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Farm Bill 2020: A Mysterious Movement In India

As a large state like India with huge diversity where approx, 58% of the population depends on primary sector, agriculture is among the one way for their livelihood and their survival. India is an agrarian economy and agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. Its contribution to the total India Gross Domestic Price (GDP) is 19.9% this is vast percentage.

On the 5th of June 2020, the government of India introduced a "New Farm Bill"2020 which was passed in the lower house ( Lok sabha) on 17 September 2020 and in the upper house (Rajya sabha) on 20 September 2020. It was duly signed by the Honourable President of India Shri Ram Nath Govind on 27 sep 2020.

As these bills also provide an opportunity to the farmers, as they can sell their production by using method of Intrastate or Interstate without any barriers as stated in Farmers produce trade and commerce act 2020, They have the option to sell their crops by using the method of Online Method also. These bills also provide farmers with option of farming on Contractual Basis as described in the Farmers agreement on price assurance and farm services act 2020.

According to Ministry of Agriculture, these bills provides an opportunity for farmers to use modern techniques for farming,use of High yielding seeds and advances, better platform for selling of their production. But the farmers of India were against the decision of the Central Government as there point of view is that these bills are thrust upon the farmers and which are only made to exploit them and they are made without the consent of any farmer community Whereas Government assures that these bills are mainly amended for the benfit of farmers only and mainly these bills help small and Marginal Farmers most as it help them to bring a rise in their income and it also play an vital role as previously the Marginal Farmers do disguised sale of crops to middlemen but now they can sell their crops by using online way or they can go for Contractual farming.

Overviews of the Bill
As on 5th of june 2020 the Government of India introduced NEW FARM BILL 2020 as it was passed in the lower house and upper house with a majority and on 27th sep 2020 the honourable president of India duly signed these bill and this has become the government main aim for amending these bills is to doubled the income of the farmers by the end of the 2022 and these bills are:
  1. Farmers produce trade and commerce act 2020
    Farmers produce trade and commerce act 2020 provides that farmers will have the option of selling their produce in the Agiculture produce market committee (APMC) Mandias or to private companies that are within their state (INTRA STATE) or outside their state (INTERSTATE).They have an option of selling crops using online platform like Enam. It make things easier for farmers to sell their production as they get good price for their production and they get payment withinh 2 workimg days. It will also remove the role of middlemen as they charge 1-2% commission. And Central Government also prohibit state Government to charge cess, market fee or transportation fee etc from the Farmers.
     
  2. Farmers agreement on price assurance and farm services act 2020
    Farmers agreement on price assurance and farm service act 2020 provides freedom to farmers to do their farming on contractual basis as CONTRACT FARMING. As farmers can contract with the private companies as they can determined the price of their production before the sowing of their crops as they also support them with latest technology and good variety of seeds for good production but the biggest loophole is that MSP is not guaranteed in these bill.
     
  3. Essential commodities act 2020
    The Essential commodities act 2020 removes restrictions on stocking of certain essential commodities.It allows the Government of India to regulate the supply of certain food items. Only under extraordinary circumstances such as WAR, FAMINE, PRICE RISE AND NATURAL CALAMITY.It also remove the fears of private investors of excessive regulatory interference in their business operations.The commodities that are supposed to be exempted are cereals, pulses, potatoes, onion, edible oilseeds and all the oil.

Main concern of the farmers
Then bill was passed in lower and upper house and then comes to president for further enactment. The bill was duly signed by the President on 27th of sep 2020 and when the farmers get to know about it these bills the farmer of some States like as Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttrakhand started protesting over it. when the state government did not respond over them so all the kisan union of India decided to march towards the National Capital Delhi with the motto "DILLI CHALO".

They raise a demand that Central Government will listen over on to them but they got disappointed from the Government also,so the farmers had started their protest on 26th november 2020. Some of the who lead the protest are Shri Gurnam singh Chaduni, Shri Rakesh Tikait, Dr.Darshan Pal, Shri Yogendra Yadav, Smt harinder bindu and Smt jasbeer kaur natt. They act as Foundation pillars for further course of actions.

And all the kisan union and farmers mutually decided neither they take any step back and nor they will return to their homes until all the 3 black bills get repealed. The Protest started at a same time on various joints. People per their accessibility come together on different places like Singhu Border, Kundli Border, Ghazipur Border and etc. Various steps are taken by the Government to stop the protest couldn't Succeed farmers were really worried of these bills and wanted that all 3 bills should get repealed.
  1. Abolished Mandi Tax
    There are about 7000 APMC Mandis currently existing in India and they provides a great platform for farmers to sell their crops.According to the Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce Act 2020 that will abolish cess or fees but if the Central Government stops charging cess or tax from the Government then it will be their Own loss.

