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Evolution of Human Rights Law

Human beings are beings who need essential rights to live a life of dignity. To understand the evolution of human rights, we must first understand the history of human rights around the world. In this way, the evolution of human rights can be traced back. As such, this assignment includes all topics and events that have contributed to the development of human rights in today's world., sexual orientation and gender identity, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language or other status, are all entitled equally without discrimination as essential to a life of dignity.

To understand the development of human rights, trace all the significant events and places that contributed to the development of human rights around the world. To that end, let's begin with the earliest evidence of human rights in ancient history such as Lagash, Akkad, and Babylon.

Introduction:
The origin and history of human rights is very complex, and although the exact starting point for the concept of human rights is unknown, the extent to which it is known to begin in 3260 BC is the first recorded It is widely welcomed as an example. Government reform aimed at achieving greater freedom and equality. She limited the power of the priesthood and squire, and took measures against usurers and burdens.

Widows and orphans were no longer at the mercy of those in power." Here the word "freedom" appears for the first time. Then around 2300 BC. The ruler of Akkad around 300 BC was Sargon, who conquered all of southern Mesopotamia and is said to be one of the earliest builders of the world's great empires.

The Akkadian empire was the first political entity to make extensive and efficient use of its extensivebureaucracy and administration, setting the standard for future rulers and kingdoms. Sargon and Moses give ownership of all the land to the assembly of gods. Administrative powers to protect land from abuse to the monarch and land use rights to women are delegated to elite men or exercised independently.

Also around 1750 BC. In 300 BC, Hamrubi of Babylon created the Code of Hammurabi. It is a collection of 282 rules that set standards for commerce and set fines and penalties to meet the demands of justice. Hammurabi's Codex was inscribed on a giant finger-shaped black stone stele looted by invaders and rediscovered in 1901.

Around 539 BC when Cyrus the Great's army conquered Babylon. Cyrus freed the slaves, proclaimed that every man had the right to choose his religion, and established racial equality, among other things. The provisions of this cylinder influenced the first four articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Not only that, but the Unani civilization has similar conceptsof human rights as other civilizations such as equal legal liberty which is isogonia, equality before law known as isomonia, jussuraj which is suffrage and jushonorm which is the right to vote. I have. to any official. Even our country, India, was not far behind in the concept of human rights, as seen in the concept of dharma in the Vedic period of India. The roots of concern for human rights in Vedic times can be traced back to people's religious feelings.

Humans were created in the image of God. They were endowed with intrinsic worth and dignity. The philosophers and jurists of the time believed that human rights were based on humanity's growing desire for a life in which the inherent dignity of every human being deserved to be respected and protected by society and its inhabitants. rice field. The main meaning of human rights lies in the great Indian legacy of Vashdai Vaktumbakam,which means that we are all one giant human family. Rig-Veda stands for three civil rights:
  • Thana (body)
  • Skridi (housing)
  • Jivasi (life)

Panini, 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian. explained that dharma is an act of religious custom, practice and merit. Dharma is always first. Dharma is spiritual, moral, ethical and secular law in the broadest sense. Each individual, whether ruler or ruled, is governed by his own dharma. The rights and duties of rulers, pastors, priests, and people are governed by the concept of dharma.

Manu formulated the rules for the king's leadership. It was his duty to obey the law, and he was subject to the law like everyone else. The king not only enforced the sacred laws of the scriptures, but also the customary laws of the land concerning the rights and entitlements of his subjects.

Kautilyas Arthasastra refers to the rights and duties of rulers, ministers, priests, soldiers, people, etc. The king's duties in the internal management of the country are the protection of the state from triple rakshas or external attacks, the maintenance of law and order within the country. Landes State and Yogakshama, or ensuring the welfare of the people.

To understand the essential evolution of human rights, we move from ancient to medieval history to make sense of the events that shaped human rights in today's world. Major historical events thatcontributed to the development of human rights include the Magna Carta of 1215, the Bill of Rights of 1688, the United States Declaration of Independence of 1776, and Human and Civil Rights in Franceof 1789.

