This article talks about Women and the laws related to Women. Women hold a
well built place in society. Whether we talk about Sports or education, women
have crossed every hurdle to reach their aims. But there are some challenges,
they face commonly. These should be curtailed so as to not stop the succeeding
qualities among women. This article deals with those hurdles and how these
problems can be solved. There are some examples of women who have never found
trp's but still have always been role models of many.
These Chapters included revolve around the status of women in society whether
its social, political. The discussion is mainly on the role of a woman in the
society of stereotypes. This will take us to a journey how women were treated in
ancient times and how the time has changed when a woman is the leader of the
nation. The discussions includes certain laws and schemes made by government to
Now a days when a woman is allowed to work but still faces
challenges at workplaces is also included in this chapters. The main idea to
writes these chapters is to have a clear crystal image of woman in society. A statiscal view of the things makes the way clear to understand. Many prominent
ladies have showed their contribution to the society and that is also included.
At last but not the least a way forward on seeing the whole discussion to tackle
various problems of women in modern times is also given.
Rightly did Swami Vivekanand say, 'Just as a bird can not fly with one wing
only, a Nation can not march forward if the women are left behind'.
India is known for its Culture, Sacraments, Secularism and uncountable
qualities. And taking all these features forward a woman not only serves her
family but the whole country. This is not the time when a girl gets married at
the age of 14 or is ordered to work at home only but we belong to the era of
Women like Kalpana Chawla, Kiran Bedi, Bachendri Pal who made histories.
Woman is considered as 'Shakti' - The Primordial Cosmic energy, The Mother of
Universe. She is even celebrated the most powerful and empowering force is Hindu
scriptures . A man builds a house but a woman makes it a home. Playing different
roles in a single face she serves not only her family but the Whole Universe.
According to the Hindu culture a woman is the other half of a man. Not only in
terms of body but soul, heart, mind also. Each has what the other does not have.
Just as the sea is nothing without water a society is nothing without a woman.
If a man gets educated he runs his family but if a woman educates she runs a
generation. Thus the women ought to be respected.
Every creature in this universe is Rightfully Permitted to survive according to
his deeds and so the women are. Right from the ancient times, a woman is
respected as a Goddess but on the other side of the coin she is treated as a
prisoner. Taking the journey to The Holy Ramayan We see Mata Sita the only wife
of Shree Ram, Choosing the hardships of Forest on the foortprints of her husband
rather than leave her husband, is worshipped as The Goodess Laxmi.
imprisoned her. Out of infatuation for her, the tyrant Ravana met his ignoble
end. Out of many stories like The humiliation of Draupadi, Kindnapping of Sita
we see direspecting a woman results to one's total annihilation.
Harassing woman is commom thing we hear almost everyday. Stepping out of the
home lets her feel insecure be it is a park, a lonely road, or her workplace.
Sexual Harassment of Women at workplace
Harassment anywhere is a threat to morality everywhere. All are equal before the
eyes of law Article 14 of Indian Constitution provides us with this Provision.
And these ALL have the right to stand on their own feet. These all include women
also. So even the The Knowledge Palace of India (The Indian Constitution) Gives
Women the rights equal to Men, so women can't be kept back in any field. But
this throbbing act Sexual Harassment deprives them from enjoying such right.
Sexual Harassment to women fill them with the feeling of Insecurity, demorality,
Loss of confidence, everywhere either they are at home or workplace. Number of
cases for Sexual Harassment can be seen at their Workplaces which discourages
women's participation in work.
Women are not allowed to Work and some girls are even dropped out of the school
in fear of sexual harassment. The average dropout rate
of girls was 17.3% at the secondary education
level and 4.74% at the elementary level in
2018-19. As Sexual Harassment is a matter of Concern for every Father.
Throwing light on Vishakha and others v State of Rajasthan we find the victory
of thousands women who are working. The court in this case decided that the
consideration of "International Conventions and norms are significant for the
purpose of interpretation of the guarantee of gender equality, right to work
with human dignity in Articles 14, 15, 19(1)(g) and 21 of the Constitution and
the safeguards against sexual harassment implicit therein."
This was only to
solve the problem of Sexual harassment in 1997 , India finally passed its law on
prevention of sexual harassment against female employees at workplace. The
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal)
Act, 2013 ("Sexual Harassment Act") which came into force on 3 September 2013.
