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Indo-China Relationship: Opportunities and Challenges

The India-China relationship also called as the Sino-India relationship is the bilateral relationship i.e. the organization of political, economic and cultural relationship between two sovereign nations. The relationship has been warm in the recent time yet it has gone through a number of factors which lead to the present relationship. There has been border disputed as well as an economic rivalry between these two nations which has led to a stressed relationship.

The modern era of the relationship began in the 195o's when India became one of the countries to end formal ties with China[1].The three military disputes between the countries in the years 1962, 1967 and 1987 are a result of the border disputes between the two nations. The Brahamaputra River which emerges in China is also a reason for dispute as there is a discontentment regarding the water percentage sharing of the two countries but it is not given much importance in the present time and can be a major reason for dispute in the near future if it is not resolved.[2]

There are several problems for India and China to overcome in spite of the increasing economic and strategic ties.. Due to the failed approach of the two countries to resolve the border dispute, there has been infiltration of the military on the both side and the most recent case was that of the Doklam standoff as a result of which the two nations have constantly established military infrastructure along borders.

India is also suspicious about the strong strategic bilateral relations of China and Pakistan. China is cautious about Indian military and economic activities in the controversial South China Sea. [3]

The present relations of India and China are a result of the historical factors which play a major role in determining the bilateral relations of countries. Other disputes include the oppositionof China to India's membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), China's usage of veto in declaration of Masoor Azhar as a global terrorist and China's One Belt One Road initiative which lead to the Doklam crisis. [4]

Literature Review
There is a huge volume of available articles on this topic and there are a lot many books written by various authors on the same. The researcher has taken reference from various books, articles, blogs as well as news journals for writing the research paper. Though there are many books written on the same yet many of them were not available online.

The book referred by the researcher is India-China in the Contemporary Era by Annupurna Nautiyal and Chintamani Mahapatra. It was published in the year 2o14. It gives us a glimpse of India and China in the contemporary setting and how the relationship of India-China has grown over the years and what are the reasons for the same. It also tells us about the various factors that have played a major role in the relationship.

The article by Dr. Chander Bhushan Nagar, "China-India Relations and North-East: An Overview" was the most helpful article in writing the research paper as it explains the major reason of conflict between India and China i.e. the north-eastern region of India. This is a geographical conflict between the two nations. The north-eastern region of India which comprises of the seven sisters is surrounded by China is a very important part for India as it gives India the route for its Look East Policy.

The article by Chen Jian titled, "China and the first Indo-China War" gives us all the necessary detail about the Indo-China War. It tells us about the various factors that lead to the war and what were its repercussions. The war left a deep suspicion between the two countries. The end of the war resulted in the signing of the Geneva Agreement but the confrontations between the two nations were not yet over.

The article by Chietigj Bajpaee titled, "China-India Regional Dimensions of the Bilateral Relationship" gives us an overview of the bilateral agreements signed by the two nations. It also gives us an idea about the evolving Sino-Indian Relationship.

The border disputed between the two countries is also talked about in the article. The security dilemma between the two nations has had an impact in the maritime domain also and how the maritime interest and capabilities are expanding is also discussed in the article.

There are a few other articles to which the researcher referred and they are mentioned in the bibliography which is given at the end of the research paper.

Research Objective
  • To look into the relationship of India and China from a historical perspective.
  • To analyse the various factors for dispute between the two nations.
  • To see whether there has been any change in the relationship of India and China.
  • To see what can be done to improve the bilateral relationship of India and China.
Hypothesis
The bilateral relationship of India and China has been an outcome of the historical factors which are prevalent in both the countries and Pakistan plays a major role in determining the relationship of the two countries. The major factors for the conflict are related to border disputes, the economic competition between the two nations, India's interference in the South China Sea and China's friendly relations with Pakistan. There is also a suspicion between the two nations for their military activities.

Research Question
  1. Is Pakistan influencing the bilateral relationship of India and China?
  2. Is the bilateral relationship of India and China actually improving?

