A summary trial suit is a procedure where courts pass judgment without
hearing the defense.
Summary suit is elucidated in Order XXXVII of the Code of Civil Procedure (CPC),
The objective of this provision under CPC is to avoid unnecessarily extending
the litigation process by the defendant in the class of cases where speedy
judgments are desirable, which could help the complainants to save monetary
expenses as well.
Applicability and Extent
The Provisions of Order XXXVII of CPC
applies to the following class of courts:
Class of Suits
- High Courts,
- City Civil Courts,
- Courts of Small Causes
- Other Courts.
Order XXXVII applies to the following class of suits
Suits pertaining to bills of exchange, hundies, and promissory notes Suits where
the plaintiff seeks only to recover a debt or liquidated demand in money payable
by the defendant, with or without interest, arising:
Jurisdiction of Summary suits
Suits can be proposed at the following places:
- On a written contract, or
- On an enactment, where the sum sought to be recovered is a fixed sum of
money or like a debt other than a penalty; or
- On a guarantee, where the claim against the principal is in respect of a
debt or liquidated demand only.
- Where the Defendant lives
- Where the defendant works for personal gain
- The place where the cause of action arises wholly or partly
Based on the pecuniary jurisdiction, the suit can be proposed in the High Court
or District Court.
Time Limitation to initiate a Summary Suit
The suit can be proposed within 3 years from the date of cause of action. The
period of limitation cannot be neglected.
Contents of plaint for a summary procedure
Following are the contents of a plaint filed for a summary procedure:
The procedure under a Summary suit
- Facts pertaining to the cause of action;
- A definite assertion that the suit is filed under this order;
- That all the relief or damages, falls within the boundary of this order;
- The following inscription must be there under the number of the suit.
When a leave to defend is granted?
- A summary suit is initiated by presenting the plaint in the appropriate
- After the filing of a summary suit, a copy of the plaint and summons
must be sent to the defendant in the recommended format.
- The defendant will present himself in person or by pleader within 10
days from the order of summons.
- The plaintiff shall serve the defendant a summons for judgment if he
presents himself before the court.
- The defendant has to file an application for leave to defend within 10
days from the order of such summons.
- Leave to defend may be acknowledged by the court unconditionally or with
any conditions, which the court may think to be just and lawful.
- If a defendant has not made an application for leave or such an
application has been dismissed or if the defendant does not comply with the
conditions based on which the leave was granted, the
plaintiff is entitled to judgment forthwith.
The Hon'ble Court has discussed the circumstances under which a leave to defend
is sanctioned in summary suits in the case of Kiranmoyee Dassi v. J.
[AIR 1949 CAL 479]. These are the following circumstances:
Decree in Summary Suits
- When the defendant is able to prove substantial defense in the court
- If the defendant has triable issues signifying a fair defense not necessarily
a positive defense, the defendant is entitled to leave to defend.
- If the defendant has triable issues.
- The trial judge may grant conditional leave to defend as to time or mode of
trial or payment/security to the court when defendant raises an implausible
- If the defendant has no substantial defense and raises no triable issues,
then no leave to defend is granted.
- Where the part of the amount claimed by the plaintiff is agreed to be
paid by the defendant, leave to defend shall not be granted unless the
amount is deposited by the defendant in the court.
Also in the case of Milkhiram (India) Private Ltd. vs. Chamanlal.
The plaintiff is designated to a decree of a sum not surpassing the amount
mentioned in the plaint including interest and cost under the following
Setting aside a decree in summary suits
- If the defendant does not present himself before the court
- If the defendant does not make an application for leave to defend
- If the defendant has made an application for leave to defend but the
same has been dismissed by the court.
- Rule 4 of Order XXXVII explains the court has the power to set aside an
ex-parte decree under special
circumstances in a summary suit.
- The court is entrusted to grant a stay on the execution of such decree.
The defendant in such a case should not only reveal the unique
circumstances, which stopped him from appearing, but also the facts, which
would gain him leave to defend.