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Child Exploitation In India

The modernist phase in world culture has marked many tracks in the understanding, analysis and relevance of world affairs. The present article entitled "Child Exploitation In India" has its terrace in the development of socio-political sensibility on the global scale since the decade of the twentieth century. Law, Politics, and Governance are the offshoots of the eternal urge for betterment of civil life.

The indignities, cruelties, and horrors that people so frequently inflict against one another have only sometimes been spared upon children throughout the history of mankind. Children have been left behind, starved to death, abused, sold into slavery, sexually raped, and abandoned at various points in history. Even if it happens rarely or never in many countries around the world, child abuse has become a serious social concern in many societies.

A clear-cut set of prognostic factors has not yet been found, but child abuse seems to rise in settings of rapid socio-cultural change, urban migration, family disintegration, and the like. In fact, it appears that the same characteristics that predict child abuse in one civilization may not do so in another.

If we talk about the exploitation of child it can be take place anywhere: at school, home, coaching institutions, childcare institutions, work, community or by anyone mostly by the person who is known to the child for instance the teacher, employer, tutors, seniors, relatives even either of his/her parents & many others.

Types Of Child Abuse

There are followings four forms of child abused determined in the UK Government Guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children (2016) :

Physical

Physical abuse includes intentionally hitting, biting or otherwise physically harming a child by way of burning, suffocating, poisoning, shaking, throwing, non-consensual tickling, excessive pinching, slapping, forcing the child into a stressed position, withholding sleep, food or medication.

Emotional

Emotional abuse appears when people repeatedly do and say things in a way that conveys to the child that they are insufficient, unloved, useless or only valued as far as the necessity of another person. It can have intense, long lasting effects on the child including: stopping children from expressing their views, silencing them, continually shouting at them, mocking their activities, emotional blackmailing, bullying.

Neglect

It appears where the parents and guardian fail to reach the basic physical requirements of a child, which results in disablement on the health of the child. Which mainly described by the following activities:
  • When a child is locked in a room or closet.
  • when the provider is not giving the adequate shelter to the child.
  • Leaving the child in that situation when they feel danger or harm.
  • For a long period of time leaving the child alone.
  • Provider not providing even a minimum quantity of food, clothing or medical care.


Sexual

Any act that forces or induces a child to engage in sexual activities called sexual activities. It will deemed to be the sexual abuse, even if the child does not understand what is happened with him/her and where there is not any kind of force, violence or even contact.

These activities include:
  • Assault involving penetration, such as rape or oral sex.
  • Activities by are non-sexual, such as touching outside of clothing, rubbing, kissing and masturbating.
  • Getting a child to watch others of performing sexual acts.
  • Undress the child by way of forcing for sexual fulfilment.
  • Sharing any type of sexual images, videos or other type of material.


Child Protection In India

After the independence of our country we have seen many changes in the Indian legal system which also includes the recognition of human rights and child rights. Our Constitution, which came into force on 26th January 1950, gives the fundamental rights to the children under Article 21-A, which guarantees the right to free and compulsory elementary education for all the children in the age group of 6-14 years. Article 24 (a) secures the right to be protected from any hazardous employment until 14 years of age.

All children have equal rights as other adult citizens of India. Some among them are "right to equality protected under Article 14, right to protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21), right of prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor (Article 23) etc.

There are also so many laws which are framed with the constitutional provisions for safeguarding the rights of children. Furthermore we have various criminal laws which give protection to children including: The Indian Penal Code 1860, The Indian Evidence Act 1872, & Criminal Procedure Code 1973.

Here is the following list of child protection laws and policies passed by the Government:
  • Children Pledging of Labor Act, 1933
  • Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1987
  • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
  • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
  • Protection of Children from Sexual Offences, 2012
  • Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection Of Children) Act, 2015

Also for the prevention of child abuse and exploitations the government provided some policies such as the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, 2007 and National Policy for Children, 2013.

Conclusion
"No trust is more revered than the one that society has for children. There is no obligation more vital than making sure that their rights are upheld, that their welfare is safeguarded, that their lives are free from terror, and that they are able grow up in peace." Kofi Annan

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