Chapterisation
The research project is divided into three chapters. The first chapter deals with the bilateral relationship of India and China and the history of the same. It discussed the Sino-India relationship from a historical perspective. The second chapter deals with the present scenario of the bilateral relationship between the two nations and also discusses the various factors which have affected this relationship in a positive as well as a negative manner. The third chapter deals with the things that should be done to enhance this bilateral relationship. At the end of the three chapters, there is conclusion. Lastly, there is bibliography.

The History of the Bilateral Relationship of India and China
India and People's Republic of China are geographically located in the continent of Asia and are in the southern part of it. Both the nations have major role to play in the South Asian politics as well as the world politics and are considered superpower nations. Initially, both the nations shared a cordial relationship and also had a brotherly bond with each other. There were slogans which were made to strengthen this bond like "Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai" which meant that Indian and Chinese are brothers.

There was a pact signed between the two countries named the Pancsheel Agreement, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, also, not only served as a symbol of friendship between two of the world's most populous countries but also codified the process of interaction within the developing world and became an antecedent to subsequent norms of regional interaction, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation. [5]This included not interfering in the internal politics of each country[6].

The main problem that strained the brotherly relationship between the two nations was when India gave asylum to Dalai Lama, a Tibetan spiritual leader who was to be arrested by the Chinese after a guerrilla war between the Tibetan rebels and the Chinese soldiers because he was suspected of carrying out anti-nationalist activist against Chinese government.[7]

In the process of giving asylum, the Indian government broke one of the rules in the Pancsheel Pact and this was the beginning of the hostility among the two nations. India felt betrayed by the Chinese government and this was the embarking of the suspicion which is still prevalent today. This weighed heavy on the bilateral ties of the two nations and the repercussions can still be felt. [8]

After this incident, there were many warnings both internal as well external to the Nehruvian government that China to avenge this might declare a war on India. The Chinese troops came very near to the border yet the government was confident that the troops won't attack but the Chinese declared war on India and the Indian army was not even ready for the same and lost very severely. This taught a lesson to the government in which people had lost faith and there was a lot of embarrassment for the leaders back home.

Many cabinet ministers gave their resignation as there was nationwide mistrust created by the event. The dispute was over the Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border area. The loss impacted the prestige of Nehru and there was a lot of criticism from the opposite party leaders as well. [9]

There was a complete freeze after the war between the two nations and the relationship of the two nations did not improve until Rajiv Gandhi's visit to China in November 1962 which resumed the diplomatic ties of the two nations. This visit was almost after 32 years since Premier Zhou Enlai visited India in 1956. To talk out face-to-face regarding the border issue between the two nations. With the resuming of the diplomatic ties, there was a gradual upliftment in the relationship of the two nations. [1o]

The Sino-Pakistan relationship has been a brotherly one from the beginning because it supported China on its Taiwan issue and Pakistan was also supplied weapons by the US since India had close knit ties with the Soviet Union and its stand on the Non-Aligned Movement was not appreciated by both China and USA therefore they decided to have Pakistan as their alliance in the South Asia and empowered it[11].

This was very problematic for India because if Pakistan grew in power then it would be an issue for the Kashmir problem and India would loosen its grim over the state. The common enmity of China and Pakistan with India is also a major reason for the friendly relationship of China and Pakistan. Pakistan has always been an influencer in this bilateral relationship of India and China. [12]

The fractured relationship of the two nations was during the Cold War Era which also became an important historical factor in determining the bilateral ties of the countries. The countries of the Warsaw and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) were not close to each other and considered the countries of the other pact as enemies. India though not a part of both and followed the NAM (India was a founder member of NAM) had close relationship with USSR and also signed a friendship treaty with the same which was considered as India siding with USSR. This also in some way after the relationship of India and China because China was a part the NATO pact and sided with the USA.[13]

The Various Factors for Dispute between the two Nations and the Present Scenario of Bilateral Relationship
The issues between the two nations is a never-ending list and the relationship is commonly viewed as either competitive or cooperative in nature. The bilateral relationship of the countries continues to oscillate between periods of dialogue and disruption which is a continuous cycle. But for the maintenance of peace, dialogue is a core factor[14].

