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Clean Technologies and Environmental Protection

The Clean Technologies can be described as "products, services and procedures which make usage of the sources of renewable energy for the reduction or elimination of emissions and wastes and thereby considerably diminish the consumption of natural resources".

Wind and solar energy which are generated through the renewable sources, mode of transportation which functions on renewable source of energies, cleaner recycling techniques etc. are a few examples of clean technology There has been a massive progression in the sector of the clean technology and a lot of finance has also been attracted by the same. In the year 2007, there was a funding of $148 billion which was received by the companies in the sector of solar, wind and biofuel.

For business, clean technology has become a trending focus. Irrespective of the industry, there is a reduction of pollutants in business with the utilization of the clean technologies.

At a global level, there has been a unceasing debate which is about the sharing of the responsibility in the reduction of the carbon emissions. It has been argued by the developed nations that there ought to be an uniform accountability among all the nations that is each nation should share an equal responsibility towards working for a common goal i.e. the reduction of the carbon emissions around the globe but the developing nations do not agree to the same since they argue that they should be given a change to get the benefits of the industrialization and the developments which come from it for a certain period of time and hence they should be exempted from the same as of now.

Between thee developed and the developing nations, clean technologies are hence a bone of contention and is a continuous topic of debate. The access to the clean technology is not equal around the globe since a there are only a few nations which lead the world into the development of clean technologies as majority of the nations do not have an access to them at the same level and there are also certain barriers which exist in the same. Due to such a restricted access, there is a major challenge which is faced by the clean technologies for reducing the greenhouse emissions and aversion of climate change.

The focus of this project would be on the difference in the approach of the developing and the developed nation on clean technologies and what are the obstacles in the transferring of the same from the developed to developing. The project would also explore the legal framework in India which makes it mandatory for the usage of the clean technologies.

Research Objectives
  1. To comprehend the prerequisite of transfer of clean technologies in the present-day world.
  2. To identify the issues which are there in transfer of the clean technology from the developed to developing nations.
  3. To understand the Indian Legal framework for the adaptation of clean technology for the purpose of protection of the environment.

Research Questions
  1. Whether the developed nations put the developing nations at a disadvantage by making use of clean technologies as a requirement under the International Environmental Law?
  2. Whether there are any obstacles in the transfer of clean technologies from the developed nations to the developing nations and how can such hurdles be mitigated or done away with?
  3. Whether there is any legal framework in India which mandated the usage of clean technologies for the protection of the environment and whether there are any amendments which are required in the same?
"For the protection of the environment, it is crucial that clean technology is used but the developing nations face a number of obstacles in usage of the same"

Literature Review
The literature on the transfer of the clean technology depends from nation to nation. While researching, it was noticed by the author the scholars of the developing nations have more literature on this subject than the those of the developed nations. The cause of the same might be due to the fact that the impact on the developing nations is more as compared to the developed nations when it comes to the transfer of clean technology.

It was also noted by the author that majority of the suggested resolutions for the barriers to transfer of clean technology are from the viewpoint of developing countries. Typically, such suggestions include amendments which have been recommended to alter the regulatory framework of a nation to make it more import friendly. From the developed nations, there are a very few suggestions which have been forwarded, wherein recommendations might have been given such as lead being taken by the developed countries for the formulation of the international frameworks facilitating transfer of clean technology.

For understanding the laws in India which mandate and promote the usage of clean technologies, the author referred to the website of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy by the Government of India.

Research Methodology
The method of research adopted by the researcher was the doctrinal method of research. The research commenced by the researcher understanding the concept of clean technology and how such technologies aid in reduction of the carbon emissions as well as the greenhouse effect. After this, the researcher examined the utilization of clean technologies and realised that there is a disparity in the usage between the developed and the developing nations.

The reason for such disparity was also discovered by the researcher and then the researcher also looked upon the issue whether the developing nations are at a disadvantageous position in comparison of the developed nations due to the international environmental obligation with respect to reduction of carbon emissions. Lastly, the researcher looked for the legal framework of environmental law for the mandatory usage of such clean technology.

