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Democracy

Democracy word made from two words- demo and kratos. Demo means people and kratos means power. Therefore, supreme power lies with the people. So word democracy means people's power and government in which the power is vested into the hands of people is known as democratic government.

The famous thinkers like rousseau, john locke, barker, laski etc are the main supporters of democracy and they presented the different forms of it.

According to Lord Bryce, democracy is that form of government in which ruling power of the state is vested not in particular class or classes but in the members of the community as a whole.
According to Prof. Selley, democracy is a government in which everyone has a share.

Types Of Democracy:

There are two types of democracy one is direct democracy and second indirect democracy.

Direct democracy:
Direct democracy is the oldest and pure form of democracy. In direct democracy, people take direct part in the administration of the state. People take direct part in the political system, prepare plans, prepare budget and also keep control over them.

Indirect democracy:
Present age is the age of indirect democracy. This is also called representative democracy. In this, people elect their representatives on the basis of universal adult franchise and this representative run the government. Representatives are responsible you the people for use of their power. In India, England, America, indirect democracy is prevalent.

Characteristics Of Democracy:

  1. Sovereignty with people: In democracy, the supreme power is in the hands of people and people use their power through their representatives who are elected by them on the basis of universal adult franchise. In short, we can say the ultimate source of state power are the people.
     
  2. Faith in the rationality of man: Democracy believe in rationality of man and believe that man can solve his problem with the help of his intellect. Democracy believe that even illiterate person has some wisdom by which he can do any type of think.
     
  3. Liberty: Liberty is very necessary for the overall growth of man. In democracy, everybody has right to express his thought and emotions, right to form associations, right to criticize the government and right to hold any occupation. State provides proper facilities to protect these types of rights.
     
  4. Equality: Equality and liberty are complementary of each other. There is no discrimination on basis of caste, colour, religion, sex, etc. No class has special rights. Every is given equal opportunities according to one's capabilities yo raise his status.
     
  5. Fraternity: The feeling of fraternity is also one of the characterstics of democracy. French Revolutionaries gave the slogan if equality , liberty and fraternity. In preamble of India constitution, to develop the feeling of fraternity has been accepted as an aim.
     
  6. Provision of fundamental rights: Fundamental rights have a special place in democracy. Fundamental rights are usually included in the constitution and efforts are made to protect these fundamental rights. The India, America and French constitution are it's example.
     
  7. Rule of majority: Actually democracy means the rule of majority. After a fixed time, elections are held and any party which achieves majority, rules for a fixed time. But the majority also keeps I mind the interests of majority.
     
  8. Rule of law: In liberal democracy, there is rule of law. The administration is run not according to the wishes of the rulers, rather according to law and the man is punished only on the violation of law. Law is also guardian of freedom of people.
     
  9. Respect of public opinion: Democracy is based on public opinion. The people express public opinion by different means. Therefore, public opinion is respected in democracy. People are given proper opportunities to express their public opinion.
     
  10. Independent and Impartial Judiciary: This is the important element of democracy. Judiciary protects the civil Rights and liberties. Independent judiciary protect the rule of law and gives correct judgement to the people. True democracy is that where everybody gets right judgement. Independent and impartial Judiciary is the basic need of democracy.

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