This is exacerbated by a fundamental mismatch of threat perceptions between both states, rooted in the shifting balance of power and conflicting signals in the bilateral relationship. Moreover, the rise of both countries as major powers has provided them with new tools and platforms to interact with each other, contributing to a spillover of the Sinoľ Indian relationship from the bilateral to regional level. [15]

The military capabilities of both the countries have been growing in the recent times as both of them are suspicious of each other and a major chunk of the country's budget goes into enhancement of the military as well as the weapons are also increasing[16].

Both the nations are nuclear and possess a number of nuclear weapons and this is one of the reasons for which in the contemporary era, the cold war between the two nations never turned into a hot one because the loss on both sides due to Weapons of Mass Destruction would be of such a grievous nature that it would be impossible to declare a winner and the loss would take years to be repay. The countries are increasing their nuclear weapons which has also created an arms race between the two which cannot be safe for not just the two nations but the entire world populations.

The presence of nuclear weapon means that if in certain circumstances, someone by mistake or to create mischief fires a nuclear weapon on other, it would lead to the end of the world as the destruction would be such.[17] Even though the nations are expanding their military power, it is important that both of them being neighbours should keep a check on each other and should share information about the new military developments as this would also help in creating of cordial relationship.

The border troubles between the new nations have been existent since the independence of India from the colonial rulers and it is the root cause of the mutual mistrust and is still a thorn in the bilateral relationship of the two nations. China has resolved 17 out of the 29 existent disputes with India but there is yet no mutual agreement on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) as according to the Chinese map, Arunachal Pradesh and some other parts of the east India are a part of the Chinese territory.

The population of the eastern states which China considers to be a part of their territory are not required to get a visa to enter China. There has been a dispute regarding the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh. The balance of power in the recent years has been seen to tilt towards China due to its aggressive stand on the territorial disputes.

Many nations in the South Asia are siding with China as they consider India to be a regional bully which interferes in the internal disputes of the countries. Though the nations in the South Asia officially don't choose to bandwagon either India or China as they have derived benefits from the political and economic competition between the two nations[18].

Apart from the border dispute, there has been a disagreement on the water sharing of the rivers that pass through both the countries. The main is the Brahmaputra which originates in China known as Tsangpo (which means the purifier) has turned out to be a major source of water dispute in the nations. It is an important fresh water source to both India as well as China[19] but the sharing of river water has not been yet agreed upon.

China has constructed dams on the river without the permission of India and if it someday decided to releases water from the dam, the entire eastern state of India would become underwater states. This issue has not got any major importance in the recent times and it can prove to be of grievous nature in the near future. The countries should mutually decide what percentage of water would be sufficient for both of them by looking into factors such as population and agriculture. [2o]

The complexities of the bilateral relations are also increasing because of the contradictory signals that both the governments are sending out to each other. Both China and India presently have strong leaders which makes it more prone to the clashing of the foreign policies of the nations. Narendra Modi and Xi Jinping are both inclined towards making their respective countries a developed one and therefore both the leaders have made diplomatic visits to the respective countries.[21]

Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China even before the completion of his one year term which shows that the relationship of India and China is of prime importance. Rising Nationalism in both the countries has also turned out to be an area of discussion. The mismatch of the threat perception between the two countries is also there since the way in which China comes under the radar of India is not similar to the way in which India is on China's radar since India covers more of China but China's main focus is still on the presence of USA in South Asian politics. [22]

Pakistan is an crucial factor in this bilateral relationship. China is a supplier of weapons as well as nuclear technology to Pakistan which have the capability to strike at all cities across India. It has consistent support of China. China has also supplied fighter jets to Pakistan. One of the main reason for this relationship is because of China's presence in the Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK).