Preliminary Chapterisation
  1. Introduction:
    In the first chapter, I would give detail about what is meant by clean technologies and what all is included in this. Along with this, I would also highlight the importance of clean technologies and the types of technology transfers. There are certain challenges which are faced in the transfer of such technology which will be talked about in this chapter.
  2. In the second chapter, I would discuss about the difference of approach between the developed and developing nations with respect to the clean technology and also discuss about how the developing nations are at a disadvantage for the usage of the same. In this chapter, the obstacles along with solutions to such obstacles which are there in the transfer of such technology from developed to developing nations would also be talked about.
  3. In the third chapter, I would talk about the Indian Legal Framework for the mandatory usage of the clean technology for the protection of the environment and would also see the incentives which are there for the promotion of the same.
  4. Lastly, there is conclusion

What Is Clean Technology And Why Is It Trending?

The clean technology included the procedural or the conceptual approach towards the manufacturing that requires that all the stages of the life cycle of a process or a product should be dealt with the intent of prevention or minimalization of the short as well as the long-term jeopardizing of the environment which in turn negatively impacts the human health too.

In other words, the prevention of the environmental destruction at the core itself through the utilization of materials, practices and processes for the reduction or eradication of the wastes and pollutants is known as the cleaner technology.

Other terms which are used for clean technology include green technology, clean-tech, and green-tech etc. So basically it is a series or a group of technologies that either lessen or enhance/optimize the consumption of natural resources, and at the same time simultaneously plummeting and condensing the negative impacts of such technology which it has on our planet as well as its ecosystems.[1]

This concept of clean technologies from the point of view of the environment, signifies the consuming of minimum resources with at their maximum efficiency for the achievement of the couple benefit i.e. the conservation of the resources as well as the protection of the environment. But when we see clean technology from the point of view of the economy then the meaning of the same is seen in the light of the cost efficacy and the enhanced productivity within the resources available.[2]

Clean technologies can be categorized into three main branches. The first category is the LNWT which is the low and non-waste technologies of production. The aim of this is the minimization of the waste at all phases in the production cycle. This is done by the way of alteration in the process, good housekeeping, reduce, reuse and recycle method, the design of the equipment, as well as the formulations of product. The second category is the recycling of the technologies which have been created for the recovery of energy, water, raw material, and also the by-products in end-of-pipe treatment's course. The third category is the waste consumption technologies.

These are for the reclaiming and utilizing of the waste products into the production and manufacturing of the commodities with several end uses. The achieving of the waste minimization has to be done through a way which is more selective as well as through a method which is more environmental friendly and which does not put the environment at risk at any of its stages. [3]

In the selection as well as the application process of the clean technologies, there is a requirement of the comparative analysis along with the assessment of diverse conflicting and challenging technologies which are based on the social, economic, technological conditions together with the conditions of the environment.

A number of substantial alterations have already been made in the processes which are well-established. These include the production of sulfuric acid, cyclohexanone, etc., allowing them to be created through the newer feed stocks, catalysis and conditions. In the caustic soda manufacturing the mercury cell technology was totally replaced by the membrane technology without mercury pollution. [4]

The objective of the solutions of clean technology aim for a positive and progressive impact on the anthropogenic climate change. Another important factor for these clean technologies is for them to be economically feasible and also to have the capacity to turn into an enterprise which can earn profits and this is for attracting the investments which would further lead to development in this manufacturing sector.

Currently, there are four primary sectors in the industry of clean technology which include first, for the cutting back the dependence on fossil fuels the utilization of sustainable energy and the optimization usage of energy.

