Causes of Female Foeticide
Q.no 1 List various crimes against women in India and examine the factors
responsible for them.
The advancement of technology in India's contemporary society and violence against women
coexist there. There are many different sorts of violence against women, and it can occur
everywhere, whether at home, in public, or at work. The significant problem relating to women
cannot be disregarded because it is impeding the nation's progress by over 50%.
beginning of time, women have been seen as sources of desire in Indian civilization. Since the
beginning of social organisation and family life, they have been the targets of men's
exploitation, humiliation, and cruelty. Various centuries have passed since the beginning of
social existence in the nation, and time has altered people's perspectives and environments.
A great deal, but violence against women does not appear to be changing much.
Time is the
only true eyewitness to all the crimes that powerless women suffer including sex
discrimination, exploitation, oppression, aggressiveness, unfair treatment, and humiliation. In
an Indian civilization where numerous female deities are revered, women are extremely
powerless. Women have been raised in the Vedas as mothers, which refers to someone who
can start and sustain life. On the other side, they have discovered that the males in the
patriarchal society have been suppressing and dominating them.
Domestic and public violence
against women can both be physical, emotional, or mental. Women avoid participating in
multiple aspects of life because of a mental fear of violence. Women's concern about violence
The country Is experiencing a troubling increase in the rate and volume of violence against
It is putting social workers under strain and placing a great deal of responsibility on
their shoulders. To fully appreciate their rights and profit from them, women must, however,
be empowered and accountable to themselves. In India, violence against women is a very
ancient social problem that is firmly ingrained in both cultural norms and economic
dependence. Violence against women is an issue that regularly surfaces in the shape of serious
gang rapes, sexual harassment at work, assaults with acid, etc.
On December 16, 2012, a major
incident of violence against women occurred in Delhi. A horrible rape by a gang of woman in
India, age 23. People in huge numbers who are angry go on the streets to demand justice. The
social norms against women will not change even if these kind incidents continue to occur
often in society. Even if the general population's degree of education is higher, it continues to
be highly technological and deeply established in Indian society.
As per the study, close family relatives, neighbours, and friends, specifically those who live in
remote areas, begin to abuse women at young age. Based on the region, society, and tradition
of the people, the situation of women separates across the nation. South and north-eastern areas
have better positions for women than elsewhere. Due to the act of female child murder, there are a lot more girl children than boy children (almost 940 women for every 1000 males, as per
the 2011 data). Sex-selective abortions and the mistreatment of infant girls are to blame for a
sharp decline in the proportion of female births.
The National Crime Records Bureau says that Indian women feel highly vulnerable in their
wedding house. Domestic violence, acid attacks, rape, honour murders, deaths due to dowry,
kidnapping, and violent partners and in-laws are a few kinds of violence against women that
frequently occur in society.
Bodily or sexual assault of Indian women is known to as violence against women in India.
These violent crimes are mostly executed by men, however on sometimes a woman may also
be engaged. Sexual harassment and domestic violence against Indian women are the most
common types of violence. An act must be executed only because the victim is a female in
order for it to be deemed "violence against women". In India, "violence against women" is
common, largely because of constant there has been disparity between genders for centuries.
NCRB's report on crime against women
A study on crime against women in India was been made official by the National
Records Bureau (NCRB).
Principal points of the report:
According to NCRB data, there were 4.28.278 incidents of crime against women in
compared to 3.71.503 the year before, representing a 15.3% increase.
According to the NCRB study, the number of crimes against women grew from 56.5%
to 64.5% in 2021, or occurrences per 1 lakh people.
Assault against women with the purpose to offend her modesty, kidnap and abduction, and rape
are the next most common crimes among them (31.8%), followed by cruelty by spouse or his
family.Despite a slight decline over the previous three years, Assam had the greatest percentage
of crime against women in 2021, according to the research. In 2021, the state reported around
29,000 such incidents.
The second leading states in this group are Rajasthan, Odisha, Haryana, and
the other three states (Odisha, Haryana, and Telangana) saw increases,
Rajasthan, like Assam,
saw a little decline in the actual number of cases.
In terms of the actual number of cases reported in 2021, the report ranks UP
first (56,083) even
if the rate is lower at 50.5%.
Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Odisha are the other states with the
of crimes against women reported.
With the fewest crimes against women reported in each of the previous three
years - 2019, 2020, and 2021 - Nagaland stood out. Additionally, it has the lowest rate of
women in 2021.
With regard to Union Territories, Delhi has the highest crime rate.At 147.6% in
With a rise over the previous three years, it also recorded the highest absolute
number of cases
The NCRB also compiles information on crime against women in 19 cities with an
of over 2 million people across the nation.
According to data from 2021, Jaipur has the highest percentage among these
194%- followed by Delhi, Indore, and Lucknow.
The lowest prevalence was seen in Tamil Nadu in Coimbatore and Chennai.
Delhi came in first among these cities in terms of actual population in 2021,
Bengaluru, Hyderabad, and Delhi.
With 1,453 incidents reported, Rajasthan also recorded the greatest number of
who were raped in 2021.