The Karakoram highway is one of the projects that China and Pakistan have decided to develop through the PoK. This would be highly beneficial for China as it would be very strategic in the transportation from the Gulf region. There are also MoU's signed between China and Pakistan for the development of Hydro-Power projects in the northern area. Infrastructural development is also taking place in the PoK. Chinese government apart from developing PoK's infrastructure along with military abilities also extends supports to the Kashmiri and Pakistani separatists and also condemns the ban on jihadi organisations by the United Nations Security Council. [23]

The issue of terrorism has been common among all the three countries i.e. India, China and Pakistan but there has not been any common stand on the same. China continues to support Pakistan in its anti-terrorist strategy only for the national interest and sue to this India has to be a victim of the terrorism across the border from its western neighbour.

China has not condemned the anti-nationalist activities that are carried out in Pakistan and uses its Veto power in the UN Security Council for failing the attempt of the other countries in declaration of Masoor Azhar as a global terrorist. China is also against India becoming a part of both the UN Security Council as well as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).[24]

Apart from the negative side of the bilateral relationship of India and China, there are positive sides to it too. China has emerged as India's largest trade partner. There has been a subsequent increase in the maritime interests and capabilities of both the nations. There is a dependence between both the countries for the imports and exports and both the countries together make one of the world's largest bilateral trade.[25]

The two countries have also had exchange of defence delegations. Though the issue of stapled visa created a problem between the two countries, it did not create much issue and was solved at the BRICS summit in Sanya. Such issues were put behind and the Chinese analyst welcomed the resumption of the defence ties between the two nations.

There have also been joint military exercises in the two countries and the main focus of this exercise was anti-terrorist trainings. An annual defence dialogue also takes place between the two countries. The diplomatic visits have been increased in the recent times as it emphasises on the importance of cordial relations as well as continued dialogue.[26]

Ways to the Enhance the Bilateral Relationship
On the stand of the India-China relationship, many believe that it is improving while others are of the contention that it is still the same and no major positive changes have been inculcated in this tie. There has been no formal concluding statement about the same. The Wuhan Summit between the two leaders, Narendra Modi and Xi Jinping has created a lot of confusion whether it was a success of not since the success depends upon the actions and not merely promises of words. [27]

But it is quite evident that China needs India as a trade partner for increasing its GDP and it cannot afford to lose that since this would witness a great fall in the GDP of the country. [28] The Wuhan Summit also made it quite unambiguous that the two nations have no intentions for a clash against each other and they are both willing in clearing the misunderstandings that have been created in this bilateral relationship[29]. To further enhance this relationship, there are certain steps that can be taken on both sides for mutual benefit.

The border dispute that has proved to be the root cause of this conflict needs to be clarified between the two nations. Both the countries can send their representatives to preside over a discussion that would take this matter as the primary concern and would take out solutions for the same as this cannot be continued further since it would be disruptive not just for the governments but the people of the respective areas as well.

The sooner it is resolved, the better it would be for both the nations[3o]. Assistance from an international governmental body like United Nations can also be taken as it would assure the smooth functioning of the meeting. The core agenda of the meeting should be to resolve the issue. [31]

There is also a need to maintain peace on the borders of both the nations. The peace mechanisms should not be of temporary nature but a long lasting solution. This would start with the clear demarcation of the borders shared by India and China and also in case of violation, the rules should be clearly laid down by both the nations with consensus on the same[32]. This would reduce border tensions like the Doklam standoff which was quite a complication and proved to be a restraint in the positive bilateral relations of the country[33].

Another problem that needs attention is the economic front because the possibility for their positive relationship is high, but the performance as of now is well below par. An instantaneous area of attention is in that of the trade balance which is heavily biased against India. But many Indian products like pharmaceuticals, IT products and non-basmati rice are blocked from the Chinese market. China needs to open up its markets to Indian goods. [34]

The problem of terrorism which is emanating from Pakistan should be of prime focus of both China as well as India and China though has brotherly relationship with Pakistan cannot ignore the fact that it harbours a number of most wanted terrorists in the world who have been the mastermind behind the majority of terror activities that are carried out in different parts of the world.

