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Critical Analysis Of The Indecent Representation Of Women Act Its Impact On Indian Media-How I Media Is Indirectly Engraving Patriarch

This research work is an honest, unbiased and gender neutral work, which tries to show how our movies, advertisements, books and print media etc. has cut the wings for opportunities of women. This research paper tries to answer questions such as is Indian culture teaching us to dominate women? How our brains are stuck in stereotype thinking loop? Did media played any role in defining gender roles? Etc. Also this research paper tries to give solutions for creating gender equality within India. The language used in this research paper is very simple English language, because motivation behind this research paper is to spread knowledge as well as awareness about gender stereotypes within common citizens.

Women plays the most vital role in development of any country and community. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar has said a very beautiful quote for development of any community "I measure the progress of a community with the degree of progress women have achieved". This quote also displays the significant importance of role of women in development of a community.

Indian culture is praised all over the world but if look closely we can see that Indian culture is like the moon the world is able to see the only one side (bright side) of the moon and other dark side of moon is always hidden no one has ever seen it, but we at least know it exists. The dark side of Indian culture is not known to the world and it is known to the Indians but we ignore it like we are ignoring an elephant in a room.

Indian culture has misrepresented women from a long time and no one has courage to raise questions to government as well as so called dharma gurus and no one is allowed to say anything or write anything regarding pavitra granths which teaches how to dominate a women, which teaches what are duties of a women, compares women with animals and list goes on.

In this century electronic and print media plays an important role in development of women in any community, but if we look closely then we will be able to notice that how print media from Indian history has misrepresented women and currently how electronic and print media is still following our historical books to define gender roles and engrave patriarchy on our minds. All the issues related with women are completely neglected in this Nation and no one has a courage to ask why actual issues of our culture are getting neglected? 4

Misrepresentation of women in Indian History

Print Media and Electronic media plays an important role in development of women. In ancient India print media was the only form of media existed. In ancient India print media contained Vedas, Purans, Smrities and various books written by the dharma gurus. During those times women were represented as a property which belonged to fathers, then husbands then their sons.

These books have defined our Indian culture and many Indians follow these books very strictly and obeys the things and guidelines written in these books without questioning them. We can list thousands of books which misrepresents women but we are focusing on three major books that defined women, put limitations on women and caged women in four walls of a house and tied them to strict cultural guidelines.
  1. Misrepresentation of women In VEDAS
    Vedas have given a significant importance to women but it also binds them in various cultural rules which creates a gap between development opportunities for women. There are many verses in these books which are very derogatory when it comes to women and it is still followed in India. According to Vedas gender roles were defined very strictly, role of men included supporting their families and carry out their duties according to their class and role of women included becoming a mother, raising their children, do housekeeping work and support their husbands in their work.

    During vedic times women had little freedom and equal status as male members of the society but vedic content were full of conflicting statements when it came to women's rights. A verse in athrva veda says "Let a female child be born somewhere else, here let a man child be born"1 . Also a verse in righ veda says women are compared and with hyenas and also called as hyenas.
  2. Misrepresentation of women In Manusmriti
    According to stories Manu was the first male on this planet and he wrote his thoughts in a book named manusmriti and then he gave that book to rishis in India. Manu killed the freedom of women by his manusmriti. Before his manusmriti women were allowed to study vedas but when he wrote his manusmriti he specifically wrote in a verse that women are not allowed to study vedas and people blindly followed it and banned women from studying vedas 2.

    A verse in manusmriti converts women to a property of male according to it in childhood women is subject to her father, in her youth a woman is subject to her husband and it also clearly says a women must not be independent 3. Also manusmriti gives character certificate to a woman based on her siblings, shloka 11 of manusmriti says if a woman has no brother then an intelligent man should not marry her4. Shloka 148 and 147 says that we should never give freedom to our women in her childhood her father, in her youth her husband and in her old age her children must have a watch on her 5.

