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Analysis Of Advancement Of It Laws Across The World With Respect To India

There is a great power on the Internet. The power to make or destroy someone. The power to influence the policies and decisions of the world. To change the world. But as Uncle Benjamin Parker wisely said, 'With great power comes great responsibility.' The Internet brings with it responsibilities.

Due to the popularity of online activities, the online crime rate has also increased rapidly. Although the scope and impact of these crimes vary greatly from accident to Orient, it is a global threat. From crime to cyber terrorism to cyber terrorism, the phenomena of this new age are evolving and evolving.

Cybercrime is not yet clearly defined. Although most countries have laws to deal with such issues, the underlying offences are different in each case. Furthermore, cyber activity is not governed by geographic boundaries. Dealing with such crimes can be very confusing and complicated. As a result, many cybercrimes go unreported or unpunished.

This article attempts to identify when and how various cybercrimes are considered criminal. The article ends with the status of Indian cyber laws with other countries.

Introduction
Cyberlaw is any law that applies to the Internet and Internet-related technologies. Cyberlaw is one of the newest parts of the legal system. This is due to the fast development of Internet technology. Cyberlaw provides legal protection to people who use the Internet. This includes businesses and private citizens. It is important that everyone who uses the Internet understands the rules of the Internet. Internet law is also called the "law of the internet.".

As the use of computers has become more common in the cyber world, the term 'Cyber' has become more familiar with the development of technology. The development of information technology (IT) led to the creation of the Internet, where the Internet provides equal opportunities for everyone to access any information and collect and analyze data using advanced technology. With the increase in the number of Internet users, the misuse of technology in cyberspace has led to the emergence of cybercrime both at the national and international levels.

The general meaning of the term "criminal" is "a legal wrong that can be followed by criminal proceedings which may result into punishment" but cybercrime can be "unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both".

Objectives of the study
The article discusses various cybercrimes and tries to find out when and how they are considered criminal. The article ends with the status of Indian Internet laws with other countries.

Research Problem
Cybercrime is not yet clearly defined. Although most countries have laws to deal with such matters, the predicate offences differ in each case. In addition, cyber activity is not subject to geographical boundaries. Dealing with such crimes can be very confusing and complex. As a result, many cybercrimes go unreported and go unpunished.

Research Questions
  1. How have different countries acted against cybercrime?
  2. What are the solutions to cybercrime?
  3. How do Internet laws in India compare to other national laws?

Research Methodology
My research topic is "Analysis of advancement of the Internet and IT laws across the world with respect to India". My study is purely based on the "theoretical point of view". There are a lot of ideas or theories in this challenge. In fact, this effort mainly depends on the research methods.

Secondary raw materials. I used secondary assets such as books, articles, journals, and web research.

Analysis
In 1970, the German state of Hesse enacted the 'Data Protection Act, 1970', the world's first computer law, with the advancement of electronic technology. With the advent of technology, misuse of technology at its best and then in the cyber world, the need for stricter laws to control crime and protect technologically advanced systems has emerged. In this context, the Indian Parliament ratified the "Information Technology Act 2000" in the cybercrime case on October 17.

The hackers can destroy your site, publish confidential information, steal trade secrets, or use the Internet as intellectual property. This includes "denial of service and virus" attacks that block regular traffic to your site. Cybercrime is not limited to viruses and cybercrime related to security only, they are usually employees of a particular company and have easy access to company passwords and data collection for their own benefit.

Cybercrime includes the use of computers to commit financial crimes such as selling illegal items, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crimes, email, fraud, forgery, cyberbullying, online hacking, and unauthorized access to computer systems., as well as electronic theft of agricultural information, email bombings, and physical damage to computer systems.

Cyber laws of various countries:

  1. United States of America
    The USA is at the forefront of cybercrime. When it comes to internet cybercrime, it is the country with the highest cybercrime rate of 23% in the world. However, it is a country with strict cyber laws. About 60 per cent of recorded cyber cases end with a conviction and jail time. The first effective law against such crimes was established in 1984, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). However, the law does not provide for intentional damage to equipment containing malicious code. Or quite simply, virus.

