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The challenges of passing bills in India: the challenges of passing bills in India, including issues like delays, opposition, and the impact of interest groups.

With its diverse population, intricate governance systems, and federal system, India faces several difficulties passing laws. In India, a new law must be introduced in one of the two houses of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, before being discussed, debated, and put to a vote by the members. Nonetheless, there are typically considerable obstacles that must be overcome before a measure may be passed into law in India.

Delays are one of the biggest obstacles to adopting legislation in India. The lengthy legislative process in India makes it difficult to implement policies and programs because bills can take years to pass. Furthermore, opposition parties frequently filibuster bills in India's parliament, further delaying their passage.

The influence of interest organizations is another difficulty. Strong interest groups, such business associations, labor unions, and religious institutions, have a tremendous impact on lawmakers, which can occasionally result in the watering down or abandonment of proposed legislation.

This study seeks to investigate the difficulties in passing legislation in India, with a particular emphasis on the numerous problems that impede or delay the passage of legislation, the function of opposition parties, and the effects of interest groups. To strengthen the legislative process and guarantee that laws are passed swiftly and effectively, policymakers and legislators must have a thorough understanding of these issues.

Issues raised:
  • What are the issues with respect to raising bills in the parliament?
  • What are the relevant factors which concern the mentioned issue?
  • What is the assessment of the Legislative and the Executive?
  • What is the judiciary's response to the issue?
  • How does India stand in comparison to other countries with regards to the mentioned issue?

Problems associated with raising of bills:
The issue of bills being passed in India is fraught with difficulties, including the following:

Delays in the legislative process:
The legislative process in India is significantly impacted by delays in passing measures. The huge number of bills introduced in Parliament, which can overload the legislative process and cause measures to stall or not receive enough attention, is one factor in delays. The complexity of the laws themselves, which sometimes necessitate prolonged debate and discussion before they are passed, is another factor.

Additionally, opposition parties may employ delay strategies to stop legislation from passing in order to increase their political clout or to thwart the legislative agenda of the incumbent party. Delays in the legislative process can have a big impact since they might cause crucial laws to stall or even not get enacted at all, which could be bad for the nation. Moreover, delays can weaken public trust in the legislative process and fuel citizen dissatisfaction.[1]

Political opposition:
While the grounds for opposition might vary, they frequently include political considerations, disagreements with the law's policy objectives, and worries about how the bill would affect particular groups or sectors. The legislative process can be significantly impacted by resistance since it can cause measures to delay or not pass at all, which can have detrimental effects on the nation. The public's faith in the legislative process can be damaged by opposition, which can also cause delays in the legislative process.

Lack of agreement and cooperation between political parties:
For the legislative process to run smoothly, agreement and cooperation between political parties are crucial. But in India, political groups frequently put their personal interests ahead of the wider good, which prevents agreement and cooperation.

Impact of interest groups:
In India, interest groups have a big impact on the legislative process. Interest groups are organizations that fight for particular policies or ideas in an effort to have an impact on the legislative process. Business associations, labor unions, environmental organizations, and other civil society organizations are examples of these organizations.

Interest groups can have a considerable impact on the legislative process since they can offer insightful opinions and industry knowledge on particular subjects, as well as help to influence the text of bills. But, if they exploit their power to further particular interests at the expense of the larger public interest, interest groups can also have a negative impact on the legislative process. However, interest groups may engage in unethical or prohibited actions, such as bribery or corruption, which might jeopardize the integrity of the legislative process.

Low attendance by MPs: Members of Parliament (MPs) frequently show up late for legislative sessions, which can prevent a quorum and cause delays in the passing of measures.

Absence of meaningful public participation:
In India, the legislative process often experiences a lack of meaningful public participation, which results in a lack of accountability and openness. This might lead to laws being approved without enough consideration and discussion.

Law complexity:
Many of India's laws are convoluted and challenging to comprehend, which makes it unclear how to execute and enforce them.