    In manusmriti a husband is given status of lord and wife is his devotee and if a wife is not listening to her husband's orders then there are various punishments defined for them, for example if a wife violates her duty that she owes to her lord (husband) then king should feed that woman to hungry dogs this the punishment defined in manusmriti for a rude rule breaking wife6 . Manusmriti is the worst book to follow because it only teaches to dominate a woman and tying her in four walls of a house.

  3. Misrepresentation of women In PURANAS
    Indian people are proud of their purans and many Indians follow it very strictly. Many puranas teaches people to dominate women and also teaches that a husband is a God for his wife and she must needs to serve him till her last breath and die after death of her husband. A verse in Bramha Puran says highest duty of a women is to immolate herself after death of her husband7 . There are many books which are step by step guides for dominating a women and many Indian people follow them blindly no one has courage to ask and if someone raises questions and arguments based on facts regarding those books then there are punishments defined for such people in those books.
  4. Cultural Impact of Misrepresentation of women done in Indian Historical Books
    All these Indian historical books has misrepresented women, these books have two sides one side describes women as a goddess and other side dominates that goddess. These books have shaped our Indian culture, these books have engraved patriarchy on our minds and these books have defined gender roles thousands of years ago and these gender roles are still followed in India. These books supports child marriages, dowry, sati and many more things which violates basic fundamental rights of any human being.

    These books never consider a woman as a human being, these books always compares women with things, animals and money. According to many Indians Chanakyaneeti is one of the greatest book which has been written in Indian history, wow a child or a young person might think that it is a must read book and I will get the knowledge to survive in this cruel world, but all chanakyaneeti does is tells you that woman is the greatest distraction a man can have in his life, if a man falls in love with a woman then his thinking capacity is destroyed and he becomes slave of that woman, it also tells that a wise man should never trust any woman because all a woman need is sex and all woman uses men for their personal gains only. All this book does is defines gender roles and promotes patriarchy.

    Now think if a child or a young boy read this book his mind will be filled with all the negative thoughts regarding women and he will become a patriarch and never be able to trust or fall in love or be happy with any woman. We Indians should be ashamed of ourselves for calling this book as one of the greatest books written in Indian history. These books have created a huge gap between women and their freedom.

    This gap can be filled only with the help of proper questioning but no one has courage to question the things written in these books and if a woman tries to question these things then her character is questioned by fellow women as well as men belonging to this so called Indian Culture. Also key issue here is if you question these books then people who deeply believe teachings from these books will say that you have read a wrong version of the book that you are questioning. Teachings from these books are deeply rooted in Indian people and it is very difficult to change their ideologies and thinking towards women.
  5. Misrepresentation of women in Modern India
    Modern India is equipped with state of the art technologies related with electronic as well as print media, which can be used for spreading awareness about social issues and achieve actual development of millions of communities based in India especially it can be used for development of women, changing the ideologies of Indians towards women and bridge the gap between women and men but it is going in a wrong path and it is destroying the development opportunities for women and it is indirectly promoting patriarchy.

    India has reached on mars but its women are at same position from thousand years, Indian people are worried about what is on mars and every news channel, every newspaper, every magazine is worried about what is on mars and no one is worried about displaying the actual situation of women in our nation this thing happened when India reached on mars and it is happening from many years.

    Millions of examples can be listed about how Indian media hides the dark side of Indian culture, for example during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown acts of domestic violence against women has been increased tremendously but no news channel has covered this important issue, because domestic violence is a very common thing in India and it is part of day to day life and no one needs to worry about it and address it, also millions of Indians also accepts it because it has been engraved in our minds by this media only. Indian media is diverting people from actual issues and forcing unnecessary ideologies on people and patriarchy is one of them.

    Media has defined a long list for characteristics of genders. According to it a man has to be strong, aggressive, active, masculine, and mainly dominant on the other hand a woman has to be emotional, intuitive, weak, feminine, and passive. No one has control over these kind of misrepresentation of women as well as men. Millions of Indians waste their time while finding a woman or man equipped with characteristics which are engraved on our souls by the media.
    1. Portrayal of Idol women by Indian TV shows and Films Indian TV
      Shows and movies have defined and are still defining the characteristics of an idol women and these shows are deeply influencing the way a person judges a woman. According to these shows and movies an idol sanskari bhartiya nari should be well dressed, should be obedient to her husband as well as her in-laws, should be polite and must listen to her husband, and the list goes on.