    The National Information Infrastructure Protection Act (NIIA) was introduced to reform the law. The law sets rules to set a precedent and makes it illegal to view computer information without permission. In addition to these laws, the United States has strict definitions and penalties for cybercrime. Penalties range from deportation to criminal misconduct to cyberbullying crime. 15 years in prison and a fine for identity theft. Piracy and destruction of computer assets are punishable by prison sentences ranging from six to 20 years. America is very strong in cyber laws.

    The first effective law against such crimes was established in 1984, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). However, the law does not include a provision to intentionally cause damage to devices that use malicious code. Or quite simply, virus. The National Information Infrastructure Protection Act (NIIA) was implemented to reform the law.

    This law replaces previous espionage rules and it is illegal to view computer information without authorization. Beyond these laws, the United States has strict definitions and penalties for cybercrime. The penalties range from deportation to criminal misconduct and from cyberbullying to crime. 15 years in prison and a fine for identity theft. Piracy and destruction of computer assets are punishable by prison sentences ranging from six to 20 years. America is very strong in cyber laws.

    Beyond these laws, the United States has established strict definitions and penalties for cybercrime. Poems ranging from deportation to criminal misconduct to cyberbullying crime. 15 years in prison and a fine for identity theft. Piracy and destruction of computer assets are punishable by prison sentences ranging from six to 20 years. America is very strong in cyber laws.
     
  2. United Arab Emirates
    In the Middle East, the UAE has a very comprehensive and strong law against cybercriminals. The United Arab Emirates faces only 5% of the world's cyber threats. However, as the financial capital of the Gulf, they have strong laws in place to protect their businesses from attacks.

    The state has clearly defined each offence and the punishment attached thereto. Basic crimes such as cyber hacking and harassment can result in imprisonment of up to two years or a fine of 250-000-500,000 dirhams (UAE dirhams). Imprisonment and fine of up to 2,000,000 AED for fraud. Life sentence for cyber terrorism. UAE has clear and strict rules for any cyber threat.
     
  3. Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia
    The cybercrime rate in Saudi Arabia is lower than in the rest of the world. However, these crimes have been increasing steadily over the years. Of this, 76% is pornography, which will cost the country about $6.5 million in 2016. Although the KSA enforces certain laws, other forms of cyberbullying, theft and other signatures have not been defined.

    Only laws exist against hacking, unauthorized access to data, pornography, denial of service and cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism carries a jail term of one year and a fine of 100,000 riyals to imprisonment of a maximum of 10 years and a fine of 5,000,000 Riyals for Cyber terrorism.
     
  4. China
    China has always been a model in cyber law. Although its laws seem arbitrary to outside forces, they are essential to the Chinese government. Recognition and punishment for cybercrime began in 1997 with the 'Computer Information Network and Internet Security, Protection and Management Regulations. Under criminal law, hacking, data destruction or the creation and spread of a digital virus can be punishable by up to three years in prison. In severe cases involving sensitive data, the penalties can be quite high.

    The law states that since 2010, 'within Chinese territory, the internet is under the sovereignty of China.' This translates into the fact that the government has complete control over the pronunciation of the Internet within its borders. That's why most popular websites in the world are banned in China. For example, Google. While this may sound ridiculous to us, it benefits Chinese domestic e-commerce and digital companies.

    China's latest law, the Cyber Security Act, went into effect this June. By law, all foreign companies must keep their required utility data within the country. Allow the government to review enterprise networks and data.
     
  5. India
    India accounts for only 3% of the world's total cyber-attacks. However, there is only one strong law to deal with them. The Information Technology Act, 2000 and the consequent amendments are the only legislatures in India to deal with cyber threats. The law covers a wide range of crimes, including privacy violations, identity theft, sending pornography, child pornography, and cyberterrorism. It is not present in various areas such as cyberbullying, forgery and theft.