China should take a stand on the terrorism and should assist others countries in fighting with terrorism. It cannot aid Pakistan in its terror venture. China can start by unblocking the movement by other UN Security Council members in declaration of Masoor Azhar as a global terrorist. [35]

Both the countries should also have a mechanism of diplomatic ties where both can discuss about the regional issues with the neighbouring countries like Myanmar, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Maldives and Sri Lanka and also other countries in the South Asian subcontinent. China and India are both superpowers in the present multipolar world and they can together form a platform for the countries of South Asia where they can come with their grievances. This would further strengthen the bond of the two nations. [36]

In the military conflict area, the two nations should reduce the suspicion between each other and should take each other in confidence. This can be done by regular visits of the top military leaders where they can discuss the new military initiatives under taken by the military. There should be annual military exercises and an exchange of the defence delegations.[37]

Lastly, apart from the political, economic, geographical and military solutions, there should be sharing of the cultures of the countries with each other. This can be done by holding traditional fetes in the people can have knowledge about the other nations. The fetes can be organised in collaboration with the cultural ministers of the country.

Apart from this, the cinemas of both the countries can come together to produce movies about the India and China in which superstars from both the countries can act as it would attract more audience. Kung Fu Yoga was a positive milestone in cementing Sino-Indian cultural exchange. Both the nations have also agreed to enhance the ten pillars of cooperation. [38]

CONCLUSION
The India-China relationship has been very tumultuous from the 195o's and has gone from phases of friendliness to hostility to friendliness. The disputes that have arisen in the two nations have had an obvious impact on the bilateral relationship between the two nations but it can be observed that despite all the factors, it has been stable in the past few years and is improving in many sectors.

In military region, although there has been peace and tranquility on the borders which is achieved in the recent years, the border intrusion incidents have resulted in a subsequent increase in the military expenditure of both the nations. There have been trust issues between both the countries which has further led to a security dilemma and therefore there has been an arms race between the two countries.

The Sino-Pakistan relationship which is very brotherly has played a primitive role in deciding the relationship of India and China because in the present multipolar world, Pakistan has faced opposition from United States due to the terror activities that take place within the country and therefore it sides with China. India has close ties with United States and this has been a reason for the conflict between the two countries.

Pakistan is supported by China and is being armed by China which is very threatening for both India as well as United States. China has often taken advantage of the cold war between India and Pakistan. Kashmir which is an issue in Indo-Pakistan relationship is also a crucial to China for its strategic relevance. Thus, it can be said that Pakistan is a central factor in determining the Sino-India relationship.

Regardless of all the controversial factors present between the two countries, China has emerged as India's largest trading partner. The trade between the two countries has increased in the recent times. The summits and the diplomatic visits between the two countries has successful in improving the relationships between the two countries.

There are a number of ways by which the relationship of both the countries can be improved. More focus should be put on dialogue than disruption as constant dialogue is a crucial factor for both the countries. India should focus more on the domestic policy as it would ultimately make the nation stronger therefore leaving no scope for suspicion. Finally, the past lessons should be taken into view.