      Many people says that these shows are for entertainment purpose only we don't take it seriously but they don't know that how these shows affects their subconscious mind and affects their decision making powers.
        For example in 99% of Indian TV shows women are always shown in kitchen doing household work and how happy they are by doing household work and we also think that the ladies in our house should also do household work because it makes them happy and the household work has to be done by a women because it is her contribution towards her family.

      Many people might disagree with above example but according to a recent survey done in lockdown period in gender roles more than 50% of male participants said that they do not do household work and they think that it is the responsibility of a woman 8. According to Indian TV serials a typical idol Indian bahu or nari wares an expensive saree at home, also wares a heavy makeup and does not interferes within family discussions she enjoys cooking and celebrating festivals and sometimes does planning and plotting against other family members. The list of shows which pottery women as a weak link is a very long list, we will focus on few Indian TV serials.

      On Star Pravah there is a serial named "Rang Maza Vegla" it means "My different Color"9 . The main story line of this show is to show how Indian society treats women who have a dark skin color. The irony of this show is that for the role of dark skin woman they hired a woman with fair skin and they put makeup of dark skin on her face. How this kind of shows will change gender stereotypes in our society by hiring a girl with a fair skin for playing a role of a dark skin woman? Also the serial named "Kyouki Sans Bhi Kabhi Bahu thi" has also destroyed many families.

      This serial was the most watched serial in during its air time in year 2000 to 200810 . Basically the story line showed how women should struggle to keep the joint family together and how some women can be really bad that are trying to break this supper happy joint family.

      Also this serial has defined some ultrahigh standards for adarsh bahu. We Indians should be ashamed of ourselves for comparing our women and telling our women to be like characters in that serial which is totally impractical.
    2. Portrayal of Idol women by Indian Advertisements
      1. How Advertisement Films have created a mythological world of picture perfect women
        Now a days marketing is the most vital part of any business and advertisement plays a key role in promoting any product. We are always surrounded by different types of advertisements such as online ads, online video ads and advertisements which are shot for showing on television.

        Also advertisements embeds a visual representation of product as well as the person who is promoting it and what that person is doing with that product and it leaves an influence on our thinking capacity and ideology. If you notice more than 50% of ads objectifies women intentionally and sometimes very rarely unintentionally.

        For example in fairness cream advertisements models are too much perfect they don't have any kind of imperfections such as wrinkles, pimples, dull and dark skin and etc. These type of ads impact our subconscious mind and we start to believe these things and starts accepting it as reality and also starts excepting these kind of women in our lives.

        Also it affects the thinking of women because women also starts thinking that if they use these products then they can also be like models shown in the advertisements. Also these types of advertisements makes an impression which says if you have a dark skin you will be less confident and if you use their product you will get fair skin and confidence in 7 days only13 . But if we look at the real situation then we can understand there are hundreds of software involved in an ad film making and these software are used to hide all the imperfections of the models.
      2. How Advertisement Films and Newspaper advertisements have defined gender roles in India
        How gender roles are portrayed in advertisements is a very important part of any advertisement because it not only defines role of a gender but it also assigns it to in real world and people also follow it.

        According to a study in year 2018 on Diwali advertisements it was found that only 17 out of 80 ads were boycotting gender stereotypes and in those 17 advertisements women were not assigned typical Indian gender based roles, and in remaining all advertisements women were shown doing cooking or serving food, doing household work and accepting gifts from the male members of society14 .

        In home appliances advertisements men were only posing with products and it was shown that women who were actually using it so indirectly it gives a message that women are the one who has to use home appliances and not men. Also when it came to jewelry advertisements it was shown that women were accepting jewelry items from men.