    Violation of privacy can be punishable with a fine of up to Rs 2 lakh and jail. Making and distributing child pornography can be punished with a fine of up to Rs 10 lakh and a jail term of up to five years. Life sentence for cyber terrorism. The laws in force in India are very strict, but there are still a lot of loopholes to be closed.

    Cybercrime is an endless well of new ways to criminalize. It is easy enough to fund complex crimes and conspiracies that affect world politics. The latest example is a heist based on the WannaCry ransomware attack. Russia's worst interference in the US presidential election for political reasons. Although this is a relatively new area for criminals and victims, global Internet law still has a long way to go. Both in preventing and punishing attacks.
     
  6. Russia
    TheUnited States and Britain have accused Russia of cyberattacks on administrative equipment such as computer routers, firewalls and other systems used by government agencies, corporations and major infrastructure operators around the world. A year ago, US intelligence agencies accused Donald Trump of interfering with the 2016 election campaign, hacking and a targeted advertising campaign to support the presidential war. The Trump administration is pointing the finger at Russia for its cyberattacks focused on the US power grid.

    While they are always to blame for digital cyber activities and attacks on their political opponents, it is not difficult to give them advice on how to insure themselves against similar threats and threats. We can assure you that Russia has a good grip on such cyber-attacks.
     
  7. Israel
    Israel, the world's second-largest internet security operation, is on the rise as more and more cybersecurity startups are funding it. The government plays an important role in coordinating the development of the organization to deal with unforeseen cyber threats.

    Israel is enthusiastically investing resources in human capital. It is in the light of expertise and knowledge that goes into the general subject. Cyber security begins with setting resources into education in middle school.
     
  8. Spain
    The country has been successful in developing a contingency system for national cyber security. In this way, efforts to protect the foundation are actively presented. Response in the country, including incident reporting, has improved significantly. Innovative jobs have also been empowered with a fundamental commitment to coordinating cyber security activities.
     
  9. Estonia
    After the horrific cyber-attacks in 2007, Estonia became a global giant in cyber security knowledge, advising various states on the issue. In December 2016, NATO began its largest ever cyber security exercise in Estonia. The three-day event, Cyber Collection 2016, was attended by over 700 cyber security guards, legal experts, government officials, military officials, academia and industry representatives from different parts of the alliance.


Cyber security strategies

In addition to understanding cyber law, organizations should build cybersecurity strategies.

Cybersecurity techniques should include:

  • Ecosystem:
    A strong ecosystem can help prevent cybercrime. Your ecosystem consists of three areas-automation, mutual viability and authentication. A powerful system prevents cyberstalk such as malware, intrusion, hacking, inside attacks and theft of equipment.
     
  • Framework:
    The assurance framework is a strategy to follow security standards. This allows upgrades to infrastructure. It also allows governments and businesses to work together in what is known as "enabling and endorsing".
     
  • Open Standards:
    Open standards lead to improved security against cybercrime. They allow businesses and individuals to use the right security easily. Open standards can improve economic growth and the development of new technology.
     
  • Strengthening Regulation:
    It speaks directly to cyber law. Governments can work to improve this legal field. They can also look for agencies to handle cyber law and cybercrime. Other parts of this strategy include promoting cyber safety, proving education and training, working with private and public institutions and incorporating new security technology.
     
  • IT Procedures:
    There are many useful IT procedures/measures. Promoting these mechanisms is a good way to fight cybercrime. These measures include end-to-end, association-oriented, link-oriented and data encryption.
     
  • E-Governance:
    E-governance is the ability to provide services over the Internet. Unfortunately, e-governance has been overlooked in many countries. Developing this technology is an important part of cyber law.
     
  • Infrastructure:
    Protecting infrastructure is one of the key parts of cyber security. It includes an electrical grid and data transmission lines. Outdated infrastructure is vulnerable to cybercrime.
     