Magna Carta (1215):

'Magna Carta' is the Charter of Rights issued by King John of England in 1215 under pressure from the barons. This is the first written document relating to the Fundamental Rights of citizens. Part III of the Constitution is described as the Magna Carta of India. It contains a very long and comprehensive list of 'justiciable' fundamental rights. In fact, the Fundamental Rights in our constitution are more elaborate than those found in the Constitution of any other country in the world, including the USA.

There are strong influences from the Magna Carta in the American Bill of Rights, written in 1791. Indian Constitution has Fundamental Rights that were inspired by American Bill of Rights. Even more recently, the basic principles of the Magna Carta are seen very clearly in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

Petition Of Right(1628):

The next recorded milestone in the development of human rights was the Petition of Right, produced in 1628 by the English Parliament and sent to Charles I as a statement of civil liberties. Refusal by Parliament to finance the king's unpopular foreign policy had caused his government to exact forced loans and to quarter troops in subjects' houses as an economy measure.

Arbitrary arrest and imprisonment for opposing these policies had produced in Parliament a violent hostility to Charles and to George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham. The Petition of Right, initiated by Sir Edward Coke, was based upon earlier statutes and charters and asserted four principles: (1) No taxes may be levied without consent of Parliament, (2) No subject may be imprisoned without cause shown (reaffirmation of the right of habeas corpus), (3) No soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry, and (4) Martial law may not be used in time of peace.

English Bill Of Rights,(1689):

Bill of Rights, formally An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown (1689), one of the basic instruments of the British constitution, the result of the long 17th-century struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament. It incorporated the provisions of the Declaration of Rights, acceptance of which had been the condition upon which the throne, held to have been vacated by James II, was offered to the prince and princess of Orange, afterward William III and Mary II.

With the Toleration Act (1689), granting religious toleration to all Protestants, the Triennial Act (1694), ordering general elections to be held every three years, and the Act of Settlement (1701), providing for the Hanoverian succession, the Bill of Rights provided the foundation on which the government rested after the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). It purported to introduce no new principles but merely to declare explicitly the existing law.

The revolution settlement, however, made monarchy clearly conditional on the will of Parliament and provided a freedom from arbitrary government of which most Englishmen were notably proud during the 18th century.

The main purpose of the act was unequivocally to declare illegal various practices of James II. Among such practices proscribed were the royal prerogative of dispensing with the law in certain cases, the complete suspension of laws without the consent of Parliament, and the levying of taxes and the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime without specific parliamentary authorization.

A number of clauses sought to eliminate royal interference in parliamentary matters, stressing that elections must be free and that members must have complete freedom of speech. Certain forms of interference in the course of justice were also proscribed. The act also dealt with the proximate succession to the throne, settling it on Mary's heirs, then on those of her sister, afterward Queen Anne, and then on those of William, provided they were Protestants.

Virginia Declaration (1776):

Virginia Declaration of Rights, in U.S. constitutional history, declaration of rights of the citizen adopted June 12, 1776, by the constitutional convention of the colony of Virginia. It was a model for the Bill of Rights added to the U.S. Constitution 15 years later.

The Virginia declaration, largely the work of George Mason, was widely read by political leaders on both sides of the Atlantic. It declared that "all men are by nature equally free and independent and have certain inherent rights" of which they cannot deprive themselves or their posterity. These rights were "the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety."

Specific civil liberties enumerated included freedom of the press, the free exercise of religion, and the injunction that no man be deprived of his liberty except by the law of the land or by the judgment of his peers.
As a member of the Constitutional Convention, Mason strenuously opposed the compromise permitting the continuation of the slave trade until 1808. Although he was a Southerner, Mason castigated the trade as "disgraceful to mankind"; he favoured manumission and education for bondsmen and supported a system of free labour.