According to the Press Information Bureau of the Government of India:
The Act will ensure that women are protected against sexual harassment at all
the work places, be it in public or private. This will contribute to realisation
of their right to gender equality, life and liberty and equality in working
conditions everywhere. The sense of security at the workplace will improve
women's participation in work, resulting in their economic empowerment and
Many schemes for Women are launched by Government:
- Beti Bchao Beti padhao
- Kanya Kosh
- Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandhana Yojna
- Scheme for Relief and Rehabilitation of Women Acid Victims, and many more.
With the growing contribution of Women towards nation and various opportunities
provided by government to women we see the nation is towards progress and one
day a woman will freely leave for work from home.
Women and Environment
The world's women are the key to sustainable development, peace and security,"
U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told participants at the Earth Institute's
State of the Planet meeting at Columbia University, in New York City, in March
We are the citizens of that nation where a woman serves not only home and nation
as well, Women like Gunjan Saxena (Served the country during Kargil War), Neerja
Bhanot (Sacrificed her life to save many passengers during a plane jijack ) have
proved this. This is the era of women who made histories.
Whether it is Civil disobedience or Salt March, Home or Battlefield, Women like
Sarojini Naidu and Rani Lakshmi Bai have always been the backbone. When it comes
to the environment, a woman contributes a lot to the conservation of
environment. If she can cook vegetables then growing vegetables is not rocket
science for her. She spends most of her time Securing natural sources like
collecting and storing water, Securing sourcez of fuel, Food and manages land be
it forests or crop fields.
In many villages we see rearing of animals is often done by females. Owning kids
with her a woman works as a labourer as well. Besides her sacrifices she works,
A woman is not paid for her work. Working all day whether it is home or farm she
is not paid wages. Let u draw our attention towards those women who contributed
Who is not aware of the Chipko ( means to hug ) Movement started
in 1974, but all of us remember Sunderlal Bhaguna, its leader. There was a woman
too behind this successful movement named Gauri Devi, who was the head of Mahila
Mangal Dal, organized the women to hug the trees and prevent their cutting.
A popular Environmentalist, who is known for her contribution in Narmada Bachao Andholan (NBA)- a powerful mass movement against the construction
of a large dam on the Narmada River.
Thr Director General of Centre for Science and Environment
(CSE), and publisher of Down to Earth, holding membership in Prime Minister's
council for Climate Change and National Ganga River Basin Authority. She has
chaired the Tiger Task Force for coservation in 2005.
and, any more women contributing their selfless efforts towards Environment.
Marginalisation and women
Marginalization:- Treatment of a person, group, or concept as insignificant or
The definition of marginalisation in itself shows how discriminating this word
is. And when attached to a specific gender a war including emotions, dreams,
sacrifices arises. As studied in the earlier chapter Women work in fields and
are not paid wages. But a man working in the field is paid according to his
work. Discrimination comes in many forms, it might be in terms of job
opportunities, dress codes, or education. Putting light on the recent situaton
in Afghanistan where women are marginalised, either its the matter of her dress,
education, or job. She is restricted to come out of the home even though.
This is a report on the platform THE WEEK:
While under the Taliban regime, women were threatened with dismemberment for
wearing nail polish or lipstick; they were publicly flogged for breaking the
dres code and were not allowed to leave their homes without a male companion.
There is fear that these regressive norms could return if the Taliban takes a
seat of power. What do women make of the peace talks? What is to be the expected
outcome and how will if affect women?
A women was even shot to dead for not wearing Hijab properly. Some important
examples of women marginalisation:
- Female Foeticide and infanticide
- The Gender Gap
- Being Forbidden to Drive
- Restrictions on clothing
- Not being allowed to travel
- Honor killing
- Female Infanticide
Lack of Legal Rights
In Ancient times killing of a newly born girl (Infanticide) was a common thing.
Lack of technology did lead the baby take birth, if he was a boy a grand then
people welcomed him with great honour, but if she was a girl, People took her
rught to live. But now we can see with the advent of technology, we can find out
whether the baby is a girl or a boy. If there is girl she is aborted (female
Facts on female Infanticide
- According to a recent report by the United Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF) up to 50 million girls and women are missing from India' s
population as a result of systematic gender discrimination in India.