Second is the clean water provision which is a basic humanistic prerequisite. The third is the reduction of all types of pollution and the fourth one is the recycling and the waste management. [5]

Clean technology is seen as a solution which is pegged instantly due to the increase in the global warming as well as the climate change which have become a substantial threat to the environment. India has been planning that by the year 2030, the generation of 40 percent of its total energy would be from the renewable resources which would be increased from that of 22 percent which was in the year 2017. At a global level, India has also been ranked fifth in terms of capacity of the installed renewable energy.[6]

Approach Towards Clean Technology In Developed And Developing Nations

The world has contemplated the clean technologies as a remedy to global warming and the greenhouse gas emissions. There is a requirement of action by the all the nations of the world since global warming poses a menace to the whole world. However, between the developed and the developing nations, there exists a technological gap which means that there has been development of more sophisticated and advanced technologies by the developed nations than the developing ones who face a number of issues in even having an access to the same.

As a direct implication, the clean technologies can be consumed by the developed nations for the reduction of the carbon emissions in a much easier and efficient way much more than the developing nations.

Due to existence of such an inconsistency in the reduction of the carbon emissions, the fight of the nations does not prove to be an efficient one collectively. The primary objective of the clean technology is its effective transfer from the developed world to the developing one so that the benefits can be enjoyed by all for the collective good at a global level. By doing this, the result would be the reduction of the discrepancy aforementioned and this would also have a substantial improvement in the greenhouse gas emissions and the global warming at a global level.

In the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Article 4 provides for the significance of the transfer of clean technologies. In this, it is given that there needs to be commitment of all the parties to the Convention for the promotion as well as the cooperation in transferring of the clean technologies. Additionally, it is also stated in the Article that as a commitment of the developed states to the developing nations for the promotion of the clean technology, the former should provide latter with the financial resources for the transfer of clean technology.[7]

There are a number of ways in which the transfer of clean technologies can be made from the developed nations to the developing ones. Firstly, the developed nations can make a direct sale of the products which make use of the technology to the developing nations. The installation and the maintenance of such a product is provided by the developed nations to the developing nations.

When transfer is made in such a form then it would be limited in nature because the developed countries retain the technical know-how of such a technology. Secondly, when the transfer which is made by the developed country is inclusive of the technical know-how which includes the installing, maintaining and the commercialisation process which is related to the clean technology. When a transfer is made in such a way then it is in a substantial manner.

The transfer in a substantial manner can typically be made only when there is a strong IPR protection regime of the developing country and a sufficient control can be made by the exporter over the technology in the country importing the same. In the importing country, such a transfer permits for a simpler propagation of the technology.

In the transfer of clean technologies from the developed to the developing world, Intellectual Property Rights act as a primary barrier. Where the countries have a weaker IPR protection regime, exporting to such nations is avoided by the exporters since this could lead to unlicensed multiplication of their protected technologies. Commercial benefitting from their technology could be deprived to the exporters due to such an issue. Furthermore, in such countries the litigation expenses would have to taken care of by the exporters themselves for protection of their technologies. [8]

When an IPR protection is granted to the products which give a new way of performing a task or provide a novel solution to a technical problem then the same is termed as patent. Innovation is promoted by the way of patents since monopoly in temporary form is provided to the inventors which acts an incentive for them to reap the maximum number of economic benefits from the same.

The procurement of patents can prove to be an expensive process especially for the least developed countries and such expenses can be seen as a barrier in countries with low economy and the inventors of such technology would have no incentive to transfer the clean technology to such nations as they would choose to move to nations where they can earn high profits.

In a recent study it was confirmed that out of total number of patent applications which had been filed for clean technologies, only 0.1 percent of them were filed in the least developed nations and a substantial number of applications were filed by India and China for the same.[9]

Another form of IPR protect are the Trade secrets which unlike patents which have a 20-year protection have no such temporary limitation and they also do not have any procedural formalities. As long as a commercial or business information has a commercial value and d it remains a secret, anything can be classified a trade secret.