    No Mandi = No Tax = No Revenue
    As per the reports the APMC Mandis of Punjab charge heavy taxes from the farmers near about 8.5% and in 2019-20 the APMC Mandias collect itself generated a huge amount tax of 3600 crores. It is a handsome amount of tax. If the government stop collecting cess it will affect yheir revnue generating source and create a huge gap as tax collection is among one of the major sources of Government income further it too affects country economy and Government under dept sections as well.
     
  2. No mentioning on MSP
    MSP stands for minimum support price. It is minimum price at which Government suppose to purchases the crops from the farmers. The Government cannot purchase any food grains or crops below these prices.

    Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP) recommends 23 crops that falls under Minimum Support Price (MSP).
    • 7 Cereals ( Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Bajra, Jowar, Ragi And Barley)
    • 5 Pulses ( Chana Arhar, Urad, Moong And Masoor)
    • 7 Oilseeds ( Rapeseed, Groundnut, Soybean,Sunflower, Sesamum, Niger Seed And Safflower)
    • 4 Commercial Crops ( Jute, Sugarcane, Copra (Milling), Copra (Ball)
    Reality is that Government actually did not provide the MSP on all 23 crops Government is providing MSP on only 3-4 crops which are Wheat, paddy and sugarcane. The Government states they have to pay 17000 lakh crores for providing MSP on all 23 crops.Sukhpal Singh Principal Economist of India's top agricultural university states that it is the fault of the Government. India only needsapprox Rs 9 lakh crores.As per Government need not have to give it in free, rather they are providing the food grains in return against the same amount.

    The Government of India encourage farmers to sow maize instead of paddy but on reality grounds the MSP of maize is Rs 1850 and they pay farmers on Rs 1350-1100. Farmers are facing heavy loss from it.The farmers are demanding that there should be law for the MSP and all the production have to be purchased on MSP price not below that. Irony of these bill are that they did not mention any written sstatement or commintment promising to provide MSP against crops.
     
  3. Indirectly Destroying APMC Mandias
    In states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand the APMC Mandias play an major role for the growth of primary sector.The Government should twice before passing these laws as it directly hits indication of disclosure of APMC Mandias as the first bill of farm laws is farmers produce trade and commerce act 2020 that cess are to be reduced or taxes are to be abolished if the taxes are been abolished then there will be no revenue generation and there will be no income of government so automatically the working of Mandias will be closed and soon the Mandias will be get closed.

    The same happpenend in 2006 Bihar CM Nitish kumar has abolished APMC Mandias and that had made great impact in Bihar Agricultural Sector,they thought private investors will create great reform in this sector but things changed as MSP of wheat was 1850-2000 but farmers were getting 1000 rs only for that they can't able to cover their cost of investment that had used for their production of crops.

    They had to do distress sale as they have to manage their own houses expenses.These factors had demolished the bihar farmers and majority of the farmers migrate and worked as labourers in state like Punjab and Haryana.
     
  4. No civil jurisdiction
    This bill does not provide any power to the farmers to file a civil suit in the court in case of any dispute that may take place in between the farmers and second party. Sub-Divisional Magistrates(SDM) and Additional District Magistrate (ADM) have to establish the conciliation boards for settlement of dispute and Sec 15 of farmers produce trade and commerce act 2020 states that "No civil court shall have jurisdiction and entertain any suit under these act

    If we consider history and facts that bureaucracy has to face, pressure from the central government, it is possible that small and marginal farmers get justice against big corporations as these bills increase corruption and decrease the morale of bureaucrats to work independently.
Conclusion
Central Government of India introduced 3 new farm bill on 27 sep 2020 for the benefit of farmers to make their income doubled but the farmers of India were not happy as they take them as a punishment on them and no consent of farmers was considered as State Government were not even consulted by the Central Government. farmers started their protest on different places at Delhi NCR on the 26th November 2020.

Farmers wanted to repeal all 3 black laws and make bill on MSP and compensate all the farmers families who lost their near and dear ones get martyr in these protest. At around 700-750 farmers got soul departed in these protest. It lasted more than a year for 378 days and on 19th nov 2021 on the auspicious occasion of Guru Nanak Jayanti Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi decided to roll back all the 3 farm bills and to make bill on MSP and.All the kisan unions announced 'Ghar Wapsi' after the repulsion of all 3 farm bills on 19 November 2021.


Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Sahajpal Singh
Awarded certificate of Excellence
Authentication No: JL219659826061-15-0722

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