- In most countries in the world, there are approximately 105 female
births for every 100 males.
- In India, there are less than 93 women for every 100 men in the
- The United Nations says an estimated 2,000 unborn girls are illegally
aborted every day in India.
Government on seeing such situations has formulated many laws and schemes. These
can be listed as
- The Laws favouring Girl Education
- The Laws favouring Women's right
- The Laws favouring Equal Property Share for a daughter
- Other schemes for girl child
Portal Content Team
Laws passed in India to alleviate female foeticide
Other Legislation Year Passed Goals
Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 Prohibits families from taking a dowry, punishable
Hindu Marriage Act 1955 Rules around marriage and divorce for Hindus
Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 Deals with the legal process of adopting
children and the legal obligation to provide "maintenance" for other family
Immoral Traffic Prevention Act 1986 Stops sex trafficking and exploitation
Equal Remuneration Act 1976 Prevents monetary discrimination between men and
women in the workforce
Female Infanticide Act 1870 Prevents female infanticide (Act passed in British
Ban on ultrasound testing 1996 Bans prenatal sex determination
Many laws have been implemented to curb female foeticide:
- The Constitution of India, 1950
- Section 312 of the Indian Penal Code 1860 read with the Medical termination of
Pregnancy Act, 1971
- The Indian Penal Code, 1860
Sections 312-316 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deal with miscarriage and death
of an unborn child and depending on the severity and intention with which the
crime is committed, the penalties range from seven years of imprisonment and
fine to life imprisonment.
- The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971
- The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 was conceived as a tool to let
the pregnant women decide on the number and frequency of children
- The Pre-Conception And Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation And
Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994
- To combat the practice of female foeticide in the country through misuse of
- We come to conclude that strict laws have been made to tackle the problems of
female foeticeide but all we need is educate ourselves that women in no matter
less than men.
Covid-19 pendamic and its impact on women
Coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused by thr SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Covid-19 has deadly impacts on everyone. Some sufferedphysically and some
emotionally. It proved to be breathe taking for many of the people living
worldwide. A disease that was unbelievable to cause worldwide sadness.
Government of India imposed a nationwide lockdown as a precautionary measure.
But still it took away many lives. and is still holding us tightly. Amid this pendamic when whole nation was staying home and got off from work, the only
person from every family for whom there was no lockdown at all or we can say who
was not off from work, was a woman. She was still working at home and could not
feel like lockdown anywhere. Her works was triple folded.
She had to do
household works, if working then her office works, look after her family, and
give special to attention to her kids as the classes ran online. We got to see
an all round person within her. Caring for whole family missed her own care. And
so woman were badly affected by corona virus. Although covid-19 had its variou
impacts like it lead economic crisis, health issues, unpaid care work, gender
based violence. Although we got to hear number of cases regarding woman security
if detected positive and brought to covd care centre.
This is a report
On 5 April, the Secretary-General called for
a global ceasefire and an end to all violence
everywhere so that we can focus our attention and resources on stopping this
But violence is not just on the battlefield. It is
also in homes. Violence against women and
girls is increasing globally as the COVID-19 pandemic combines with economic and social
stresses and measures to restrict contact and
movement. Crowded homes, substance abuse,
limited access to services and reduced peer
support are exacerbating these conditions.
While it is too early for comprehensive data,
there are already many deeply concerning
reports of increased violence against women
around the world, with surges being reported
in many cases of upwards of 25% in countries with reporting systems in place.
countries reported cases have doubled.
Alongside the increase in numbers, violence
against women is taking on new complexity:
exposure to COVID-19 is being used as a threat;
abusers are exploiting the inability of women
to call for help or escape; women risk being
thrown out on the street with nowhere to go.
the same time, support services are struggling.
Judicial, police and health services that are the
first responders for women are overwhelmed,
have shifted priorities, or are otherwise unable
to help. Civil society groups are affected by lockdown or reallocation of resources. Some domestic violence shelters are full; others have had to close or have been repurposed as health centres.
It is important for national response
plans to prioritize support for women
by implementing measures that have
proven to be effective.
Women Rights and Cyber bullying
A right is essentially an entitlement or a justified claim. It debotes what we
are entitled to as citizens, as individuals and as human beings. Right help us
to live a happy life with dignity. Indian Constitution provide everyone citizen
equal rights. These rights are termed as Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights
give birth to equality.
