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Experimental Criminology And Its Scope In India

The word criminology is derived from the Latin word "crimen" which means accusations and from the Greek word "logos", which means study, and the origin of the term can be traced back to 1890. The basic meaning of criminology is the study of accusations. It can be explained more like a scientific study of crime including law enforcement and the justice system. Criminology handles the scientific study of prevention, nature, and extent of every aspect of criminal behaviour.

The term was coined by Italian Professor Raffaele Garofalo in 1885. He was a professor of law and he wrote almost 9 books that deal with the study of criminals and crime. The first book on criminology was written by an American sociologist, Maurice Parmalee.[1]

What Is Experimental Criminology?

Experimental criminology is one of the branches of criminology which handles scientific knowledge of crime thus helping the justice delivery system. It uses the most advanced scientific methods to answer major questions about the causes, preventions, punishment, and effects of the crime.[2]

The topic of experimental criminology has been developed in direct response to the many questions regarding the cause of crime, that the lawmakers have. It can be used to find out things like, how to prevent a murder or crime by a high-risk gang of people. The experiments of experimental criminology are mainly focused on how to deal with a crime and on trying to reduce the crime rate in society. The matter of experimental technology is related to the crimes of modern-day.[3]

It depends on the works of statisticians, criminologists, and on many other experts who have complete knowledge of the justice system and crimes. Even though it is not well developed, experimental criminology can be noted as the most competent way to assess the link between the cause of crime and to aid in framing precautionary measures to help the justice delivery system.

Experimental criminology can be pondered as encountering the crime which is connected to refining the evidence-based movement which is predominant in society. Using scientific evidence in experiments under an evidence-based system can enhance the growth of society. Randomized controlled trials, natural experiments, instrumental variables, and case-controlled designs are the procedures that are comprised in Experimental criminology.

Experimental criminology is divided into two broad categories:
  1. Randomized experimental design:
    The randomized experimental design is used when the subjects of the experiment are assigned for the treatment and control of groups. It allows a clear evaluation of the effects and cause of the experiment. The classic form of this experiment includes three pairs of components. They are:
    • Independent and dependent variables
    • Treatment and control groups
    • Pre-testing and post-testing
  2. Quasi-experimental design:
    The quasi-experimental design is used when the subjects of the experiment are accidentally assigned to the control or treatment of conditions nonetheless rather if statistical controls are used to study effects and cause. Even though there are many types of quasi-experimental research designs, the element that is most frequently missing is the random assignment of subjects to the control and treatment conditions. For the development of an equivalent control group, the researcher usually uses matching instead of randomization.

Pros And Cons
In estimating the several features related to experimental criminology as an expedient of crime prevention, the field is in the initial phase and is thus used primarily as a trial method. Experimental criminology reports focus on issues of justice and crime, offering practical direction to the judiciary, therefore supporting the judgments.[4]

Thus, it makes the whole judicial system come to a balance with the simplified view, which is modern, of the scientific fraternity in that way resolving what is right and wrong, by the courts, more efficiently.

Experimental criminology methodology poses a smaller number of threats to society and reports many issues that cannot be countered by analytical criminology. Experimental criminology is receiving acquaintances recently in India, and both the judicial system and the police are using it to make their judgments and investigations much easier.

In the modern era, experimental criminology has brought down the threat of causing damage by discovering more efficient and humane replacements for long imprisonments. The suggestion made in this process makes a tangible and strong point that suggests the full practicality of the parts of the evidence and this, eventually, becomes the highest accomplishment by satisfying the better idea developed.

Until now, experts of crime have invested most of their efforts in the science of criminal concepts and crime patterns rather than thinking about how to avoid them and satisfy the consequences.[5] The transportation of scientific facts, which is compelling, is a difficult task and given the Indian judicial system many times, the truth remains not answered and thus the balance between public policy and criminal conclusions cannot be balanced.

The big breach here is that the crime is organized still, and just not trying to do that becomes an issue in this developing field. To produce scholarly work which puts them out to find establish working relationships with a legal entity of the nation brings the criminal experts under a lot of pressure and the situation is the same in India. This has an important impact on the usual function of the criminal profession, therefore making a gap between the legislators and them. Indian courts observe such evidence as the last option to establish the truth and most of it is governed by law.