All things considered, these issues could make it [2]more difficult for measures to pass in India and reduce the efficiency of the legislative process.

Discussion of factors on this issue:
Several factors contribute to the challenges of passing bills in India. These include:
Political polarization:
Political parties frequently put their own interests ahead of the general public interest in India's highly polarized political landscape. The easy passage of legislation may be hampered by the lack of collaboration and agreement among political parties as a result.

Complicated governance structures:
The enactment of legislation may be made more difficult by India's federal system of government, which has several levels of authority. Priorities at various levels of government may differ, making collaboration between them difficult. Bills must be approved by both the Lok Sabha (the lower house) and the Rajya Sabha (the upper house) in India's bicameral parliament. There may be opposition from other parties if the ruling party does not hold a majority in the Rajya Sabha, which might cause delays or the failure of proposed legislation.

Influence of interest groups:
Strong interest groups, such as business associations, labor unions, and religious organizations, can have a substantial impact on politicians and cause proposed legislation to be modified or abandoned. Low MP attendance during parliamentary sessions might prevent a quorum from being reached and cause delays in the passing of laws.

Absence of meaningful public participation: In India, the legislative process frequently experiences a lack of meaningful public participation, which results in a lack of accountability and openness. This might lead to laws being approved without enough consideration and discussion.

Ineffective administrative processes:
India's bureaucratic systems can be cumbersome and ineffective, which causes delays in the implementation of the laws' supporting policies and programs.

Overall, these reasons make it difficult to enact legislation in India, and being aware of them is crucial to creating successful plans for streamlining the legislative procedure.

Assessment of the legislative:
Passing legislation in India is complicated by opposition, delays, and the sway of interest groups, among other issues. The Indian parliament has made several attempts to address some of these issues, including:

Legislation that is time-bound has been enacted by the government to make sure that laws are passed within a certain time period, including the Finance Bill.

Electronic voting is now available in both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, allowing MPs to cast their votes on legislation even if they are not physically present in the chamber. Parliamentary committees have been strengthened to allow for more thorough examination of bills, which can help identify potential issues and ensure that laws are more effective.

Public consultation: By initiatives like the pre-legislative consultation policy, which compels ministries to solicit public input before submitting laws, the government has tried to promote public participation in the legislative process.

However even with these changes, India's parliamentary system still faces several difficulties. By fostering better agreement and collaboration between political parties, promoting public involvement in the legislative process, and minimizing the impact of interest groups on parliamentarians, the government and political parties can do more to enhance the legislative process.

There has been some progress achieved in the Indian legislative process overall, but there is still much space for improvement. The passage of laws that may successfully solve the nation's problems and enhance the lives of its residents depends on the legislative process being open, responsible, and transparent.[3]

Assessment of the executive:
  • The legislative process in India is significantly aided by the executive branch of the government. Bills must be proposed by the executive branch and must be approved by both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The executive branch is headed by the Prime Minister and Cabinet.
  • Although it can introduce bills, the executive branch is also in charge of making sure they are successfully executed after being passed. Implementing legislation can be extremely difficult for the executive branch, especially if the bureaucracy is ineffective or if there is opposition from interest groups.

The executive branch has made several attempts to alleviate some of the difficulties in adopting legislation in India, including:
  • The executive branch has established committees to examine bills and provide suggestions to increase their efficacy.
  • Implementation of technology: The executive branch has made use of online public consultations and electronic voting in parliament to enhance the legislative process.
  • Public awareness campaigns: In order to improve public engagement and raise understanding of legislative concerns, the executive branch has run public awareness initiatives.

Despite these measures, the executive branch can face challenges in passing bills due to political opposition, lack of cooperation among political parties, and the influence of interest groups. The executive branch can also face challenges in implementing bills due to bureaucratic inefficiencies, resistance from interest groups, and other factors.

Overall, the executive branch of the Indian government plays a critical role in the passage and implementation of bills. While the executive has taken steps to improve the legislative process, more efforts are needed to ensure that bills are effectively implemented and that the legislative process is transparent, accountable, and effective in improving the lives of citizens.

