Democracy word made from two words- demo and kratos. Demo means people and
kratos means power. Therefore, supreme power lies with the people. So word
democracy means people's power and government in which the power is vested into
the hands of people is known as democratic government.
The famous thinkers like rousseau, john locke, barker, laski etc are the main
supporters of democracy and they presented the different forms of it.
According to Lord Bryce, democracy is that form of government in which ruling
power of the state is vested not in particular class or classes but in the
members of the community as a whole.
According to Prof. Selley, democracy is a government in which everyone has a
Types Of Democracy:
There are two types of democracy one is direct democracy and second indirect
Direct democracy is the oldest and pure form of democracy. In
direct democracy, people take direct part in the administration of the state.
People take direct part in the political system, prepare plans, prepare budget
and also keep control over them.
Present age is the age of indirect democracy. This is also
called representative democracy. In this, people elect their representatives on
the basis of universal adult franchise and this representative run the
government. Representatives are responsible you the people for use of their
power. In India, England, America, indirect democracy is prevalent.
Characteristics Of Democracy:
- Sovereignty with people: In democracy, the supreme power is in the hands of
people and people use their power through their representatives who are elected
by them on the basis of universal adult franchise. In short, we can say the
ultimate source of state power are the people.
- Faith in the rationality of man: Democracy believe in rationality of man
and believe that man can solve his problem with the help of his intellect.
Democracy believe that even illiterate person has some wisdom by which he
can do any type of think.
- Liberty: Liberty is very necessary for the overall growth of man. In
democracy, everybody has right to express his thought and emotions, right to
form associations, right to criticize the government and right to hold any
occupation. State provides proper facilities to protect these types of
- Equality: Equality and liberty are complementary of each other. There is
no discrimination on basis of caste, colour, religion, sex, etc. No class has
special rights. Every is given equal opportunities according to one's
capabilities yo raise his status.
- Fraternity: The feeling of fraternity is also one of the characterstics of
democracy. French Revolutionaries gave the slogan if equality , liberty and
fraternity. In preamble of India constitution, to develop the feeling of
fraternity has been accepted as an aim.
- Provision of fundamental rights: Fundamental rights have a
special place in democracy. Fundamental rights are usually included in the
constitution and efforts are made to protect these fundamental rights. The
India, America and French constitution are it's example.
- Rule of majority: Actually democracy means the rule of majority. After a
fixed time, elections are held and any party which achieves majority, rules
for a fixed time. But the majority also keeps I mind the interests of
- Rule of law: In liberal democracy, there is rule of law. The
administration is run not according to the wishes of the rulers, rather
according to law and the man is punished only on the violation of law. Law
is also guardian of freedom of people.
- Respect of public opinion: Democracy is based on public opinion. The people
express public opinion by different means. Therefore, public opinion is
respected in democracy. People are given proper opportunities to express their
- Independent and Impartial Judiciary: This is the important
element of democracy. Judiciary protects the civil Rights and liberties.
Independent judiciary protect the rule of law and gives correct judgement to the people.
True democracy is that where everybody gets right judgement. Independent and
impartial Judiciary is the basic need of democracy.