But these equalities are broken by humans since ancient
times. Inequalities come in different form e:g in terms of colour, caste, creed
and gender. Among these the most hilarious one is Gender inequality which
started from the colonial rule and never ended. We talk about mankind but what
about women? Gender inequality resulted in many protests, htredness. A sense of
Faminism developed among people. In ancient times a girl was not allowed to get
education, inspite worked at home.
We could see Sati Pratha, there was no
involvement of women in formation of Government, no Woman was allowed to go out
and work. But now in modern times we see women leading every field. Women have
their contributions in nation building, defence forces, politics etc. There is a
tribal community known as Koya found in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, and Odhisa. They prefer females over males and even they have a
culture during marriages that a bride will come empty hands to the house of her
in laws and the groom has to greet her with gifts and money. Although such
practices are against equality but this is done just to ensure women are no less
On the grounds of gender equality, here are some rights an Indian woman holds in
- Women have the right to equal pay
- Women have the right to dignity and decency
- Women have the right against workplace harassment
- Women have a right against domestic violence
- Female sexual assault victims have the right to keep their identity
- Women have the right to get free legal aid
- Women have right not to be arrested at night
- Women have the right to register virtual complaints
- Women have the right against indecent representation
- Women have the right against being stalked
- Women have a right to Zero FIR
cyberbullying is "an aggressive, intentional act or behavior that is carried out
by a group or an individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and
over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself
Forms of Cyberbullying
- Hate Raids
- Cyberbullying can be said as an abuse of electronic communications.
- Cyber bullying involves a behaviour which is likely to cause to harm.
- Cyberbullying involves hatred speeches, rumours, misrepresentation, which create
mess in the society.
With the growth of technology we see a number of crimes increasing day by day.
These crimes often take place against women. Various platforms let cyberbullying
take place like, social media, through gaming. Nature always serves to us its
best but this just is how a man's creation no matter how elegant sometimes
proves to be so threatening. According to a report by United Nations about 60%
of the women in the world become the victims of of cyber violence.
Legislations regarding Cyberbullying in India
There is no special legislation that provides provisions for cybeybullying,
However section 67 of IT act deal with cyberbullying somewhat. Section 67
provides punishment for publishing Obscene material in electronic form which
involves imprisonment for a term which may extend to 5 years and fine which may
extend upto 5 lakh rupees.
66E of IT Act provide punishment for violation of privacy
We have Section 507 IPC which gives punishment on rdceiving criminal
intimidation by electronic communication. A person doing to this can be
imprisoned for upto 2 years.
Laws for empowerment of womenWomen Empowerment
In the world where a woman is not even entitled to her basic rights, like
education, health, job etc. There empowering her to take decisions, to make
choices for herself and society, promoting women's self worth is considred as
Women Empowerment. Woman empowerment is necessary to ensure women's contribution
in every field from law obeying to law making. Women must be encourafed to come
and seek education, job opportunities. She must be aware of the position she
holds in society. Recently in an event organised by Women Advocates of the
Supreme Court CJI of India CV Ramana said.
"Enough of suppression of thousands of years. It is high time we have 50%
representation of women in judiciary. It is your right. It is not a matter of
(Higher judiciary in India, which includes the Supreme Court and the high
courts, currently has no policy of reservations for women.)
The Supreme Court currently has four women judges — justices Indira Banerjee,
Hima Kohli, BV Nagarathna and Bela M Trivedi — which is the highest ever in the
top court's history. This shows empowering woman results into wonders.
There was a time when a woman had no role to play in Law making or politics, but
now this is the time becuase of continuous efforts and courage Woman now is not
only contributing but seeing herself as a Judge in the highest Court of appeal.
Topics like Women Empowerment have gained a part of Global Movement. Days like
International Women's day are also gaining Momentum.
National Policy For The Empowerment Of Women (2001)
Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and
Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but
also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour
Goal and Objectives
- The goal of this Policy is to bring about the advancement, development and
empowerment of women.
- To make woman realise her self worth, her potential.
- A Woman must enjoy all the rights given under Constitution.
- Strengthening Legal System
Specific Laws For Women Empowerment In India
- The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
- The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
- The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
- The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
- The Medical termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.
- The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
- The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.
- The Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and
Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994.