Reducing risk
The purpose of cyber law is to reduce risk. This can be done in several ways.

Some of the effective risk reduction strategies of cyberlaw include:
  • Cyber Security Research and Development.
  • Threat intelligence.
  • Advanced firewalls.
  • Use of protocols and algorithms.
  • Focusing on cloud and mobile security
  • Authentication.
  • Cyber forensics.

Another way to prevent cybercrime is to protect the supply chain. Disruptions in the supply chain pose huge security risks. This is especially true when equipment is allowed to be replaced. Protecting the supply chain is key in preventing cybercrime.

Lastly, businesses can use a strong security framework.

The best frame has three parts:
  • Source:
    These are activities that allow businesses to identify, protect, detect, respond and recover from cyber threats.
     
  • Implementation Ranges.
    This explains how advanced the security system of trade is. The ranges are partial, risk-information, repetitive and adaptive. Businesses should strive for adaptive rank.

     
  • Framework Profile:
    It is a database in which businesses record information about their strategies. This may include care and plans for new cyber security.

Network Security
Each network needs improved security. It includes home networks. Using the right technology is the most effective way to improve network safety.

Network security technology includes:
  • Active Devices. Active devices help the network deal with more traffic. They also prevent unauthorized traffic. These devices may include software-based or hardware-based firewalls, antivirus devices or software and content filtering devices.
     
  • Passive Devices: The most common prevention device is an intrusion detection device. These devices help in identifying unnecessary internet traffic.
     
  • Prevention Tools: Many devices are focused on preventing network threats. These are called preventive tools. These devices can include network scanners and rushing checkers.
     
  • Unified threat management: These are complete security equipment. They can include content searching, firewall technology and webcam cashing.

Cyber Law Rules and Laws

There are three keywords' people need to know regarding cyber law:
  1. Information Technology Law: These laws refer to digital information. It explains how this information is collected, stored and transmitted.
  2. Cyber Law/Internet Law: These laws cover the use of the internet. This is a new legal area. Many laws can be unexplained and vague.
  3. Computer law: It covers a large legal area. It includes both the Internet and the law relating to computer IP.


Cyber Threats

It can be further classified into 2 types:
  1. Cybercrime - against individuals, corporates, etc. and
  2. Cyber Warfare - against a state.
  3. Cybercrime

Cybercrime is criminalized by cyberspace individuals or other organizations, such as computers, the Internet, cell phones and other technological tools. Cyber attackers use the software and codes. They exploit weaknesses in software and hardware design by using malware. One common way is to avoid interruptions of secure computer systems, such as corrupting their workflows. Personal information is common.

Cybercrime can happen in person. That is, computer viruses spread. DoS attacks in other forms. This machine or related proxies will try to make resources unavailable to the intended user. Stop the services of hosts connected to the Internet temporarily or permanently. The malware is usually a code, scripts, operating assets, and other software for storing important information in computer functions. "Malware" refers to a variety of hostile or intrusive software, such as Trojan, rootkits, shoes, adware.

For another cybercrime, use a network or computer that is independent of the network. He understands finances fraud. Reducing the country's financial system, protecting banks, commercial institutions, withdrawing money, obtaining credit/debit card data, blocking funds and more. It is to insult and abuse women, distribute dirty emails, threatening emails, false identity guessing, and virtual masking. Today social media creates barbarism, instigates social violence, community violence and incite riots.

Cyber Warfare

Snowden's shows show war in cyberspace 21st century. The battles of the future are different from the traditional battles. A country starts to use an unknown force on the Internet, which is the basis of the national policy against other countries, which is called 'cyber war'.
  1. Cybercrime against person:
    There are some crimes that affect the personality of the person:
    • Harassment via e-mail: This is the most common form of harassment by sending letters, files and attachments to folders like emails. Regular use of social platforms like Facebook and Twitter is currently harmful. It's growing every day.
       