        Also if we look at gender roles then they are engraved in our mind by these advertisements let's have a look at another advertisement, in Johnson's Baby product advertisements have you ever noticed a man? You will only find women promoting these products in every advertisement, so indirectly it defines that a woman is the one who has to take care of the child15 .

        Also if we look at one of the oldest ad which has same theme and defines that cleaning bathroom, toilet and kitchen is women's job is it ad of Harpic. They have same theme from years they hire a popular male celebrity which enters in house of any random woman and checks her toilet and bathroom and tell her that it is not clean and to clean it properly you must use Harpic, currently Akshay Kumar is promoting this advertisement who always tells women to be independent and now he is promoting such ad which defines stereotype gender role 16.

        Look at any cleaning product ad in India you will find that a women is being instructed how to clean it, let's look at an example of dish washers ads in India, take any random ad in India you will find that a woman is cleaning her dishes and a random man or women suggests her to use some product we need to change these kind of gender based scripts, actually scripts promoting gender stereotypes must be banned in India.

        Also if we look at any detergent advertisement we will find that a man comes home after a long day at work and his wife happily sees the stains on his cloths and decides to wash it with some product and after washing those cloths end shot is always man and his wife happily promoting that product, it gives an indirect message that all these tasks belong to women and men has to work hard to earn money and women should do all the house hold work.
      3. OTT (Over the top media services), a neglected part Currently online media publishing sites are in trend.
        Websites such as amazon prime, Netflix, Zee 5, Sony LIV and many more are publishing online movies and web series directly on their streaming services. According to me many of the web series and movies published on these sites are questionable and represents women as a sexual object only. For example the web series named Rasbhari produced and released by Amazon Prime has many questionable scenes, such as in an episode a girl child is shown dancing in front of drunk men, also students are made part of a sexual comedy22 .

        Key thing to notice here is that how these kind of scenes are getting published directly only where any young child can watch it as well as these kind of series are again promoting gender stereotypes? The answer is currently India has no law to monitor online content, so these websites can publish anything. Government can only take action only if any porn content is published by these sites. This is not only web series which potratrays women as sexual objects there are dozons of webs series like this for example Gandi Baat (All Seasons), Saccade Games (All Seasons), Fuh Se fantasy etc.
      4. How media is shaping our minds towards women?
        According to Indian films, TV serials and advertisements has defined characteristics of an Idol woman should be submissive, self-sacrificing, chaste and controlled and characteristics of a bad woman includes being self-centered, sexually aggressive, following western culture instead of our Indian culture, and not sacrificing herself or her dreams on any condition. Also according to a research done in year 2012 it was found that the roles such as police officers, executives, lawyers, doctors etc. were played by many male actors only there are very few female actors who played such kind of roles 23.

        If these kind of films are being watched by youth and young children then it will definitely impact their thinking that women are supposed to be like that only and they should not do jobs such as police officers, executives, lawyers etc. Also our Indian audience is ready to watch Hollywood movies in which female actress is the lead character, but when it comes to Indian cinema Indian audience done like to watch female lead movies. Movies based on social issues such as Chappak, Thappad, Pink, Parched have miserably failed and because of failure producers had to face huge financial losses.

        Now if we are not willing to watch such movies then how creators will focus on breaking the stereotypes in the Indian culture? They will never make such movies again because they know Indian audience don't want to see independent women in movies and also in real life. Key thing to notice here is that we are not ready to change our thinking stereotypes and media has played an important role in increasing our stubbornness. And result of we not changing our thinking web series such as gandi baat, rasbhari, saccade games etc. will run up to infinite seasons because we like to watch these kind of things where women is portrayed as sexual objects.
    3. What measures Indian government has taken to prohibit misrepresentation of women
      How a woman is getting represented on any kind of media is responsibility of government. Indian government have many laws to govern how main stream media and print media is operated and what kind of content is getting published in it. For example for monitoring what is getting published in print media Indian government has "The Press Council Act, 1978.