- The Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Protection
and) Act, 2013.
Offences against women
Anything that causes harm to other person euther physically or emotionally is am
Offence. Although a woman faces same offences as being faced by the other
members of a society like Murder, Cheating, Etc. But the crimes that are
directed specifically against women only are Considered as Crimes or Offences
against women. These crimes are broadly divided under two categories.
- The Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
- Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
- Kidnapping & Abduction for
specified purposes (Sec. 363
- 373 IPC)
- Homicide for Dowry, Dowry
Deaths or their attempts (Sec.302/304-B IPC)
- Torture - both mental and
physical (Sec. 498-A IPC)
- Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
- Sexual Harassment (Sec. 509
- Importation of girls (upto 21
years of age) (Sec. 366-B
- The Crimes under the Special & Local Laws
- Immoral Traffic (Prevention)
- Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
- Indecent Representation of
Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
- Commission of Sati
(Prevention) Act, 1987.
Offences against women increase day by day. Many cases that can't even be
mentioned have taken place. These offences create a sense of insecurity among
people. Female can't go out alone at night because of security issues. Not only
crimes are a problem but justice holds another problem holding equal importance.
First of all the Goernment needs to make certain strict laws that a person while
even thinking of a crime shivers.
But still unfortuantely if a crime is done
then the government needs to punish the cuprits within mean time not after years
and sometimes after the death of victime as the same happenend in the case of
Damini (Delhi Rape case 2012) whose culprits were punished after 8 years of her
death. Tough laws should be made so that every girl feels like flying like a
bird in sky not a caged one.
Women, Health and Human Rights
Health is a general issue either we talk about men or women. Health makes a
person capable to work. One must be healthy to have his outcomes healthy. But
talking about woman, who sacrifices here basic needs just to fulfill her
family's needs, open the way of diseases directly to her. Since ancient times
issues regarding health have touched the skies. Child marriage was a major issue
among women for having health issues.
Not achieving the stage of maturity and
getting married lead to disastrous result as being a baby won't let a woman deluver a baby. Nowadays this problem has been tackled but numerous health
issues have been developed. Woman has to work at home and fields as well.
Fortuanately if she is working then the work is burdened as she looks after her
family and work, resulting in lack time for self care.
A woman after 40 needs
special care for becuase most of the times this is seen many women suffer from
muscular pains, health issues regarding heart and list goes on. This happens
because she creates her image as being 24×7 worker. Working alone may be tough
According to WHO, some of the sociocultural factors that prevent women and girls
to benefit from quality health services and attaining the best possible level of
- unequal power relationships between men and women;
- social norms that decrease education and paid employment opportunities;
- an exclusive focus on women's reproductive roles; and
- potential or actual experience of physical, sexual and emotional
Indian women have high mortality rates especially during their childhood and
their reproductive years.
Lack of awareness causes serious health issues like:
Over 100,000 IndianWomen Die Each Year From Pregnancy-Related Causes. India has
a high maternal mortality ratio—approximately 453 deaths per 100,000 births in
1993.3 This ratio is 57 times the ratio in the United States. The World Health
Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimate that
India's maternal mortality ratio is lower than ratios for Bangladesh and Nepal
but higher than those for Pakistan and Sri Lanka (WHO, 1996). The level of
maternal mortality varies greatly by state, with Kerala having the lowest ratio
(87) and two states (Madhya Pradesh and Orissa) having ratios over 700
Few Pregnant Women Receive Prenatal Care. This is bacause many of them women
feel it unnecessary.
One in Five Maternal Deaths Related to Easily Treated Problem. Anemia which is
simply and inexpensively treated is detected among mostly women. Studies have
found that between 50 and 90 percent of all pregnant women in India suffer from
anemia. Severe anemia accounts for 20 percent of all maternal deaths in India
(The World Bank, 1996).
Every 5 Minutes, a Violent Crime Against a Woman Is Reported. Dowry deaths are
increasing. More than half of Indian children are malnourished.
These was a discussion about women and health.
Women and Human Rights
Human rights are moral principles or norms for certain standards of human
behaviour and are regularly protected in municipal and international law. Human
Rights give basic abilities to a person working accordingly the rights given by
law. Human Rights are inherent to everyone regardless of their gender, caste,
Basic Human Rights are:
- The right to life and liberty
- Freedom from slavery and torture
- Freedom of opinion and expression
- The right to work and education, and many more.