While entering into transactions, the confidentiality agreements and non-disclosure agreements are relied upon by the businesses for protection of their trade secrets which makes the parties to the agreement bound not to disclose certain facts. In some countries there is a weak regime of trade secrets which is another reason by certain companies might avoid transfer of clean technology to these countries as it poses as a threat to them.

In certain countries while entering into the markets the government requires the information which is relevant to the same which might put it trade secret at a risk for these companies and when litigation is there then also certain facts need to be disclosed to the companies for the same.[10]

The clauses that demand that the right to transfer any amendments or improvements which have been made to the technology back to the licensor lies with the licensees of the licensed technology is known as the grant back clause. To avoid any competition with respect to the updated technology from their licensees, the inclusion of grant back clause is insisted by the licensors. The legitimacy of grant back clauses varies as per the jurisdiction.

There has been challenge on the same since they restrain innovation as the licensees would be discouraged from improvement of technologies as the right would be transferred to the licensor. In certain countries, the exporting enterprise may be discouraged for transferring technology due to the constraints on the grant back clauses. Grant back clauses however are also unique since permitting them in many cases leads to innovation which can be stifling. [11]

The amount which is paid to the IPR licensor are known as Royalties. The transfer of clean technology is affected by the way in which the royalty payments are taxed and dealt with under the law of taxation of the developing nations.

When the state withholds a part of the payment as tax then the withholding taxes are charged upon them. On clean technology when the withholding taxes are of high rate then the licensure would receive a reduced amount considerably after the tax deduction and the licensor would be discourage for exporting the clean technologies due to reduced profits.

Due to this, in certain cases the licensor might include a clause within the contractual agreement for receiving the same amount as agreed upon after the charging of a withholding tax as if there has been no deduction of the tax for prevention of earning any loses in the same. However, this might discourage the importing of clean technology as such a clause might increase the cost of licensee parties substantially.[12]

For promotion of transfer of clean technologies from developed nations to the developing nations, there are certain things which can be done. When a pool is created by grouping together of the similar technologies under the IPR protection, it is known as Technology pooling. For accessing all the available technology in this pool, a single license is necessary. This provides the entities with an easy access to the group of protected technology.

A technology pool can be created by pooling together clean technologies from various exporting firms and the developing countries would have an easy access to the same. It would prove to be favourable for the exporters as well since by getting an access to this pool the technology they would get access to multiple technologies and therefore in transfer of technology a technology pool would prove to be a good option.

There can be a formation of a climate fund by the developing countries who could come together for the same. Such a climate fund would be a joint fund which would be utilized for aiding the researching, developing and manufacturing of the clean technologies. All the nations who would be aiding or contributing to the fund should have availability to all the technologies that are being invented from such a fund with a minimum charge or with no royalties. Additionally, the terms of making the clean technology available should be user-friendly and should provide countries with a flexible and unhindered usage of the same.[13]

There are a number of firms which by the way of Foreign Direct Investments are exporting technologies to their own subsidiaries which are placed in other nations which allows them to retail control over the technologies while installing their technologies in other nations. The regulation of the FDIs is done by the countries on the basis of sectors. Firms which have access to clean technologies are more likely to be attracted by high FDI in clean technology which would be made available due to a regime with open trade.

The individual targets of emission reduction of greenhouse effect for both developing and developed nations have been provided by the Kyoto Protocol. By 2012, the first commitment period as given in the Kyoto Protocol ended. The Kyoto Protocol was extended from 2013 � 2020 by the Doha Amendment for a second commitment period however the same has not been entered into force.

The Clean Development Mechanism has been given under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol which states that if within their territories, the emission reduction target is not met by the developed countries then they can implement project for emission reduction in the developing countries.

Due to such project implementation, the developed countries are credited with the Certified Emission Reduction which under the Kyoto Protocol are considered towards their own emission reduction targets. Installing of energy-efficient boilers and projects for rural electrification are examples of developments under this mechanism.[14]

But there are certain limitations which point out that the Clean development Mechanism as given under the Kyoto Protocol acts for the benefit of the developed nations.