Bibliography
Articles:
  1. Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition by Jean-Francois Huchet and N. Jayaram
  2. China and the First Indo-China War, 195o-54 by Chen Jian
  3. China-India: Regional Dimensions of the Bilateral Relationship by Chietigj Bajpaee
  4. China's Growing Influence in Central Asia - Implications for India by Raj Kumar Sharma
  5. New Directions in Indian Foreign Policy towards China by Prof. Srikanth Kondapalli
  6. The Brahmaputra conundrum by Sonali Mittra, The Hindu
  7. The China-Indian Border Brawl by Jeff M. Smith, Wall Street Journal Asia Are China-India Relations Really Improving? by Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, The Diplomat
  8. How and Why the Dalai Lama left Tibet? by Jennifer Latson
  9. China cannot rob us of Brahmapurta. By Nilanjan Ghosh
  10. The cure for India-China relations by Minhaz Merchant
  11. Six Ways on how to improve Sino-Indian ties post Wuhan by Manoj Joshi
  12. China's Creeping Invasion of India by Saurav Jha, The Diplomat
  13. India shows intent to resolve Azhar issue with China to bolster "Wuhan Spirit" by Atul Aneja
  14. India, China agree on '1o pillars' of cooperation to enhance cultural ties, The Week by Rekha Dixit
Books:
  1. India-China in the Contemporary Era by Annupurna Nautiyal and Chintamani Mahapatra
  2. India-China Relations: A New Paradigm by Rup Narayan Das
  3. NCERT, "Contemporary World Politics" (Edn 2oo7)
End-Notes:
  1. Chietigj Bajpaee, "China-India: Regional Dimensions of the Bilateral Relationship" (2o15)
  2. Sonali Mittra, 'The Brahmaputra conundrum' The Hindu (December o4, 2o17)
  3. Jeff M. Smith, "The China-Indian Border Brawl" Wall Street Journal Asia (July 1o, 2o15)
  4. Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, 'Are China-India Relations Really Improving?' The Diplomat (March o1, 2o18)
  5. Jean Francois Huchet and N Jayaram, 'Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition' (2oo8)
  6. NCERT, "Contemporary World Politics" (Edn 2oo7)
  7. Jennifer Latson, "How and Why the Dalai Lama left Tibet" (March 17, 2o15)
  8. Jean Francois Huchet and N Jayaram, 'Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition' (2oo8)
  9. Chen Jian, 'China and the First Indo-China War 195o-54'
  10. Raj Kumar Sharma, 'China's Growing Influence in Central Asia - Implications for India' (2o17)
  11. Chietigj Bajpaee, 'China-India Regional Dimensions of the Bilateral Relationship' (2o15)
  12. Jean Francois Huchet and N Jayaram, 'Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition' (2oo8)
  13. Jean Francois Huchet and N Jayaram, 'Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition' (2oo8)
  14. Annupurna Nautiyal and Chintamani Mahapatra, "India-China in Contemporary Era" (2o14)
  15. Prof. Srikanth Kondapalli , "New Directions in Indian Foreign Policy towards China" {2o17}
  16. Chen Jian , "China and the First Indo-China War, 195o-54"
  17. Chietigj Bajpaee, 'China-India Regional Dimensions of the Bilateral Relationship' (2o15)
  18. ibid
  19. Sonali Mittra, 'The Brahmaputra conundrum' The Hindu (December o4, 2o17
  20. Nilanjan Ghosh, 'China cannot rob us of Brahmapurta' (January 9, 2o18)
  21. Rup Narayan Das, 'India-China relation: A new paradigm' (May 2o13)
  22. NCERT, "The Contemporary World Politics' (2oo7)
  23. Rup Narayan Das, 'India-China relation: A new paradigm' (May 2o13)
  24. Rup Narayan Das, 'India-China relation: A new paradigm' (May 2o13)
  25. Raj Kumar Sharma , 'China's Growing Influence in Central Asia - Implications for India'(2o17)
  26. Jean Francois Huchet and N Jayaram, 'Emergence of a Pragmatic India-China Relationship: Between Geostrategic Rivalry and Economic Competition' (2oo8)
  27. Rajeshwari Pillai Rajagopalan, 'Are China-India Relations really improving' The Diplomat (March o1, 2o18)
  28. Minhaz Merchant, 'The cure for India-China relations' (o4 August 2o18)
  29. Minhaz Merchant, 'The cure for India-China relations' (o4 August 2o18)
  30. Manoj Joshi, 'Six ways on how to improve Sino-Indian, post-Wuhan (May o2, 2o18)
  31. ibid
  32. Saurav Jha, 'China's Creeping Invasion of India' The Diplomat (July o6, 2o17)
  33. Minhaz Merchant, 'The cure for India-China relations' (o4 August 2o18)
  34. Manoj Joshi, 'Six ways on how to improve Sino-Indian, post-Wuhan (May o2, 2o18)
  35. Atul Aneja, 'India shows intent to resolve Azhar issue with China to bolster "Wuhan Spirit"' The Hindu (April 22, 2o19)
  36. Rup Narayan Das, 'India-China relation: A new paradigm' (May 2o13)
  37. Minhaz Merchant, 'The cure for India-China relations' (o4 August 2o18)
  38. Rekha Dixit, "India, China agree on '1o pillars' of cooperation to enhance cultural ties" The Week (December 21, 2o18)

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