      For monitoring what type of content is being showed in films Indian Government has "The Central Board of Film Certification" who ensures that all the films which are getting released are suitable for public viewing24 . In short members of this board watches the film before giving an approval for releasing that film in theaters.

      Key thing to notice is that what is right and what is wrong is being decided by few people who are board members of this board, now imagine if more than 50% of board members support patriarchy then films promoting patriarchy will get a certificate for releasing it and films which are spreading awareness about how patriarchy is not good will never get released. Also Rule 3 A of this board says that a woman board member can be appointed if central government thinks it is fit to appoint a woman in board members. Here we can see that even government promotes patriarchy.

      Also there is a voluntary organization named The Advertising Standards Council of India which makes sure that advertisements are not violating any rules or spreading wrong information about any product or deriding any race, cast, creed, gender or nationality25 . This organization has a very weird and not so user friendly website, also they have a long 100 page book which states what standards needed to be followed while making any advertisement, also all the data related with complaints is hidden all you can do is file a complaint and after that the waiting game will begin.

      The key thing to notice is that these people are associated with Indian Government on a very large scale but we need to think why government is not making any strict laws regarding advertisements? Why a private organization is handling an important topic?

      Now if we look at these acts we can see that these acts are just guidelines for the boards which are established under this act, there is no dedicated act or law which helps to prohibit content which promotes gender stereotypes or define gender roles etc. It is the actual reason all film makers and print media advertisement designers are getting away with gender based scripts and advertisements which promotes gender stereotypes in the society.

      Indian Government has enacted a law titled "The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986". You might be thinking wow an act dedicated to protect women from being misrepresented must be a very huge act but no need to worry this act only contains 10 section and length of this act extends to 4 pages only. There are plenty of things which are wrong and also there are thousands of basic things which are missing from this act.
      1. Analysis of The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
        1. Missing Definitions in the act Section 2 of this act is dedicated towards definitions of terms related with this act.
          This act only talks about printable material for example print ads, product packaging, graphics designs, labels, etc. 26 . The important terms such as promoting patriarchy, promoting gender biased stereotypes, promoting gender roles etc. are missing from this act. Also the term misrepresentation is defined like an umbrella term which is not clear in short it is defined as any act representing a women's body indecently is defined as indecent representation, also it includes any act which corrupt or injure the public morality or morals will also be considered as indecent representation. So if we look at this act women working in an office, deriving car, or paying bills is also can be considered as indecent because it is indirectly against our culture and it corrupts it because according to our culture women should never do such things, women should only do household work, take care of their children etc.
        2. Missing basic concepts in the act The term gender equality is not mentioned in this act because it is not much important in India.
          The term gender equality is an important thing we need to achieve also it is one of the goals of United Nations that we should achieve till 2030. But if we look at India's situation we will see that women are not getting any opportunities and laws like this are also contributing towards reducing the growth opportunities for women by not implementing basic infrastructure for banning gender biased scripts or advertisements. According to World Bank Data it can be clearly seen that the women in India is getting dominated by men in every sector27.
        3. How this act indirectly supports patriarchy
          As we seen above by not defining basic terms as well as by limiting itself to published material this act only tries to mislead people into thinking that it is prohibiting women from getting represented indecently. If you look properly you might notice that this act does not even mention how it protects women from getting misrepresented.

          It only contains basic rules and punishments and powers of government agencies. This act not contribute towards its main aim as well as towards women empowerment or creating opportunities for women. All this act does it support patriarchy by not including basic terms and not describing what is patriarchy. It indirectly disapproves all the things mentioned in this research paper
If Indian government is really interested in creating actual opportunities for women and protecting them from getting indecently represented then Government has to update this act and make it not only limited to print media, this act should include any material related with women.

Also the basic terms such as gender biased scripts, stereotype scripts, gender roles etc. can be included in the act so that it can be strictly applied on people who are indecently representing the women.

Also censor board policies also need to be updated because currently it is clearly dominated by men and only men can decide what to release or not and also only men can decide can a women included in our board or not.

Also Indian government really needs to implement laws for monitoring online content published on OTT platforms.

