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Privacy In Internet Era: Focusing On Data Staling, Blackmailing And Fraud

The Internet and social media networks are the most useful and powerful things in today's world or we can say it as a god's gift for our generation. India is in the top 5 countries with 560,000,000 internet users and the growth has increased by 11.200%. internet brought a world under a one roof.it is so easy to connect with the people from all over the world within seconds or can get information about anything just by moving your finger. internet and social media helps a lot for the empowerment of people or the society but it also that harmful for the society at large or to the individual and the reason is "Internet Privacy".

can we really rely on internet privacy or social network media privacy? and the answer is big NO. We can say it by seeing the increasing number of cybercrimes in India. crimes like data stealing, fraud and revenge porn are increasing day by day. Not only the personal data but also the public data is stolen by the hackers even when they are not in our countryThis study aimed to assess the increasing cybercrimes in India because of the privacy provided by the internet or social media network.

Introduction
The basic human needs include food, shelter and clothes but nowadays humans' fourth basic need is the internet or we said technology. Internet or technology is the most important thing in the 21st century. Our regular life is mostly dependent on the internet now even from the school students to the working peoples or the elder people.

Technology advancement encourages these days with new ideas and new business and their implementation in society and running towards the progress of the nation. But as we know the positive effect of the internet and technology we have to know the drawback of the same.

PRIVACY: is the drawback of the internet and technology and most of the people ignore it or not take it seriously.

Privacy is an important aspect in an individual's life and especially when it comes to data, individuals and the group of people or organization even though the government is concerned about their data and wants to protect it from hackers and any surveillance.

Data of individuals form a blueprint of a nation and hence, it is compulsory to protect the same from various anti national elements that are present within the country or abroad. India has also recently introduced the Data Protection Bill in order to overcome the effects of data stealing.
We know the types of data, the one is public data and the second is private data.

[1]Public data is something which does not require any special permission to access it and anyone can browse the same. Which is available on a website or public domain and not protected by any password.it includes informative data which can be used by the public at large or the large group of people.

12] Private data on the other hand is the data which is accessible to a particular group, community or even an individual. Private data include individual's thoughts, owns idea, financial status etc. which is not to be disclosed in public and hence it is protected.

And with the issue of privacy other issues come along with it, like data stealing, blackmailing and fraud. Data stealing is the major issue and all the countries are dealing with it and suffer from it.

The Internet provides us with a social media network and it comes with the issue of blackmailing. Even though social media or the internet provide us privacy then how can our data be stolen?

Research method:
Thus the proposed research is descriptive in nature. This research is limited only for three cybercrimes like data stealing, blackmailing and fraud that is happening in the period of past 5 yrs. The data of research is collected by the secondary research sources such as articles, books, laws and landmark cases, newspaper, website and government record etc. all from the internet.

Discussion Data theft most of us are aware about data stealing now days. According to the "Hewlett Packard Enterprise President Antonio Neri,data is the new currency". And everyone wants to earn that currency. Most of the cybercriminals do the same like, stole a data from one company and sell to the other company and earn the profit.

data theft is not only limited for individual's data but data theft is the bigger problem for I.T. Companies and call centers. Data is most important weapon for the companies to capture larger market share. Their profits depend upon the security of data. According to IT Act,2000data theft is defined under section 43(b) "If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is in charge of a computer, computer system of computer network, downloads, copies or extracts any data, computer database or information from such computer, computer system or computer network.

We know that data is stolen by hackers but don't know much ways of it.so we think our anti-virus will protect anything from stealing our data. But it isn't true, none of the antivirus will protect our data from any virus, antivirus will only protect data from the virus that is already existed not much from the newly created virus.

Ways of Data Stealing used by Hackers:
  1. Phishing:
    Phishing is a fake mail which feels as original mail.by this mail hacker intended to steal private details such as sensitive data and bank details. This mails comes from the well-known person or organization so most of the people not take any doubt on such mails and by opening the mail or link in the mail fill all their details even personal & bank details. Hackers create the urgency or panic mail for e.g. your ATM card is disabled and to start it again please \open the link or fill the card number etc. Smishing is the type of phishing by which hackers trick you to giving private information by way of SMS or phone calls.it is the growing threat in today's world.
     
  2. Malware:
    This is a software which is created to intend a system compromising or data stealing in the system. This leads to data stealing, deleting sensitive data from system or modifying data etc. Malware is entering in our pc by various factors like old versions, pirated apps, opening unknown links or install unknown apps.Types of Malware:
    1. Virus:
      Which is created by hackers and look alike data files but by opening this or just by entering in virus in pc or any device like PD or HD it will destroy files and inaccessible.
       
    2. Trojan:
      This tend to create for security breaking of the system by which attackers can monitor your activities.
       
    3. spyware:
      As the name is, it creates for spying on the victim.is hides in background and track every activity which is online even from the password of every A/C, credit card details, videography, social media accounts.
       
    4. Keyloggers:
      this is specifically used for passwords as from recording the key used and where to use it hackers can guess the password from it and can hack accounts.

     
  3. Malicious mobile apps:
    Most of us or we can say every one of us think that app is available on google play or apple store is safe and legitimate. But it's not. Some of the apps are malicious and put our privacy at risk. by the way of account access, microphone access and sms service it was for someone to steal our private information.
     