The first issue is that the Mechanism is dependent upon the fact that the transfer of clean technology i.e. the development which would take place in the developing nation would be upon the developed nations that too if they are unable to meet their criteria for emission reduction within their own territories.

Secondly, this also prevents the developing nations from choosing a clean technology as per their own will since the implementation of the choice would rest with the developed nations and they might not transfer the clean technologies which would actually aid the developing nations in the reduction of these emissions.

Thirdly, under this Mechanism, the actual transfer of technology might not take place since the nation would be transferring the pre-built technologies to the developing nations and this would deprive the developing nations to gain access to the technology's know-how.

Fourthly, there is mention of states in the mechanism which terms them as the parties responsible for construction of the clean technology projects and nowhere the private entities are given a mention whereas in most of the cases the states do not themselves even possess the access to the clean technologies which makes it unable for such transfer of technologies. [15]

Clean Technology In India And The Legal Framework

There are no specific guidelines or laws in India yet for overseeing the sustainable energy sector but there are a number of acts which have a significant role to play in the same which include the Electricity Act of 2003, NTP i.e. The National Tariff Policy 2016, National Electricity Policy 2015, NAPCC which is the National Action Plan on Climate Change and the National Rural Electrification Policy. [16]

An ambitious goal has been set up by the Government of India as a part of the Paris Agreement, that 175 GW of renewable energy would be generated by the year 2022 by India out of which solar energy would be 100 GW and wind energy would be 60 GW. This target has been revised and raised to 225 GW which is to be produced by the year 2022.

The investments for the same are already taking place as since 2014, 42 billion francs are already being ploughed into renewable energy. Asides from renewable energy, investments are also being made into other cleantech sectors by India including e-mobility. Even though there is a lack of charging stations in India, there are aimed alliances which are taking place between the industry and the government for the manufacturing of hybrid and electric vehicles.[17]

The Budget for the year 2021-22 was presented on 1 February 2021 by the Finance Minister of India in which the proposal of the Government of India for launching of Hydrogen Energy Mission was presented and in this the hydrogen would be generated from the green power sources even though the guidelines on the same are yet to be issued under the MNRE, a committee known as the 'Standing Committee on Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells' has been constituted and the initial draft of the Hydrogen Energy Mission has been developed and the same is under discussion and finalization.

For boosting the participation of the private sector, the draft of Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2020. In this for the power sector, there would be reduction in the subsidies and there is also provision for the regulation of the contractual disputes by setting up of an enforcement authority. The competitive bidding may undertake the project tariff or the relevant electricity commission may pre-determine it under the Electricity Act 2003. For keeping the tariff low, the state is encouraged for the procurement of the power through competitive bidding under the National Tariff Policy, 2016. [18]

In the Electricity Act, 2003, Section 86(1)(e) there is a requirement of the state electricity commission to specify a particular percent of electricity which has been purchased from the renewable source of energy. Regulations have been specified by the state electricity commissions have as a follow up for the same which provide that there is an obligation for certain entities to make usage of the renewable energy which has been defined under the specific regulations of the state.[19]

For diversification into the renewable energy portfolio, certain policy measures have been undertaken by the government of India by the way of the national tariff policy which is related to the 'renewable generation obligation'. In this there is encouragement for the thermal power generators which is coal based. In this there is a requirement for the conventional plants as per the central government for the production of the renewable energy which is to be done wither by setting up of their own generation sources for the same or by procurement of the renewable energy from another source but there is no notification where the limit is being prescribed by the central government. [20]

Electric Vehicles are being heavily adopted India and there are many policy initiatives which have been adopted for the same. In Delhi incentives up to ₹1,50,000 are being provided for speeding up this process. A report has been released by the policy think tank of Government of India known as NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India) which highlights the requirement of increasing an investment in this sector for speeding up the transition of our nation to electric mobility.