    • Cyber-Stalking: Indicates the emergence of an indirect or indirect physical threat using computer technology such as internet, email, phone, text message, webcams, website or video.
       
    • Promotion of Pornography: It contains Indecent exposure contained on the banned website. Pornography (originally child pornography) is included. These obscene things can hurt mind of the adolescent and tend to deprave or corrupt their mind.
       
    • Defamation: imputing any person with the intent to lower down the dignity of the person and sending some emails in malicious language using an unknown person's email account is considered an act of decency.
       
    • Hacking: It contains unauthorized controls, access to computer systems and hack activities that completely destroy system data. Hackers often hack telecom and mobile networks.
       
    • Cracking: It is one of the most widely known cybercrimes ever. It is a terrible feeling to know that strangers have entered your computer system with valuable secrets and information.
       
    • Email Fraud: It can be said that a fraudulent email misrepresents its presence. This shows that its form is different from reality.
       
    • SMS Fraud: Here another form of criminal identity is stealing a mobile phone number and sending it through SMS on the internet and sending an SMS from the mobile phone number to the recipient. This is the most serious cybercrime against any person.
       
    • Carding: False ATM card i.e., Criminals use debit and credit cards to withdraw money from the victim's bank account. Unauthorized use of ATM cards has always been involved in such cybercrime.
       
    • Cheating and fraud: Password theft and data collection is an offence that leads to cheating and fraud.
       
    • Child Pornography: The use of computer networks to create, distribute, or access child pornography.
       
    • Assault by threat: Refers to the computer networks of people who are afraid of a person and use their life or lives of their family members through email, video or phone.
       
  2. Crimes against the property of individuals:
    There is rapid growth in international trade where businesses and consumers are increasingly using computers to create, transmit and store information in electronic form instead of traditional paper documents.

    There are some offences that affect personal property, which is as follows:
    • Intellectual Property Offenses:
      This contains a bundle of intellectual property rights. Any illegal act in which the owner is completely or partially deprived of their rights is a crime. Common forms of IPR infringement include software piracy, copyright infringement, trademark, patents, design and service identity infringement, computer source code theft, and so on.
       
    • Cyber Squatting:
      If two individuals claim the same domain name, they claim the right to use the name first, or by using something similar to the previous one. For example two identical names i.e. www.yahoo.com and www.yaahoo.com
       
    • Cyber Vandalism:
      Vandalism is the intentional destruction or damage of another's property. Thus, cyber hacking is the destruction or damage of data when a network service is shut down or interrupted. It may include any kind of physical damage done to any person's computer. These actions can take the form of computer theft, some part of the computer or an external attachment attached to the computer.
       
    • Hacking Computer System:
      Hacktivism attacks the famous Twitter, blogging platform through unauthorized access/control over the computer. Data and computers are lost due to hacking activity. Also, research specifically suggests that those attacks are primarily for financial gain and are not intended to tarnish the reputation of a particular person or company.
       
    • Transmitted Viruses:
      Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or file and then transmit themselves to other files and other computers on the network. They usually affect the computer by changing or deleting data. Worm attacks play an important role in affecting the computerized system of individuals.
       
    • Cyber trespass:
      This means accessing someone's computer without the proper permission of the owner and not disturbing, altering, or abusing the data or system using the wireless internet connection.
       
    • Internet Time Thefts:
      Essentially, internet time theft falls under hacking. It is the use of internet hours paid by an unauthorized person, by another person. A person who accesses someone else's ISP user ID and password, by hacking or gaining access through illegal means, uses it to access the Internet without the other person's knowledge. You can detect time theft if you need to recharge your internet time frequently despite infrequent use.
       