Human Rights are made to ignore discrimination. Thus Women's Rights are Human
Rights. Human Rights give women the freedom to enjoy the highest attainable
standard of physical and mental health; to be educated; to own property; to
vote; and to earn an equal wage. Women had suffered a lot of discrimination
since ages. Sometimes physically and sometimes mentally. Many women face
viloence against them. These Human Rights work as a weapon against such
Access to Basic Human Rights For Women
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
(CEDAW) (1979) is a key international treaty addressing gender-based
discrimination and providing specific protections for women's rights. To access
basic Human Rights is the need of society. Human Rights for women open various
doors to them like education, job, political participation and so many. The
Charter of the United Nations guarantees the equal rights of women and men. To
access Human Rights we must be aware of them.
Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein
: Stand in solidarity with courageous women's human rights
Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein is the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
and has extensive experience in international diplomacy and the protection of
human rights. He was the first President of the Assembly of States Parties to
the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and the former President
of the UN Security Council. In this op-ed , he discusses achievements and gaps
in guaranteeing equal rights for all and stresses the importance and courage of
women human rights defenders, and the challenges they face. OHCHR will begin a
new campaign on Human Rights Day, 10 December, to galvanize recognition for
human rights advocates.
Political participation of women
Political participation involves not only Right to Vote but the Right to be a
part of the vote. As we talked earlier women have marked histories in India.
Women like Rani Lakshmi Bai, Razia Sultan who have been the Rani Rulers. And now
not only 1,2 but we have a strong ratio of women participating in Politics.
June 2009, the INC nominated a woman to become first speaker of Lok Sabha, and
also supported the election of Pratibha Singh Patil, India's first woman
President. Indian ruling Party BJP encourages women participation in India.
Women have their own wings included in the largest paries like, BJP's wing is
BJP Mahila Morcha, INC's wing is All India Mahila Congress.
India ranks 20th from the bottom in terms of representation of women in
Parliament. The Constitution of India gives the right to Women to particiapte in
Indian Politics. Historically we see less contribution of women in Politics but
as the time grew and awareness created among Women they started participating.
The first assembly after independence saw the presence of very few women (about
Women members included Masuma Begum, who later on became the Minister of
Social Welfare, Renuka Ray, veteran social worker; Durgabai, a veteran Gandhian,
Radhabai Subbarayan, who was appointed as a delegate to the first Round Table
Conference. As per various accounts, men in the assembly listened carefully to
the speeches made by women. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur became Union Health Minister in
Sucheta Kriplani became the general secretary of Congress in 1959, labour
minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1962 and subsequently Chief Minister of United
Province in from 1963 to 1967. Vijayalakshmi Pandit was selected as a delegate
to the UN and was appointed as ambassador to the erstwhile USSR in 1947 and
later as ambassador to the US. She was also elected as president of the United
Nations General Assembly in 1953.
And recently Sushma Swaraj, Samriti Irani, Priyanka Gandhi, Sonia Gandhi etc
contributing in Politics.
As negativity is the fellow passenger of positivity, women still faces issues in
Political Participation like:
- Sexual Violence
Need for political participation of women
UNICEF cites the following reasons for the political participation of women:
- Political participation of women has the potential to change societies.
- It can have impact on outcomes for women and children especially in the
distribution of community resources.
- Their participation in peace negotiations and post-conflict
reconstruction is important to ensure the safety and protection of children
and vulnerable sections of population
The recent discussion shows that the problem of gender discrimination is still
prevailing in the world. Its no about one or two countries but of the whole
world. In country like India where woman is worshipped like Goddess Lakshmi,
this does not suit that at the same time she is treated like an animal. It is
essential that such double standards of the society must come to an end.
Government through various schemes empowered women. It is our duty to make a
woman feel like home everywhere.
Political Parties should come forward to
increase women's participation. Gender stereotypes which perceive women weak
representatives should be changed through education and awareness. Strict laws
should be made on offences against Women. Women's reservation Bill which
reserves 33% of seats for Indian Women at legislatures has to be passed soon in
Parliament. Women's leadership and communication skills need to be enhances. A
women should not be kept at home for household services but must be kept free to
live under an opened sky freely nd attain all the heights which all other
members of the society receive.