Response of the Indian Judiciary:
Owing to its authority to examine the constitutionality of legislation approved by the legislature, the judicial branch of India plays a part in the legislative process. Due to the judicial review clause in the Indian Constitution, any law that is found to be unconstitutional may be overturned by the courts.

The Indian judiciary has taken a more active role in examining laws recently and has significantly influenced the legislative process. The National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, the Right to Education Act, and other laws have all been examined by the judiciary.

The judiciary's response to India's difficulties passing bills has been conflicting. Some critics contend that the judiciary has overstepped its bounds by invalidating legislation that has been passed by the legislature, despite the fact that it has played a crucial role in analyzing laws and determining whether they are constitutional.

The judiciary has also come under fire for taking too long to make decisions, which can cause confusion and hold up the implementation of laws.

Ultimately, by ensuring that laws are constitutional and upholding citizens' rights, India's judiciary is crucial to the legislative process. There are constant arguments regarding the proper balance between the three parts of government in the legislative process, as well as criticism and debate concerning the role of the court.[4]

Outlook on Differences or similarities in the challenges faced by different countries:
India's legislative procedure can be contrasted with that of other nations, such as the US and the UK. While the underlying framework of the legislative process shares some commonalities, the difficulties that other nations encounter also differ significantly. For instance, the American legislative system is frequently characterized by high levels of party polarization, which can cause congestion and delays in the passage of legislation. In the UK, there is a higher concentration of power in the hands of the executive branch due to a more centralized legislative procedure.

There are many bills filed into the legislative process in India, and there is a complicated system of committees and subcommittees that can cause delays and make it difficult to approve laws. India also faces difficulties like opposition from interest groups and civil society organizations, which can make the legislative process more difficult.

Despite these difficulties, there are still chances for change and enhancement of the legal system in India and other nations. It may be feasible to enhance the legislative process and guarantee that bills are enacted in a timely and efficient way by addressing these issues, encouraging greater transparency, and encouraging public participation.[5]

In conclusion, passing legislation in India is a difficult process that encounters many difficulties, such as opposition, delays, and the influence of interest groups. Each of the Indian government's three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial plays a part in the legislative process and has made an effort to address some of these problems in various ways.

The legislative branch has, among other things, reinforced parliamentary committees and introduced time-bound legislation and electronic voting. While the judiciary analyzed legislation to guarantee its constitutionality, the executive branch established committees, adopted technology, and launched public awareness campaigns.

The Indian legislative process still has a lot of space for improvement, notwithstanding these steps. The enactment of legislation can still face substantial obstacles due to political opposition, a lack of cooperation between political parties, and the influence of interest groups. The efficient application of legislation can also be hampered by bureaucratic inefficiencies, opposition from interest groups, and delays in the judiciary's decision-making process.

Political parties need to work together more, the public needs to participate more in the legislative process, and interest groups' influence on politicians needs to be lessened in order to address these issues. Also, it is crucial to make sure that the legislative process is open, accountable, and successful in advancing legislation that can address the nation's problems and enhance the lives of its residents.

Overall, the challenges of passing bills in India require a multi-faceted approach that involves all three branches of government, civil society, and other stakeholders to create a more efficient and effective legislative process.

  1. Network, L. I. (2021, August 4). What is the process of passing a bill in Parliament and State Legislature under Article 196 of the Indian Constitution? Law Insider India. Retrieved April 1, 2023, from
  2. The legislative process. (n.d.). Retrieved April 1, 2023, from
  3. Team, L. C. I. (2020, February 1). Legislative Process of India: Decoded. lawyersclubindia. Retrieved April 1, 2023, from
  4. Sandhya Sekar, [commentary] the need for legislative impact assessments in India Mongabay (2019), (last visited Apr 1, 2023).
  5. Indian 'interest groups' and Indian foreign policy - JSTOR, , (last visited Mar 31, 2023).

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