There has been coordination between NITI Aayog and MNRE for the formulation of energy storage sector in India even though at this stage, there is a lack of regulation in the same. The Energy Storage System Roadmap for India foe the year 2019-32 was modelled by the NITI Aayog in 2019 and implementation of the same is underway. There is continuous distribution of tenders which are being issues for energy storage and one of the most recent was in Tamil Nadu by distribution licensee of 1MW/3.0MWh Battery Energy Storage System.[21]

The Government of India in the year 2010 launched an initiative known as the Jawaharlal Nehru Solar Mission (JNNSM) In this the energy security challenge of India was addressed and the aim of this was the promotion of ecologically sustainable growth. The target under JNNSM is to reach 100GW by the year 2022 which was approved by PM Narendra Modi in 2015 for ramping up India's solar power capacity.

There are various incentives which are set up under this mission up till the year 2022 including zero import duty on raw material and capital investments, low interest rates and priority lending sector. n June 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved ramping up of the country's solar power capacity target under the JNNSM to reach 100 GW by 2022.[22] In India, there has been skill development in the solar and the wind energy sectors as well and by the year 2022 over 0.3 million jobs are expected to be created in the same. [23]

For the implementation of green corridor projects, an amount of ₹75.26 billion (USD 1.05 billion) has been received by India in the form of a soft loan from the German Development Bank. The green corridor project aims for the improvement of the framework and conditions of the sector for grid.integrati0n of renewable energy with c0nventional p0wer grids. 70% of interstate transmission schemes and 40% of intrastate will be funded through this soft loan.[24]

One of the primary action plans of the government of India is providing electricity to all including all households of the villages of urban and rural areas including the slum areas which currently are not a part of the centralized or the grid distribution. The government is working along with a number of cleantech companies for doing the same.

The villagers and the slum people have been encouraged by a few cleantech companies for using the solar energy instead of kerosene and for the same they use standardized packages. For example, In slums of Bengaluru, there are renewable energy lanterns and stoves which are being sold by making use of the pollinate energy.

Due to the current climate emergency which is being declared at a global level by the governments of all the nations, the world is witnessing a shift towards the clean technology solutions which are generated by the way of making use of the clean energy which is produced from the renewable energy sources including the wind energy, hydropower, solar energy, thermal energy, energy generated from the bio-fuel etc the source of which can be wind, rain, tides, waves, geothermal heat, sunlight among many others. This transformation is being done as a direct result to the slow extinction of the fossil fuels on which there is a huge reliance for the production of energy.

There is a requirement by both the individuals as well as the industries to reduce their impacts on the environment and for the same, regulatory regimes are being adopted by the governments for this objective. The adoption of the clean technologies at present and in future must be as a result of the mounting pressure from global organizations and communities. The hypothesis of this research paper hence stands proved because there is a requirement at a global level to adopt the cleantech but there are a number of barriers in the same.

As an answer to the first research question which has been discussed in this research paper, the answer is in positive i.e. the developed countries indeed put the developing countries at a disadvantaged position because there is a dependence of the latter on the former for the same and due to this dependence, the developing nations do not get the option to pick and choose the type of technology which they would like to utilize and instead have to make use of the one which the developed nations would choose for them even though the same might not be of much use to them and as a result the transfer of clean technology to developing nations is not much efficient as of now.

The answer to the second research question is that indeed there are numerous hurdles and obstacles which are faced by both the developed nations as well as the developing nation which the transfer of the clean technology and the solutions for such barriers have been discussed in the research paper in Chapter 2.

The third research question was pertaining to the legal framework of India with respect to the clean technology and to this the researcher found out that there is no proper legal framework in India for the same but with time there are number of upcoming legislations for the same. there are also many incentives which are being provided by the government of India for adoption of clean technology.