The number of rape cases reported in the nation as a whole dropped somewhat from
incidents in 2018 to 31,677 cases in the last five years.
As of 2021, similar as in 2019, the number of "murder with gangrape/rape" cases
the NCRB has kept data has remained stable. With 291, 2018 saw the most
instances under this
category ever recorded.
With 48 instances, UP had the most of these previous year, closely followed by
According to NCRB statistics from 2017 to 2021, UP, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, and
Maharashtra had the highest yearly number of cases in the nation in these
Rape-murders from 2017 until 2020.
Across 2021, 507 cases- or 0.1% of all crimes against women- were reported across
nation under the Domestic Violence Act. Kerala saw the most number of cases
In the meantime, 6,589 dowry fatalities were reported last year, with the states
of UP and Bihar
reporting the greatest number.
Now ,We Can Discuss Various Types Of Crime Against Women And Also Factor Responsible For Them:
- One of the most horrible acts against women in our culture is rape. In India, it is said to rank as the fourth most typical crime against women.
- Rape occurs when a man engages in sexual activity with a woman, which includes:
- Inserting his penis, to any degree, into her vagina, mouth, urethra, or anus, or compelling her to do so with him or another person.
- Inserting any object or part of the body, other than the penis, into her vagina, urethra, or anus, or compelling her to do so with him or another person.
- Manipulating any part of a woman's body or any part of such a woman's body, or forces her to do so with him or another person.
- Placing his mouth near a woman's vagina, anus, or urethra, or forces her to do so with him or another person, where the situation fits any of the following seven definitions:
- Against her will.
- Without her permission.
- Having her consent means after winning her approval by making her feel threatened or vulnerable, whether it's herself or someone person she cares about.
- By claiming to be her spouse in order to get her permission.
- When she is impaired mentally or under the impact of alcohol and is unable to comprehend the nature and implications of what she has agreed to.
- While she is younger than the age of eighteen, either with or without her permission.
- Whenever she has no ability to express permission.
- Rape is a complex and multifaceted issue, and a variety of factors can
contribute to it.
These components include:
- Rape typically occurs when one person has more authority or control over
in cases of domestic violence, sexual assault, or when somebody is in a
situation, like a child or someone with a disability.
- Gender inequality: Rape is usually viewed as a tactic of rule and
patriarchal societies where men have more power and privilege than women.
- Societies and cultural norms: Some cultures reinforce gender roles,
violence, or stigmatise victims of sexual assault, which can contribute to a
society of isolation around rape.
- Alcohol and the use of drugs: These substances can make it harder to
correct choices and lower limitations, which makes it more likely that someone
will commit rape.
Unwanted sexual approaches, demands for sexual favours, and other forms of physical
or verbal abuse of a sexual character are all considered forms of sexual harassment. It
covers a wide variety of behaviours, including as indecent exposure to women against
their will, sexual assault or abuse, and light offences. According to Section 354A of the
IPC, anybody found guilty of sexual harassment faces a harsh sentence of up to three
years in jail and a fine.
Sexual harassment is a complex issue with several underlying reasons, much like rape. Some factors that might result in sexual harassment include the following:
- Power disparities: Sexual harassment commonly occurs when someone has authority over another, such as when a boss or employer has influence over an employee in the workplace.
- Lack of awareness and education: Many individuals might not know what sexual harassment is or how to spot it. It may be challenging for offenders to comprehend the consequences of their actions and for victims to move forward due to a lack of awareness and education.
- Psychological factors: Sexual harassers may battle with control and authority difficulties, have a track record of abuse or trauma, or lack empathy.
In a relationship, domestic violence occurs when one adult abuses their position of
authority to exert control over the other. It is the use of violence, including other
types of abuse, to instill dread in a relationship. Threats, sexual assault, and physical
abuse are all possible forms of the violence. Sometimes bullying may be deeper,
such making someone feel unimportant, refusing them access to money, or
forbidding them from leaving the house.
Under Section 12 of the Domestic Violence
Act of 2005, an application may be submitted before the Magistrate. The Magistrate
has the authority to make decisions on residency, protection, financial assistance,
and compensation. In addition to the demand for dowry, a complaint under Section
498A for cruelty by the husband or his family may be made.
In the case of SR Batra v. Taruna Batra (AIR 2007 SC 1088), the Supreme Court described a
"shared household" as a home either owned by the husband or rented out to him, or
one that belonged to a joint family to which he belonged.It cannot be referred to as
joint family property if it is solely the mother-in-law's property.The Delhi Court
declared in Sudha Mishra v. Surya Chandra Mishra RFA 299/2014 that a woman
cannot request or be granted the right to reside at her father-in-law's home under
the Domestic Violence Act.
Domestic violence is a complicated problem with several potential causes. The following are some elements that might make domestic violence more likely:
- Substance abuse: Abusing alcohol or drugs might make domestic violence more likely. Abuse of alcohol or other drugs can exacerbate anger, impair judgment, and increase interpersonal conflict.
- Stress and economic factor: Significant amounts of tension and financial pressure might increase the likelihood of domestic violence. While other types of stress might make people lash out at their relationships, financial stress can result in conflicts about money.
