A foreign Court is defined as a court situate outside India and not
established or continued by the authority of the Central Government. And a
Foreign Judgment means a judgment of a foreign court. In other words, a foreign
judgment means adjudication by a foreign court upon a matter before it.
Thus judgments delivered by courts in England, France, Germany, USA, etc. are
Foreign judgment. Sections 13 and 14 enact a rule of res judicata in case of
foreign judgments. These provisions embody the principle of private
international law that a judgment delivered by a foreign court of competent
jurisdiction can be enforced by an Indian court and will operate as res judicata
between the parties thereto except in the cases mentioned in Section 13.
What is foreign Judgement?
The term foreign judgments defined under Section 2 (6) of the code of civil
procedure means the judgment of a foreign court, and Section-13 of the code
provides the criteria with the code for recognition of a foreign judgment and is
a pre-condition to any enforcement proceedings unless a foreign judgment passes
the conclusiveness test under Section 13 of the Code of Civil Procedure Code, it
cannot be enforced.
What is a Foreign court?
"Foreign court " defined under Section 2 (5) means court outside India and not
established or continued by the authority of the central government. Criminal
procedure code sections that deal with foreign judgment are Sections 13, Section
14, and Section 44. Section 13 embodies the principles of private international
law that a Court will not enforce a foreign judgment if the judgment is not that
of a competent court. The rules laid down under Section 13 are substantive law,
as well, along with being that of procedural law.
Nature And Scope of Sec. 13, C.P.C.
A foreign judgment may operate as res judicata except in the six cases specified
in the section 13 and subject to the other conditions mentioned in Sec. 11 of
C.P.C. The rules laid down in this section are rules of substantive law and not
merely of procedure. The fact that the foreign judgment may fail to show that
every separate issue, such as, the status of the contracting parties, or the
measure of damages, was separately framed and decided, is irrelevant unless it
can be shown that failure brings the case within the purview of one of the
exceptions to Section 13.
Object of Section.13 And 14
The judgment of a foreign court is enforced on the principle that where a court
of competent jurisdiction has adjudicated upon a claim, a legal obligation
arises to satisfy that claim. The rules of private international law of each
State must in the very nature of things differ, but by the comity of nations
certain rules are recognized as common to civilized jurisdictions.
Through part of the judicial system of each State these common rules have been
adopted to adjudicate upon disputes involving a foreign element and to
effectuate judgments of foreign courts in certain matters, or as a result of
international conventions. Such recognition is accorded not as an act of
courtesy but on considerations of justice, equity and good conscience. An
awareness of foreign law in a parallel jurisdiction would be a useful guideline
in determining our notions of justice and public policy. We are sovereign within
our territory but "it is no derogation of sovereignty to take account of foreign
As has been rightly observed by a great jurist: "We are not so provincial as to
say that every solution of a problem is wrong because we deal with it otherwise
at home"; and we shall not brush aside foreign judicial process unless doing so
"would violate some fundamental principle of justice, some prevalent conception
of good morals, some deep-rooted tradition of the common weal."
Legal and judicial framework Which legislative and regulatory provisions govern
the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in your jurisdiction?
In India, there have been no states with various administrative regimes for the
recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. The Code, which is the main
legislation, is uniformly applicable all across the country.
There are three primary sources of law about the enforcement of foreign
judgments in India:
- Laws passed by the parliament (i.e. the Code): Section 44A of the Code
explains the constitutional principle that the judgment handed down by a
Superior Court of the Reciprocating Territory (as previously highlighted
Government within Official Gazette) is implemented in India as though it
were a ruling enacted by the Indian District Courts. That being said, a
judgment emerging from a non-reciprocating territory cannot be immediately
mandated in the same way and a fresh case should be issued for its
regulation in which such a judgment is of only evidentiary value. Also, it
may well be noted that both of the classifications of judgments referred to
above are needed to comply with the terms set out in Section 13 of the Code,
which offers that a foreign judgment is definitive. However, Section 14 of
the Code gives rise to a supposition in pursuit of the authority of the
foreign court making the judgment in question.
- Bilateral treaties with the reciprocating countries concerning
recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments to which India is a party;
- Judicial precedents: the landmark case of Moloji Nar Singh Rao v Shankar
Saran reads that a foreign judgment not emanating from a superior court of a
reciprocating territory cannot be executed in India without the filing of a
new suit in which the said judgment has only evidentiary value.
One of the fundamental requirements of recognition is that a foreign judgment
must not be inconclusive4 under the Code. According to Section 13 of the Code, a
foreign judgment will be inconclusive if it:
- is pronounced by a court that was not of competent jurisdiction;
- is not given on the merits of the case;
- appears to be founded on an incorrect view of international law or a
refusal to recognize Indian law (where applicable);
- violates principles of natural justice;
- is obtained by fraud; or
- sustains a claim founded on a breach of Indian law.