Also our government needs to make a unified law for films and advertisements which should make it mandatory for creators to promote gender equality, then only the women will get opportunities otherwise the graph of women progress in India will increase very slowly.

In conclusion it can be said that currently we do have any kind of proper law or act which can totally help to stop misrepresentation of women in Media. Also we are still following and watching same content which promotes gender biased stereotypes. Women in India was, is and will be getting dominated by men if we follow current culture structure.

The only solution is to teach our children how to treat the opposite gender, key point to notice is that if you decide to change the mind of grownup adults who have watched such advertisements, films which promotes patriarchy then you might waste your time because all these things are engraved on their minds and it is very hard to change anyone's moral values.

During my childhood school days till my 10th standard we had moral value classes but all these classes were used for teaching other subjects, now it is the time to take these moral value classes seriously because we have already seen how newspapers, ad films and cinema is defining gender roles in a wrong way and indirectly supporting the thousand year old custom of patriarchy.

Also government invests uncountable amount of money for women and children development but we have not seen the actual development of women as well as children, now it is the time to ask questions, but the dark side is if you ask questions your voice will be muted by all the people who support the custom of patriarchy. Now it is the time to stop neglecting the actual issues related with women and children.

I would like end this article with few lines of a song written by Mr. Raftaar, also important thing to notice is, this song was never released it is available to listen on YouTube with couple of thousand views because we don't care, we don't listen, we don't watch things which are trying to show actual face of Indian culture.

  1. Atharva Veda 6.2.3
  2. Manu Smriti IX 3
  3. Manu Smriti VIII 371
  4. Manu smriti Chapter 3, Shloka 11, Translated by Pandit Rameshwarbhattakrutaya
  5. Manu smriti Chapter 5, Shloka 147 and 148, Translated by Pandit Rameshwarbhattakrutaya.
  6. Manu Smriti VIII 371
  7. Brahma Puran. 80.75
  8. N, J. (2020). Men finally know household chores, but will they continue to do it as they return to work?. The Indian Express. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  9. Star Pravah. (2019). Rang Maza Vegla, Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  10. A question of female identity. (2001). Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  11. Nair, S. (2016). Why are the serials aimed at India's female TV audience so regressive? Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  12.  Khandan - (Song Title: Tumhi Mere Mandir Tumhi Meri Pooja). (1965). [Film]. Bollywood
  13. Shukla, E. (2019). ONLY Women Cook, ONLY Men Drive: Indian Advertisements That Scream Stereotypes. Youth Ki Awaaz. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  14. Rakhi Bose. (2018). Only 17 Out of 80 Diwali Ads in 2018 Showed Women in NonStereotypical Roles, Study Finds. Retrieved from
  15. Shukla, E. (2019). Unfair And Not-So-Lovely: Indian Advertisements That Scream Stereotypes. Youth Ki Awaaz. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from Page 18 of 18
  16. Reckitt Benckiser - Harpic India. (2019). HARPIC BATHROOM CLEANER [Video]. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  17. Maruti Suzuki (Nexa Experience). (2018). The New Ciaz | TVC [Video]. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  18. Kia Motors India. (2020). Kia Sonet | #WildByDesign | Pre-Book Now! [Video]. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  19. Sakal Newspaper (7 Sep 2020), Pune District.
  20. Sakal Newspaper (5 Sep 2020), Pune District.
  21. Lokmat Newspaper (3 Sep 2020), Pune District.
  22. T, S. (2020). Swara Bhasker's adult comedy series 'Rasbhari' receives heavy criticism from CBFC chief Prasoon Joshi. The bridge chronicle. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  23. Srijita Sarkar (2012), An analysis of Hindi women-centric films in India, December 2012, University of Louisville.
  24. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Delhi. (1983). Cinematograph (Certification) Rules, 1983 [Ebook]. MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from
  25. The Advertising Standards Council of India. Code Book (2020). [Ebook]. Retrieved 4 October 2020, from
  27. Gender Data Portal - India. (2020). Retrieved 20 September 2020, from

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