- Previous history of abuse: People who have had violence previously may be more inclined to commit domestic violence or become its victims in the future.
Femal Genital Mutilation
FGM is the term used to describe all non-medical operations that include either the
complete or partial elimination of the female external genitalia or any additional
damage to the female genital organs. Young girls between the ages of one and
fifteen are the most common targets. FGM is a violation of the basic rights of
women and girls, including their right to health, security, and dignity, in any way
in which it is practised.
- FGM, commonly referred to as female genital cutting or female circumcision, is a damaging cultural practice in which the female genitalia are partially or completely removed.
- FGM is still practiced today due to a number of circumstances, such as:
- Cultural and societal beliefs: FGM is frequently justified as a necessary practice to preserve the virtue and chastity of girls and women. As well as being a significant cultural ritual, it is seen to be a rite of passage into adulthood.
- Poverty and economic issues: FGM is more common in underprivileged and rural regions where there is less access to healthcare and education. By enhancing their daughters' prospects of marriage and financial stability, families may see FGM as a method to ensure a better future for their daughters.
- Religious and traditional beliefs: While it is not required by any religion, FGM is frequently associated with traditional and religious beliefs. Some individuals might think that FGM is a necessary part of their cultural background or that it is mandated by their faith.
An abominable crime is honour killing or murdering for one's honour. Girls and
women are frequently investigated in patriarchal settings because they are viewed
as inferior to men. It is believed that a woman's spouse and father, followed by her
siblings, are responsible for keeping her virginity and "sexual purity". Honour
killing victims are typically accused of engaging in "sexually immoral" behaviour
by tarnishing their family reputation. Additionally, it has been shown that
underreporting of such crimes is common.
- Honour murders are acts of violence committed against someone, mainly women, who are thought to have degraded their family's or community's reputation. Honour murders are a complicated problem with many potential causes, such as:
- Patriarchal and traditional beliefs: Honour killings are frequently founded in patriarchal and cultural beliefs that place more importance on the honour and prestige of the family or society than on the individual's rights and autonomy. Some cultures demand women to follow rigid norms of conduct and attire because they view them as possessions or representations of family honour.
- Perceived threats to family or community honor: Sexual activity prior to marriage, adultery, or being married outside of one's faith or social group are just a few examples of perceived dangers to the honour of a household or society that are frequently addressed by honour murders.
- Lack of legal protection and enforcement: Honour murders are not considered crimes or are subject to moderate punishment in various nations and cultures. Honour killing offenders may continue to go unpunished due to this lack of safeguard and enforcement.
Following sex identification tests like an ultrasound scan, female foeticide is an
abortion procedure whereby a female baby is taken away from the mother's womb
before to birth. Female foeticide and even sex testing are forbidden in India. Parents
who are wanting for a son, in addition to medical professionals who conduct
abortions particularly for this purpose, feel ashamed about it.
Causes of Female Foeticide
Causes of Female Foeticide
There is a significant desire for male offspring in many communities, and females are viewed as a burden. This mindset has its roots in patriarchy, which promotes males to positions of leadership while understating women. In certain cultures, the bride's family is required to give the groom's family a dowry. The bride's family is thus placed under financial strain, and the arrival of a daughter is viewed as a responsibility.
- Dowry system:
Due to the heavy expense of dowry and marriage, having a daughter is sometimes viewed as an economic burden among households with little income.
- Economic reasons:
Due to the heavy expense of dowry, schooling, and marriage, raising a daughter is sometimes viewed as an expenditure among households with little income. Sons, on the other hand, are valued since they can support the family.
Torture And HarassmentIn India, women are mostly limited to the mother, homemaker, and daughter roles
that may be successfully performed inside the four walls of the home.
Unfortunately, even inside the security of their own homes, the women are not safe.
No of their economic standing, religion, caste, or ancestry, housewives endure
physical and psychological abuse.
Perhaps wife beating is influenced by sexual
inequality, cultural norms, family conflict, and stress. The masculine aggressive
self-image that has been fostered and internalised by males since infancy is also
perceived as being reinforced by husband violence. Consideration should be given
to whether a woman experiencing domestic abuse obtains justice that is gender-
- Torture and harassment can result from a number of different variables, each of which might change depending on the situation.
Some typical elements may be:
- Mental health issues:
Some people who abuse or harass others may have underlying issues with mental health that influence their behaviour, such as mental illnesses or a past trauma.
- Political instability:
In nations undergoing instability in politics, there may be an absence of law and order, which makes it possible for torture and harassment to occur with legality.
- Lack of accountability:
Torture and harassment can become more commonplace and normalised when there is little to no punishment for those who commit these crimes.
Written By: Manmeet Singh
- Law and social transformation By P.ishwara bhatt
- Law and social transformation By Dr.Manjit kour, Sandeep rana
- Paper on Domestic violence and crime against women By R.K BAG
- Crime against women in India analysis of official statistics By Chandan Mukherjee
, BA.LLB Cuk - Law And Social Transformation
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