Because he also objected to the large and indefinite powers vested in the new government, he joined several other Virginians in opposing adoption of the new document. A Jeffersonian Republican, he believed that local government should be kept strong and central government weak. His criticism helped bring about the adoption of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution.

United Stated Declaration Of Independence (1776):

On July 4, 1776, the United States Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. Its primary author, Thomas Jefferson, wrote the Declaration as a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and as a statement announcing that the thirteen American Colonies were no longer a part of the British Empire. Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms. It was initially published as a printed broadsheet that was widely distributed and read to the public.

Philosophically, the Declaration stressed two themes: individual rights and the right of revolution. These ideas became widely held by Americans and spread internationally as well, influencing in particular the French Revolution.

The Constitution Of United Stated Of America (1787) & Bill Of Rights (1791):

Written during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia, the Constitution of the United States of America is the fundamental law of the US federal system of government and the landmark document of the Western world. It is the oldest written national constitution in use and defines the principal organs of government and their jurisdictions and the basic rights of citizens.
The first ten amendments to the Constitution-the Bill of Rights-came into effect on December 15, 1791, limiting the powers of the federal government of the United States and protecting the rights of all citizens, residents and visitors in American territory.

The Bill of Rights protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, the right to keep and bear arms, the freedom of assembly and the freedom to petition. It also prohibits unreasonable search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment and compelled self-incrimination. Among the legal protections it affords, the Bill of Rights prohibits Congress from making any law respecting establishment of religion and prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. In federal criminal cases it requires indictment by a grand jury for any capital offense, or infamous crime, guarantees a speedy public trial with an impartial jury in the district in which the crime occurred, and prohibits double jeopardy.

Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Of The Citizen(1789):

In 1789 the people of France brought about the abolishment of the absolute monarchy and set the stage for the establishment of the first French Republic. Just six weeks after the storming of the Bastille, and barely three weeks after the abolition of feudalism, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen) was adopted by the National Constituent Assembly as the first step toward writing a constitution for the Republic of France.

The Declaration proclaims that all citizens are to be guaranteed the rights of "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression." It argues that the need for law derives from the fact that "...the exercise of the natural rights of each man has only those borders which assure other members of the society the enjoyment of these same rights." Thus, the Declaration sees law as an "expression of the general will," intended to promote this equality of rights and to forbid "only actions harmful to the society."

The First Geneva Convention(1864):

In 1864, sixteen European countries and several American states attended a conference in Geneva, at the invitation of the Swiss Federal Council, on the initiative of the Geneva Committee. The diplomatic conference was held for the purpose of adopting a convention for the treatment of wounded soldiers in combat.

The main principles laid down in the Convention and maintained by the later Geneva Conventions provided for the obligation to extend care without discrimination to wounded and sick military personnel and respect for and marking of medical personnel transports and equipment with the distinctive sign of the red cross on a white background.

The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (1948):

By 1948, the United Nations' new Human Rights Commission had captured the world's attention. Under the dynamic chairmanship of Eleanor Roosevelt-President Franklin Roosevelt's widow, a human rights champion in her own right and the United States delegate to the UN-the Commission set out to draft the document that became the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Roosevelt, credited with its inspiration, referred to the Declaration as the international Magna Carta for all mankind. It was adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948.

In its preamble and in Article 1, the Declaration unequivocally proclaims the inherent rights of all human beings: "Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people… All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."

The Member States of the United Nations pledged to work together to promote the thirty Articles of human rights that, for the first time in history, had been assembled and codified into a single document. In consequence, many of these rights, in various forms, are today part of the constitutional laws of democratic nations.

Conclusion
Human rights advocacy continued into the early 21st century, with a focal point on achieving extra financial and political freedom[84]. In July 2022, the United international locations wellknown meeting passed a decision spotting that everybody on this planet has the proper to a wholesome environment. He called on nations to step up their efforts to make certain that their residents have get admission to to a "easy, wholesome and sustainable environment."

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