It is a GI's responsibility to ensure consistency consistent with geographical roots. The new legal system on GI, however, still lacks the rigour and teeth to guarantee it. It is critical in our country to maintain customer interest in order to protect the reputation of GI.

Some of the recommendations are as follows:
  1. Effective verification of the goods:

    Effective verification and controls at multiple levels in the supply chain will ensure compliance with product specification before placing it in the market. If we have officers placed at levels of the supply chain which leads to the, final product being manufactured for the market they will keep a check on the quality of the product so that quality is not sacrificed for profit and the trust of the consumers can also be retained.

  2. Inspection and market monitoring:

    There is a need to monitor the use of names to ensure a regulatory enforcement. As a result, inspectors from the GI department in Chennai can visit all factories to ensure that the original standard of the good that fetched it the GI tag in the first place is not undermined years. Furthermore, before issuing an extension after the initial ten-year term has expired, the department must include an audit and report on the state of the goods and their production performance.

  3. Historic continuity of the product:

    The term "continuity" means that the product's current credibility is built on its previous popularity. One of the most important tasks here is to explain the distinctive features that set this product apart � features that have kept it distinct from similar cheeses, textiles, or crafts.

    Finally, in terms of the product's history, the aim is to establish a causal link between the product's distinguishing or distinguishing characteristics, which have maintained the product's historic as well as contemporary popularity, and natural and/or human factors within the geographical area of origin. This should be a safety review to ensure that the commodity has maintained its indigenous and aboriginal features, making it worthwhile to extend the GI era.

  4. Long and cumbersome procedure of registration:

    On closer inspection, it can be speculated that the current administrative requirements for the process of GI registration are extensive and cumbersome, and that a quicker process is available only to the claimant or a third party, not the Registry. The Registry may take as long as it takes to communicate the shortcomings in the application after the applicant has completed his part, but the complainant must respond within a month.

    The same holds true for all of the other moves in the protocol. However, the Registry is not time-bound in order to efficiently review the various applications that it receives and to avoid any abuse of privileges enjoyed under the GI tag. It is suggested that the Government could establish another GI Registry to reduce the workload on the office at Chennai and for ensuring a faster processing of pending GI applications.

    In case more branches are open, it could be possible that in such a case, people could misuse the advantage and file application in another office after it being rejected from one. To avoid this, an online database should be maintained where all the applications can be uploaded to make it easier for each office to be aware if the application is already rejected. Also, new people can be hired if there is a shortage of manpower to maintain and keep the record up to date.

    Furthermore, since the procedure established for GI provides for filing for an objection, it can be questioned why the members of the Thikkinampallil Aranmula Metal Mirror Nirman Family Charitable Trust took twelve years to object to the GI received by the Vishwabrahmana Society. This brings out another loophole in the entire process- that the application shouldn�t only be published in the Journal but in such a conspicuous place in the area for which it is applied. This is important because it will make more people aware who can then file an objection if they have any.

  5. Promoting goods bearing Indian geographical indication in the export market:

    In order for geographical signs to be profitable, a real plan must be implemented. In the current situation, India lacks a ministry that is well positioned to run a good GI campaign for its betterment and international acclaim. It is critical to provide a structure or an organ by which the various government ministers and policymakers involved in GI may coordinate their efforts. A regulatory process is urgently needed to provide additional safeguards for geographical signs.

    As a result, in order to encourage the sale of products, it is important to advertise the commodity and make it known; otherwise, neither customers nor foreign firms will be aware of it. As a result, our everyday wage labourers are being mistreated and underpaid while the importance and atypical nature of their jobs is unknown to the general public. Second, India is missing money that could be gained by publicising and promoting these conventional and intricate products and taking them home to the target audience. If these rules are followed, exploitations such as Darjeeling Tea, one of the oldest and most popular GI goods, will not have to go through the ordeal again.

All of these documents indicate that India's existing legislative system for GI needs to be improved. Quality management and customer preferences should be prioritised by including multi-layered quality control processes as a prerequisite for registration. India boasts of many locally manufactured products that are unique and fundamental to the deep and rich Indian culture and heritage, and the legislation in its current form, with a few changes and diligent enforcement, will work wonderfully and propel India to new heights in the world IPR programmes and initiatives.