  3. Cyber Crimes Against Government:
    There are some crimes committed by a group of individuals with the intention of intimidating international governments using internet facilities. It includes:
    • Cyber terrorism: Cyberterrorism is a major burning issue in domestic and global concerns. The most common forms of these terrorist attacks on the Internet are denial of distribution of service attacks, attacks on websites and hate emails, attacks on sensitive computer networks, and so on. Cyber terrorism activities threaten the sovereignty and integrity of a nation.
       
    • Cyber Warfare: This refers to hacking and politically motivated hacking to carry out espionage. It is a form of information warfare that sometimes appears analogous to conventional warfare, although this analogy is controversial for both its accuracy and its political motivation.
       
    • Distribution of pirated software: This means the distribution of pirated software from one computer to another with the intent of destroying government data and official documents.
       
    • Acquisition of unauthorized information: With the help of the internet it is very easy for terrorists to access any information and have that information for political, religious, social, ideological purposes.
       
  4. Cybercrime against society at large:
    Illegal acts aimed at harming cyberspace affect a large number of individuals. These crimes include:
    • Child pornography: This involves the use of computer networks to create, distribute, or access sexually explicit material for minors. It also includes activities related to vulgarity and obscenity.
       
    • Cyber trafficking: It can be the smuggling of drugs, human beings, weapons, etc. It affects a large number of individuals. Smuggling is the biggest crime in cyberspace.
       
    • Online Gambling: Online cheating and fraud are some of the lucrative businesses growing up in cyberspace today. Many cases related to credit card offences, contract offences, granting jobs, etc. have come to light.
       
    • Financial Crimes: This type of crime is common because of the rapid growth of networking sites and phone networking users, where criminals attempt to attack by sending fake emails or messages over the Internet. E.g., using credit cards to obtain passwords illegally.
       
    • Forgery: Online business transactions are a necessity of today's lifestyle which means deceiving a large number of individuals by sending threatening emails.
       
    • Whom it Affects: Cybercrime always affects companies of any size because almost all companies take advantage of online presence and take quick advantage of technology but should pay more attention to its security risks. In the modern cyber world, cybercrimes are a major problem that affects the individual and society on a large scale.
       
  5. Case study - attacks on cyberspace:
    • Worm Attack:
      Robert Tappan Morris, better known as the first hacker, is the son of former National Security Agency scientist Robert Morris, who was first sued in 1986 for computer science and fraud. He created the worm when he was a student. At Cornell, at the time, they intended to use the worm to check the size of the Internet.

      The worm was out of control, destroying nearly 6,000 computers and freezing many computers until they were no longer functioning properly. He was eventually sentenced to three years of probation, 400 hours of community service and a $ 10,500 fine. So there must be a strict law to punish criminals who are involved in cybercrime activities.
       
    • Hacker Attack:
      Fred Cohen, PhD. A student at the University of Southern California wrote a short program in 1983 that, on a practical basis, can "infect" computers, make duplicates, and transmit them from one machine to another. It started and is hidden in a large legal program loaded into a floppy disk computer and sold to many computers and can be supported nowadays. Other computer scientists have warned that computer viruses are possible, but this is Cohen's first record. One of his teachers suggested the name "virus." Cohen now runs a computer security company.
       
    • Internet Hacker:
      Wang Kyun, nicknamed "Playgirl", was arrested by Chinese police in the province of Hubei, the first arrest of an Internet hacker in China. It has arrested a 19-year-old computer student on indecent charges posted on the cover of several government websites. Wong boasted on Internet forums that he hacked more than 30 websites.
       