The Code presumes in favor of the competency of the jurisdiction of the
foreign court unless proved to the contrary. The landmark judgment of
Ramanathan Chettyar and Another v Kalimuthu Pillay and Another
the following circumstances in which the foreign court is said to have competent
- where the defendant is a subject of the country in which the judgment
- where the defendant is a resident of the country in which the action was
- where the defendant has in a previous case filed a suit in the same
- where the defendant has voluntarily appeared; or
- where the defendant has contracted to submit itself to the jurisdiction
of the foreign court.
Recognition of a foreign judgment also depends upon the conditions of
reciprocity, which are the foundation of international treaties governing the
recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in India.
Which bilateral and multilateral instruments on the recognition and enforcement
of foreign judgments affect your jurisdiction?
Though India is not a party to the Convention on the Recognition and Compliance
of International Judgments in Political and Commercial Matters, India has joined
into reciprocal co-operation and mutual benefit agreements including numerous
States concerning the enforcement of foreign directives and mandates.
The reciprocating territory is specified in Section 44A of the Code to mean a
territory designated as one in the Notification Dated by the central government.
The United Kingdom, Aden, Fiji, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia,
Trinidad and Tobago, New Zealand, the Cook Islands (including Niue) as well as
the Trust Regions of Western Samoa, Hong Kong, Papua, and New Guinea and
Bangladesh are presently the nations registered as reciprocating territories .
Besides that, India also signed bilateral agreements with the aforementioned
countries, however as reciprocal regions have not yet been informed:
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bulgaria, France, Kazakhstan, Mongolia,
Turkey, and Ukraine. The implementation of judgments and
mandates by the judiciary in such areas follows the same process as
non-reciprocating territories, pending notification as reciprocating
Which courts have jurisdiction to hear applications for the recognition and
enforcement of foreign judgments?
According to Section 44-A of the Code, the supreme authority for the recognition
and enforcement of the foreign judgment is a district court with the authority
to look into the matter in conflict or a high court with ordinary original civil
jurisdiction mostly on the subject of the debate.
In the specific instance of a judgment of a non-reciprocating territory, a civil
lawsuit for even a judicial decision should be brought just before trial
Requirements for enforceability
The foreign judgment should be final and should not fall within the ambit of
some of the special cases specified in Section 13 of the Code of Civil
Indian law doesn't stipulate the kinds of judgments that may be implemented.
Instead, Section 13 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, excludes those foreign
judgments which fall within any of the clauses (a) to (f) of Section 13 as set
If the foreign judgment is not final: A foreign judgment shall be definitive
about any issue effectively decided by all this between any party candidates or
between party leaders whereby they, and any of them, prove to pursue the case
under the same title, other than:
- Where it has not been pronounced by a court of competent jurisdiction;
- Where it has not been given on the merits of the case;
- Where it appears on the face of the proceedings to be founded on an
incorrect view of international law or a refusal to recognize the law of
India in cases in which such law is applicable;
- Where the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained are opposed to
- Where it has been obtained by fraud; and
- Where it sustains a claim founded on a breach of any law in force in
The international judgment should be completely definitive in all its
adjudicative parts. The party seeking compliance must ensure that the foreign
judgment or decree does not fall under the exceptions referred to above before
seeking to impose a foreign judgment or decree. If any of these exceptions are
protected by a foreign judgment or order, it will not be considered conclusive
and will therefore not be enforceable in India.
Injunctive decisions on charges, authority, divorce decrees, financial
judgments, compulsory enforcement actions, and anti-suit enforcement actions
have all been accepted by Indian courts as being enforceable. They also held
that even ex parte judgments are binding if the complete existing legal
processes are implemented, the decision must be based on the merits of the case
and the claimant of the judgment was ordered to present a case in the absence of
defense by even the accused.
Default decisions, overview or specific procedure orders, statutory decisions,
and judgments authorizing compensatory damages and fines or quasi-judicial
orders, on the other hand, have been found unenforceable in India.
There is no enforceability of a foreign judgment if it is open to challenge in a
foreign jurisdiction. To be deemed enforceable, an international decision must
be conclusive. The decision would not be considered definitive and binding for
compliance in India if an appeal against it is pending in an international court
Recognition and enforcement process
It is not a different mechanism to accept international decisions. Recognition
is ipso jure, as in most other jurisdictions, that is, the final adjudication of
the parties' interests. As given in Section 13 of the Code of Civil Practice, an
international decision is recognized if it is definitive.
The legal consequences of acknowledgment and compliance are distinct.