The ability of a GI to uplift marginalized communities of society is its most defining characteristic. Since it is a common right, it will effectively secure the wellbeing of artisans or other local people who specialise in products that are peculiar to certain geographic areas.[xvi] As a result, careful preservation of such GIs is critical in order to discourage commercial organisations that are not registered users of GI from profiting from the prestige that indigenous communities have painstakingly built up.[xvii]

GI conservation is critical for India because of its rich cultural heritage and varied geography, all of which contribute to the availability of a large range of native items that are unique to particular regions. Despite the fact that the GI Act aims to establish a proper legislative framework for the same, the GI Registry has repeatedly refused to meet the Act's minimum requirements. Given that the legislative framework for GI security in India is still in its early stages, it is reasonable that the GI Registry does not want to set too high a threshold for eligibility because it would deter many people from even trying to obtain a GI. However, granting GI registrations to everything and anything with a geographical name falls short of the larger goals of establishing a GI scheme.

The GI Registry's lack of diligence is promoting individual applicants like Tirupati Laddu, whose primary goal is to obtain exclusive rights over a commodity by using a GI. And before this, Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) filed a GI application to register Jamnagar as a GI for gas, diesel, and LPG.[xviii] |

While RIL later abandoned the proposal, the fact that such an application was permitted to continue to the stage of advertising demonstrates the weak requirements of the GI Registry's review process, which could have serious consequences for the future of GI security If the GI Registry does not impose more strict yardsticks for granting GI, it will lose its effectiveness as an IPR tool. Greater diligence on the part of officials is needed to ensure that GI remains an important platform for advancing collective rights.

The stark difference between the security afforded to globally renowned and reputed products such as basmati rice and Darjeeling tea is striking, while lesser recognised commodities such as Banaganapelle mangoes, Khandhamal Haldi, or Aranmula Kannadi are sidelined due to a lack of media coverage.

It is believed that the storms that engulfed Kerala in August, 2018 are likely in every other Indian capital, and that failure to mandate or take precautions in such circumstances would be fatal, destroyable, and annihilating to such unique embodiments that have proven to be India's pride and testament to its traditional aura. As a result, in such a desperate situation, it is critical that we not only raise awareness and information about our traditional and ethnic merchandise, but also protect and conserve their work in a way that protects it from natural disasters and other threats that impede the growth and expansion of their traditional knowledge and art.

  1. AIR 1980 Del 125 (India
  2. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, Art. 22, Jan 1,1995, (1869 U.N.T.S. 299).
  3. The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, Section 20, 1999, No.48 of 1999, Acts of Parliament, India
  4. The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, Section 21, 1999, No.48 of 1999, Acts of Parliament, India
  7. Aranmula Kannadi, Aranmula Kannadi- The Metal Magic for Prosperity!,
  8. GI, IP India Services, Journal 3, Aranmula Kannadi, %20Affidavit%20-%2022-06-2004.pdf
  9. GI, IP India Services, Application 535, %20Form%20GI-1%20-%2028-12-2015.pdf.
  10. Ramesh Babu, Floods threaten to take shine off Kerala�s famed mirror artisans, Hindustan Times, Sept 24, 2018.
  11. Government of India, Geographical Indications Journal No. 95 urnal/1_437_1/Journal_95.pdf
  12. The New York Times, Don�t Call It Darjeeling, It�s Nepali, accessed at:
  13. Kasturi Das, Protection of Geographical Indications, An Overview of Select Issues with particular reference to India, (Centad Working Paper No. 8, 2007),
  14. European Commission, Geographical Indications,
  15. Suman Sahai, Protecting Basmati, Economic and Political Weekly, Feb. 28 - Mar. 6, 1998.
  16. Madabhushi Sridhar, GI for the Tirupati Laddu: Whose Interests Protected, October 2009,
  17. Kasturi Das, Protection of Geographical Indications, An Overview of Select Issues with particular reference to India, (Centad Working Paper No. 8,2007),
  18. Varupi Jain, Does Jamnagar Diesel Equal Basmati? India Together (July 15, 2006),
Written By: Tanya Singh

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