CyberCrime Prevention Measures:
Prevention is better than cure. Internet users must take certain precautions when using the Internet and follow some preventive measures against cybercrime, which can be defined as:
  • Identifying exposure through education can help responsible businesses and enterprises address these challenges.
  • Avoid disclosing personal information to strangers via email or chat.
  • Avoid sending photos to strangers online as the misuse of photo events is increasing day by day.
  • All Internet users should use up-to-date antivirus software to protect against virus attacks and prevent backup volumes that can result in data loss in the event of virus contamination.
  • A person should never send his credit card number to a dangerous site to protect himself from fraud.
  • Parents should always visit sites that their children can access to avoid any form of abuse or degradation.
  • Website owners should monitor traffic and check for irregularities on the site. It is the responsibility of the website owner to adopt a cybercrime policy in the wake of the increasing number of internet users.
  • Web servers running public sites must be physically protected from the internal corporate network.
  • It is best to use a corporate security program to control site information.
  • Legislatures must pass strong statutory laws that serve the interests of Internet users.
  • The IT department must adopt certain guidelines and notifications for the protection of the computer system and enforce stricter laws to curb cyber space-related criminal activity.
  • Cybercrime is a major threat to all countries of the world and some measures must be taken internationally to prevent cybercrime.
  • Provide comprehensive justice to victims of cybercrime through remedial measures and provide stricter penalties for offenders awaiting cybercrime offenders.

Need for Cyber Law:
Information technology is spread all over the world. Computers are used all over the Internet to provide equal opportunities for economic growth and human development. As cyberspace users expand the scope of online communication, cybercrime, online breach of agreements, criminalization, immorality and prevalence of online crimes will increase.

Consequently, the Cyberspace Commission Act seeks to regulate crimes related to cybercrime and provide justice and better governance for cybercrime victims. In the modern cyber technology world, it is important to control cybercrime and most importantly cyberlaw should be tightened in case of cyber terrorism and hackers.

Punishment for causing damage to a computer system:
Any computer acting as an interception, removal, modification, interruption or obstruction under any provision of section 43 of the "Information Technology Act, 2000". If the computer owner does not get any compensation, the victim has to pay a fine of up to Rs 1 crore as compensation. Section: 43A, added under the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, provides that when a legal person maintains and protects personal data provided by the Central Government by 'negligent or data breach/data protection' If so, the legal person shall pay. Relief for the victims. Section 66 deals with "intrusion into a computer system" and is punishable with maximum imprisonment of 3 years or a fine of up to 2 years.

Most cybercrimes of this nature have been solved through IT ACT and IPC 2000.

Cybercrimes under the IT ACT include:
  • Sec. 65, modification of computer source records
  • Sec. 66, Computer Systems Hacking and Data Modification.
  • Sec. 67, publishing obscene information.
  • Sec. 70, Unauthorized access to protected systems.
  • Sec. 72, breach of privacy and confidentiality.
  • Sec. 73, publication of forged digital signature certificates.

Special laws and cybercrimes under the IPC include:
  • Sending threat messages via email, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 503.
  • Sending derogatory messages via email, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 499
  • Duplicate electronic documents, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 463
  • Fraudulent and Cyber Fraud Websites, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 420
  • Email Fraud, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 463
  • Web-jacking, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 383
  • Email Abuse, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 500

There are also cybercrimes under special laws, including:
  • The Online Sale of Weapons Under Arms Act, 1959
  • Online sales of drugs under the Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985

Conclusion
Internet security is one of the world's biggest needs as cyber security threats pose a serious threat to national security today due to the increasing intrusion of the internet. Not just the government, but systems and network security systems must be up to date and use appropriate antivirus software to advise everyone on how to protect their computers and network systems from viruses and malware.

With the increasing number of computer systems and Internet users around the world, all information is easily accessible within seconds, making it the largest source of information and excellent communication in the world. Internet users need to take certain precautions when using the Internet, which helps in combating this massive threat of cybercrime.

In developed countries, new cybersecurity laws are becoming more stringent, and foreign companies are prohibited from doing business in countries that protect and control rates of cybercrime. On the other hand, India is doing a lot of efforts to make the country more efficient by providing better services and better security in cyberspace. In 2013, the Indian government launched the National Cyber Security Policy with the aim of protecting information infrastructure, mitigating risks, improving capabilities and protecting it from cyber-attacks. As our country continues to compete with foreigners in internet and computer security, India is now on the right track to make computer law more efficient which requires more changes.

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