Recognizing an international verdict may only serve as res judicata and is a
condition for compliance. If the international judgment was not given in a
reciprocating jurisdiction, it must be applied by a separate judicial mechanism
as provided in Section 44A of the Code of Civil Procedure for reciprocating
territories, or by filing a civil claim.
Reciprocating territory: The holder of the order should register an application
with the appropriate Indian court seeking implementation of an international
judgment or decree. It is, therefore, appropriate to request a certified copy of
the decree and a certificate from the supreme court of a foreign country
specifying the total amount, if any, settled by the decree.
Following the appeal, the implementing courts would issue a summons to the
judgment debtor to prove cause why the decree should not be executed. The
judgment debtor has the right to appeal to compliance at this point on the basis
that the judgment violates any of the provisions set out in Section 13 of the
Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
The following are the steps of such an executions case in India launched to
execute a decree through Section 44A of the Code of Civil Procedure:
Enforcing foreign judgment
Can the foreign judgment be enforced against third parties?
- Application for compliance:
The holder of the decree shall file with the appropriate court an appeal for
enforcement of the decree.
- Notice to show cause:
The court would then send a notice to the person against whom the execution
is requested, asking him to show cause for the failure to enforce the order.
- No contest:
If the individual against whom the decree is now to be imposed does not
demonstrate or show reason how the decree should not be enforced, the court
will accept and impose the international decree as if it were a judgment of
the Indian court and will authorize the holder of the decree to enforce the
judgment against the debtor's estate.
- The holder of the decree may ask the court to provide the judgment
debtor with orders, instructing it to report any assets and liabilities. The
court shall comply with both the attachment and selling of those properties
when these assets are revealed.
- Non-reciprocating territory:
The holder of the judgment must bring an application for an international
judgment or order. The suit will only be enforced as a domestic decree under
Order 21 of the Code of Civil Procedure after it has been authorized and
No, mostly against the entity for which it has been made can an international
decision or decree be applied. In particular, an international judgment is
enforceable only against parties to whom it is directed or against any of the
groups alluded to during the judgment to which, aside from the parties involved
in the conflict, it can be imposed.
Y. Narasimha v. Venkata Lakshmi
This is the popular judgment in which the Supreme Court ruled that a divorce
granted by a foreign court was void in India unless it was granted in compliance
with Indian divorce laws and not fraudulently.
In this case, the appellant (Narasimha) married the respondent (Venkata) in
Tirupati, India, in 1975, in compliance with Hindu law. The couple last settled
in New Orleans together and then the appellant moved to the USA. Later, in 1978,
the appellant filed a petition for the dissolution of marriage in Missouri, USA,
and secured an irreversible breakup of marriage decree by legally meeting the
condition of 90 days of residency in Missouri, USA. The wife had made it known
that she would not consent to the Missouri Court's jurisdiction. Respondent
lodged a criminal lawsuit against the appellant for bigamy after he married
In light of the international court's decree for the termination of marriage,
the learned Magistrate discharged the appellant. However, in the appeal, the
High Court changed the order on the basis that the Photostat copy of the
declaration was not permissible for proof and, accordingly, the petitioner
lodged a request for dismissal well before Hon'ble Supreme Court against both
the order of the High Court.
The international court's jurisdiction, as well as the grounds on which relief
is given, must be consistent with the matrimonial rule that regulates the
parties' union. However, in a situation where the husband applied for divorce in
a foreign country, the Court made the following exceptions:
- The wife must be domiciled and resident of that foreign land and the
foreign court should decide the case based on the Hindu Law;
- The wife voluntarily attends and contests the claims in the court
proceedings as per Hindu Law;
- The wife consents to grant the divorce.
Thus, on the grounds of the aforementioned provisions, the Hon'ble Court
rejected the application upon this basis that the authority of the forum, and
also the condition upon which divorce decree was given, is not in conformity
with the Hindu law under which applicants were married and also that the
appellant had not applied to the court's jurisdiction or acceded to its
There is almost no issue having to rely on foreign court decisions. Even so,
judges must be careful not to give greater credit to case law decided in
completely different social and economic scenarios. In this age of globalization
of legislative requirements, there is no justification to restrain judicial
dialogue among different legal systems based on similar rules and ideals. But,
without a reason to suspect, neither of these judgments are enforceable upon the
Supreme Court of India, although they are institutions of high compelling
valuation to which the Judges may justifiably turn for guidance. People must,
however, be judged in the sense of India's standards and regulatory procedures
and the practicalities of lawsuits in India.
- Rahul (BALLB 7 Sem.), - Geeta Institute Of Law
- Vanshaj (BBA.LL.B 7 Sem.) - Geeta Institute Of Law
Please Drop Your Comments