  1. Anand Gupta's, "India to receive Euro 1 Billion Soft Loan for green energy corridors from Germany" (2016) EQ International
  2. Amar Narula, Saachi Kapoor and Atyotma Gupta's, "The Renewable Energy Law Review: India" 2021 The Law Reviews
  3. Energy Storage System Roadmap for India: 2019-2032, India Smart Grid Forum, (August 2019)
  4. Cleantech Markets in India: Growth drivers, challenges and key trends (2020) Netscribes
  5. National Tariff Policy 2016
  6. Electricity Act 2003
  7. B Wang's,Can CDM bring Tech transfer to China? Energy Policy
  8. Joanna Glasner's, "Cleantech Funds Scaling Up To Take On Climate Change in 2021", (2021)
  9. What is Kyoto Protocol? United Nations Climate Change
  10. Nitya Nanda and Nidhi Srivastava's, "Clean Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights" (2009) Sustainable Development Law and Policy
  11. Olivier Petit and Peter Schembri's, "Clean Technology transfer and North-South technological Gap", 2009 Dans Economic International
  12. Jerrey D Peterson's, "Cleantech Patents: When is Trade Secret the Right Protection?", (2011) National Law Review
  13. AnsKolk's, "The role of International Business in Clean Technology Development and Transfer" (2015) Climate Policy
  14. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  15. Iyyanki V. Kuralikrishna, Vali Manickam, "Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technologies, Recycling, Reuse", 2017 Environment Management, Science Direct
  16. Miream Tuerk's, "Clean Technology is Crossing the Chasm � And it's Time to Invest in It" July 2021 Forbes
  17. Addison, John's, "Solar, Wind and Biofuel's Impressive Growth Surge in 08" 2018 Seeking Alpha
  18. Ben Pilkington's, "What is Clean Technology?" June 2015 AZO Cleantech
  1. Iyyanki V. Kuralikrishna, Vali Manickam, "Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technologies, Recycling, Reuse", 2017 Environment Management, Science Direct
  2. Ben Pilkington's, "What is Clean Technology?" June 2015 AZO Cleantech
  3. Iyyanki V. Kuralikrishna, Vali Manickam, "Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technologies, Recycling, Reuse", 2017 Environment Management, Science Direct
  4. Miream Tuerk's, "Clean Technology is Crossing the Chasm � And it's Time to Invest in It" July 2021 Forbes
  5. Id
  6. Addison, John's, "Solar, Wind and Biofuel's Impressive Growth Surge in 08" 2018 Seeking Alpha
  7. Article 4 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  8. Olivier Petit and Peter Schembri's, "Clean Technology transfer and North-South technological Gap", 2009 Dans Economic International
  9. Olivier Petit and Peter Schembri's, "Clean Technology transfer and North-South technological Gap", 2009 Dans Economic International
  10. Jerrrey D Peterson's, "Cleantech Patents: When is Trade Secret the Right Protection?", (2011) National Law Review
  11. AnsKolk's, "The role of International Business in Clean Technology Development and Transfer" (2015) Climate Policy
  12. Nitya Nanda and Nidhi Srivastava's, "Clean Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Rights" (2009) Sustainable Development Law and Policy
  13. Joanna Glasner's, "Cleantech Funds Scaling Up To Take On Climate Change in 2021", (2021)
  14. What is Kyoto Protocol? United Nations Climate Change
  15. B Wang's,"Can CDM bring Tech transfer to China?" Energy Policy
  16. Amar Narula, Saachi Kapoor and Atyotma Gupta's, "The Renewable Energy Law Review: India" 2021 The Law Reviews
  17. Id
  18. National Tariff Policy 2016
  19. Electricity Act 2003
  20. Amar Narula, Saachi Kapoor and Atyotma Gupta's, "The Renewable Energy Law Review: India" 2021 The Law Reviews
  21. Energy Storage System Roadmap for India: 2019-2032, India Smart Grid Forum, (August 2019)
  22. Cleantech Markets in India: Growth drivers, challenges and key trends (2020) Netscribes
  23. Id
  24. Anand Gupta's, India to receive Euro 1 Billion Soft Loan for green energy corridors from Germany (2016) EQ International

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