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United nations and international security

United Nations was established after the failure of League of Nations in 24th October 1945 because it was failed to led such principles which could be the barriers against war. The purpose was to establish international peace and security by developing friendly relations among all the nations. It is based on certain principles which are discussed in this article that the peace the ultimate goal and the all the actions would be taken by the United Nations and its members only in the peaceful manner and also cooperate with non members and do not interfere in the domestic affairs of any particular nations.

And for the easement of its functioning it is framed under its 6 organs that are general assembly, security council, economic and social council, trusteeship council, international court of justice (ICJ) and the secretariat, all these organs are framed in a structure which are authorized by their charter where it divides its power and functions.

These functions are discussed in details in this article. The foremost factor that reflects the composition of United Nations was international security. International security in the sense of war could never be a option, utilization of resources in good faith and facets and protection of the human rights as these gets affected the most all over the world.

United Nations was established on 24 October, 1945 in San Francisco, California after the failure of League of Nations and occurrence of Second World War When it was formed there were only 50 countries as the members and now 193 countries are the members of United Nations. The purpose was to establish international peace and security by developing friendly relations among all the nations.

It is based on certain principles which are discussed below that the peace the ultimate goal and the all the actions would be taken by the United Nations and its members only in the peaceful manner and also cooperate with non members and do not interfere in the domestic affairs of any particular nations. There are 6 organs which are the base of United Nations and these are General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and The Secretariat. These organs are discussed below which shows how it maintain international peace and security.

  1. To establish international peace and security:
    The main purpose of this nation was to establish peace and security so as to protect the human rights because already the whole world faced the two world wars which cause great destruction that�s why it has been established.
  2. To develop friendly relations among nations:
    The second purpose was to establish friendly relations among nations so that the whole world could be united by its principles and to strengthen the universal peace.

Principles of United Nations:

  1. According to first principle of UN all the nations are sovereign and all the members are equal and no discrimination can be made on any basis. But there is an exception that when it comes to voting there should be 2/3 majority to pass any resolution under the charter and that majority must include five permanent members.
  2. The second principle state that all the actions or resolutions passed by the members under the charter must be in the shadow of peace and good faith.
  3. According to third principle of UN there must be peaceful settlement between the states because peace is the ultimate goal of United Nations.
  4. The next principle state that the states which are not the members of the United Nations should also try to be peaceful so that the principle of peace couldn�t be violate.
  5. The next principle states that the UN will not interfere in the domestic functioning of the states. No article of charter states about the interference in the domestic matters like political issues or any other internal matter.

Organs of United Nations:

  1. General Assembly:

    In this organ each member has not more than five representatives and there are total 193 members in the general assembly. Each member has one voting right and there must be 2/3 majority to pass any resolution in the charter or to perform their elective functions where the election and admission of members in UN are to be discussed, or to constituent functions where it participates in the amendment in the charter whenever required, or supervisory functions which seeks over trusteeship and economic and social council, or deliberative functions regarding decisions, discussions and recommendations on different kinds of matters such as relating to present charter, or functions and powers of the organs. It is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN.
  2. Security Council:

    Security Council is the executive organ of the UN, which main function is to maintain international peace and security. It consists of 15 members in which five members are permanent and the ten members are non-permanent these 10 members elected for the 2 years and the permanent members include Russia, china, France, America and Britain. It makes the recommendations for the selection the secretary general or to elect the judges the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and admission of the new members to the general assembly. It controls all the military actions taken by the UN against the aggressors.
  3. The economic and social council:

    It is the principal body for coordination, policy review, and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals. It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies. It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three year terms.
  4. International court of justice:

    The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Its main headquarters are in Hague (Netherlands). It is the only one of the six principal organs of the United Nations not located in New York. The main role of this court is to settle the cases in accordance with international law, the disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. The judgement is final and the decision is binding upon the nations. After signing the charter they also required to comply with all the jurisdictions under the ICJ.
  5. The trusteeship council:

    The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 by the UN charter to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as per requirement. It considers the reports submitted by the concerned authority or the petitions to examine such with the administrating authority. It also arranges the meetings which are to be held in the prescribed time under the UN charter.
  6. The secretariat:

    The Secretariat comprises the Secretary General and tens thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day to day work of the UN as supervised by the General Assembly and the Organization's other principal organs. The Secretary General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for the period of five years. UN staff members are recruited internationally and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world.

Historical background: World security

The concept of world security was raised in the League of Nations when it was formed in 10th January 1920 but due to its biased structure and framework it was a failure and failed to maintain the world security. After its dissolution and the Second World War again the concept of international security raised and the United Nations was established.

World security was in danger first felt as the use of atomic energy came in existence and due its trendy usage, the danger was increased at the global level which could destroy the human life and then there would be no need of world security. How the United Nations is related to world security and worked to combat to maintain world security is discussed further below.

United Nations viz-a-viz World Security

As it has earlier discussed that the Second World War caused great destruction to not only to property but also to the human life where infringement of human rights was happening at the global level that is why United Nations was established to maintain international security. The ending of the Cold War revived the United Nations and simultaneously reinforced the trend toward security regionalism. The new found unity of the Security Council enabled the United Nations to act in a relatively large number of conflicts, and in the process raised the expectations with regard to its primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security.

The United Nations had several successes the Gulf War, Cambodia, Mozambique, El Salvador, and Haiti. But there were some failures also, those failures and the growing political, financial, and operational problems of the United Nations have greatly tempered the earlier enthusiasm and support for the organization.

Unable to meet the ever-increasing demand for help, the United Nations has actively explored task-sharing and cooperation with other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as well as coalitions led by major global and regional powers. Regional institutions have been increasingly looked upon as one way of addressing the growing gap between demand and supply, and reducing the burden on the United Nations. In the words of Boutros Boutros-Ghali, ��regional arrangements or agencies in many cases possess a potential that should be utilized.��

Due to emergence of the organs discussed in the article in United Nations the trend of world war was reduced at the very extend. As these are based on certain principles which deals with all the emerged disputes in the peaceful way and in the hardest sanctions impositions are the ultimate ways to reduce the tension among the nations. The international security is the major focus for the United Nations and it�s well performing to maintain it.

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