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An Overview of Social Processes Theory Under Criminology

Social processes theory shows criminality as a function of peoples interaction with various organizations, Institutions, and process in society; people in all work of life have the potential to become criminals if they maintain destructive social relationships.

Social process theory has three main branches:
1. Social learning theory emphasizes people to learn how to commit crime.
2. Social control theory analysis the failure of society to control criminal tendency.
3. Labeling theory maintains the negative labels produced by criminal careers

The social learning theory is one of the type of social process theory. It shows that people learn to be vigorous by perceiving other acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent Acts.

There are two types of social learning theory:-
Differential association social learning theory:- In criminology, Differential association theory is developed by Edwin Sutherland.People learn to commit from exposure to antisocial definition.
# Explain the presence of crime in all elements of social structure.
# Explain why some people in high crime area refrain from criminality
# Can apply to adults and juveniles.

Principles of Differential Association
1. Criminal behavior is learned as a by-product of interacting with others.
2. Learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal group.
3. Learning criminal behavior involves assimilating the techniques of committing crime.
4. The specific direction of motives is learned from perception of various aspects of legal court as favorable or not.
5. A person becomes a criminal when he/she perceives more favorable than the unfavorable consequences to violating the law
6. It may vary in duration frequency intensity and priority.
7. The process of learning criminal behavior involves all of the mechanisms involved in any learning process

Drawbacks of Differential association
1. Fails to account for the origin of criminal clarity.
2. Presume criminal and Lawbreaking Acts are rational and systematic
3. Circular in reasoning

Neutralization Theory
It shows that law violators learn to neutralize conventional values and attitudes enabling them to push back and forth between criminal and conventional behavior . it explains why many lawbreaking doesn’t become adult criminals it also explains why youthful law offender can participate in ordinary behavior.

Basics of neutralization theory
1. Criminals sometimes voice their regret over their illegal acts.
2. Offenders frequently respect and admire honest law-abiding persons.
3. Criminals define whom they can victimize.

Social control theory
This shows that people commit crime when the process binding them to society are weakened or broken.It explains onset of crime;can apply to both lower and middle classes,has been empirically tested.

What forces some people to obey rules
1. self-control
2. Commitment conformity

A strong moral sense that renders someone incapable of hurting others and violating social norms

Commitment of conformity
Develops with a strong commitment to conventional institutions, individual and processes.

Contemporary social control theory
Joins the onset of criminality to the incapacitate of the ties that bind people to society. There is four main elements of the social bond according to contemporary social control theory
1. Attachment
2. Commitment
3. Involvement
4. Belief

Social reaction (Labeling) Theory
The social labeling theory one of the type of social process theory. Social labeling shows that people become criminals when labeled as such and when they accepted the labels as a personal identity. It explains society’s or surroundings role in creating aberrant. it’s also explains why ;some juvenile offenders/criminals do not become adult.

Main elements of social labeling theory
1. Behaviors that are considered criminal are highly subjective
2. Crime is defined by those in power .
3. Not only are Acts labeled, so too are people
4. Both positive and negative labels involve subjective interpretation of behavior.

Contributions of social reaction theory
1. Identifies the role played by social control agents in crime causation.
2. Recognizes the criminality is not a disease or pathological behavior
3. Distinguishes between criminal acts and criminal careers.
4. Contributes to understanding crime because of its focus on interaction as well as the situation surrounding the crime.

Social process theory lies on its three pillars social learning,social control and social labeling. social process theory promotes conventional line of focus on the families and school of strength and reshapes an offenders or criminals self image or self attitude. It helps to redirect the criminal or offender;or helps to recover self image or self attitude of offender in the view of society.

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