Scope Of Experimental Criminology In India

Although the state of experimental criminology is currently unknown, it's often thought to be the foremost effective method for determining the cause-effect relationship of crime and assisting within the development of preventive measures to assist the justice delivery system. However, when experimental criminology is finished correctly, it causes fewer risks for society and reports a much bigger number of cases that helps in analyzing the causes of crime.

This strategy is employed by both the police and therefore the court system in India to streamline investigations and judgments. In India, experimental criminology is becoming more well-known. it's decreased the threat of causing harm within the epoch by developing more humane and effective alternatives to long run imprisonment[6].

An observation produced using this method makes a transparent point, which makes the evidence credible, then serves the target that it absolutely was created. Experimental Criminology tends to help to find the particular cause and action of the crime and may help to realize justice against the crimes to the particular accused. It provides an analogous set-up of the environment to the place where the particular incident befell.

Experiments handled under this, aids to unravel issues about the done: its prevention, penalty and injury. Possibilities of mistaken inferences are minimised because these experiments aren't settled in laboratories but in day to day world atmosphere.8 . Experimental criminology is meticulously connected to escalate the evidence-based movement prevailing for policy. the event of Indian society may be escalated if the scientific evidence utilized in these experiments, is of highest quality under the evidence-based movement.

In many respects, the evidence-based method may be a direct descendant of the experimenting society concept. In India, it's tough to implement improvements based upon Criminological interpretations thanks to politics, bureaucratic hindrances and ideological clashes. India being home to innumerable communities cannot viably hold a law founded upon such research because in a technique or the opposite there would be a conflict of interest between several communities which again becomes a hindrance.

In Indian judicatory, empirical evidence isn't comparable to legislative provisions and this is often the very best failure of India within the field of Criminology. Indian Courts reflect such evidence because the last choice to know the reality and far is ruled by legal jargon which is difficult for others to grasp.

The existing evidence proposes that the number of randomized experiments in experimental criminology will rise because the 21st century moves on. In determining effective crime control policy and practice, experimental criminology findings have a privilege over the outcomes of the weaker research designs.[7] The outputs of randomized experiments are taken as more scientifically valid than the outputs from quasi-experiments and observational research studies.

Executing randomized experiments in field settings will be very tough for a no of ethical, practical, and political concerns. Though, many of those blocks to experimentation can prevail over; so, randomized experiments will last to become ever-important parts of criminological inquiry. Experimental criminology reports strong issues in crime and justice, offering empirical direction to the judiciary thus assisting the judgments.

It makes the entire system come at balance with the contemporary rationalised view of the scientific fraternity thereby making courts resolve what's right and wrong more efficiently. There should be a technique implemented to present a good release of experimental criminology in India. If implemented effectively then it may be said and proved that Experimental criminology within the epoch has reduced the threat of causing damage by finding more humane and effective substitutes for long imprisonment.

  1. Mullally, P. (2017). What Is Experimental Criminology? [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Oct. 2022].
  2. Farrington, D.P., L�sel, F., Braga, A.A., Mazerolle, L., Raine, A., Sherman, L.W. and Weisburd, D. (2019). Experimental criminology: looking back and forward on the 20th anniversary of the Academy of Experimental Criminology. Journal of Experimental Criminology. doi:10.1007/s11292-019-09384-z.
  3. (2019). What is Experimental Criminology? [online] Available at:
  4. Essentials, L. (n.d.). Experimental Criminology. [online] Law Essentials. Available at: [Accessed 6 Oct. 2022].
  5. Carr, P.J. (2010). The problem with experimental criminology: A response to Sherman's 'Evidence and Liberty'. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 10(1), pp.3�10. doi:10.1177/1748895809352589.
  6. The Amikus Qriae. (2021). Experimental Criminology. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Oct. 2022].
  7. Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Experimental Criminology - Criminal Justice - IResearchNet. [online] Available at:

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