  4. Insecure Networks:
    Connecting phone or pc to an open network can create the possibility of hackers to gaining access to personal data. For e.g. Wi-Fi available on airports or hotels or coffee shop etc
     
  5. Physical Threats:
    Anyone from the outside or the known person or the one who can get easy physical access to someone's pc or laptop or phones can see the unwanted files or data which we don't wanted access by anyone and by the USB or HD anyone can steal it.

    Hackers use this way to hack accounts, steal data and personal information even private as well as public and from any company or from the social media account.

    Problem with the data theft is it's not easy to catch the criminal cause of mobility issue. Data can be stolen in USA, manipulate in china and consequences of the action felt in India. Cyber criminals operate from different sovergnity, jurisdictions, laws and rules as well.
     
  6. Crimes related to data theft:

    Only with the data theft the crime like blackmailing and internet fraud take a birth, cause in the both crime data is the main weapon.
     
  7. Blackmailing:
    blackmailing is not defined under IT act but blackmailing through social media or webcam blackmailing is defined by term sextortion. Sextortion also refers to a form of blackmail in which sexual information or images are used to extort sexual favors from the victim. Social media and text messages are the source of this or from this messages anyone can blackmail someone and trying to extort money or any sexual favors as it employs non-physical form of extortion.it is mostly used as corruption but in form of money it's in form of sexual favors from the victim.

    Seek to extort with this in exchange for something within their authority to grant or withhold. For e.g. employers who make providing sexual favors a condition of obtaining a job. This method of blackmail is also frequently used to outing LGBT people who keep their true sexual orientation private.
     
  8. Internet fraud:
    Online frauds are one of the fraud schemes committed against business or individuals or for business or individuals.it had been done only even for small consideration. Year 2005 was marked with some big technology frauds.
     
  9. Online fraud can be financial fraud or identity theft:
    Currency notes, postage & revenue stamp, mark sheet etc. can be forged by using sophisticated computers, printers and scanners. This has been booming business involves thousands of rupees to student gangs in exchange of authentic certificate. Some of student caught but in very rarely phenomenon.

     
  10. Online transaction fraud:
    Most of the online frauds done with the bank details like credit/debit card details, validity of cards, OTP, ATM passwords, card verification value (CW). this information may be given by the bank insiders. Bank insiders is the main reason of most the frauds and scams. Salami attack is one of them where bank insider is involving, who put a software in bank pc through USB and removing a small amount (for eg.RS.5) from the accounts of all account holders, & no A/C holders doubted this unauthorized debit as the amount is smaller.
     
  11. Online fraud using time theft:
    This is the new concept for Delhi police which is come to know in May,2000.in this case accused who was sent complainant resident for internet activation, accused used 100hrs from the complainant's internet time from the various places.
     
  12. Online fraud in BPO sector:
    This is the new breed of online fraud which is facing by Indian bpo sectors. There were allegation Indian BPO Units from the UK based English newspaper-The Sun alleged that the call center employee tries to sell sensitive information about British citizen to their reporter for small consideration.
     

How much data protection bill is effective?
Purpose of the bill: to provide for protection of the privacy of individuals relating to their personal data, specify the flow and usage of personal data, create a relationship of trust between persons and entities processing the personal data, protect the rights of individuals whose personal data are processed, to create a framework for organizational and technical measures in processing of data, laying down norms for social media intermediary, cross-border transfer, accountability of entities processing personal data, remedies for unauthorized and harmful processing, and to establish a Data Protection Authority of India for the said purposes and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Whereas the right to privacy is a fundamental right and it is necessary to protect personal data as an essential facet of informational privacy. 10

Effectiveness of the cyber laws:
  • Information Technology Act & Data protection act only focus on some part of cybercrimes not all of them.
  • Data protection act focus on only private data which is own by government, individuals or organizations.
     
As the society is heavily dependent upon technology. so the effectiveness of cyber laws is debatable. Even though parliament has try to provide all legal framework to regulate and set the standard of user information in cyberspace. Parliaments efforts is commendable in the amendment of the acts, but besides the positive sides of the act there is some gray areas which intervene with the effectiveness of the Cyber laws in India.

And one of them is data theft, even after the act passed by the parliament the data theft cases are not reducing in numbers. In 2018 Karnataka is registered with highest number of data/identity theft. More than 5000 cases are registered by the authorities, and the numbers are increasing day by day. In 2019 data theft are reach to the numbers of 313,000 cases from the sites like big basket, just dial, medical records from hospitals and SBI. There was 80% increase in case of health data theft from 2017-2019.on march 2019 Facebook admitted that since 2012 they have not properly protected the passwords of around 600 million users. Yahoo holds the major record of data theft with 3billion users.

Mr. Pant, who took over the role of India's cybersecurity chief, said every day, 4 lakh malware are found and 375 cyber-attacks are witnessed. The annual study by IBM Security - covering over 500 companies globally - which examines the financial impact of data breaches found that the average total cost for India Inc. due to security breaches was Rs. 140 11 7million (Rs 14 crore) in 2020, an increase of 9.4% from 2019.this is only data theft cases in recent years.

There were more than 2000 cases of blackmailing or sexual harassment in year 2016-2018. Nearly 1,500 crimes were committed with the objective of sexually exploiting the victim.

Rs 1.24 trillion is the amount lost in India in the 2019 only due to cybercrime. Over 50% of cybercrimes were done for the monetary gain. The growth rate of cybercrimes had gone down in 2015 and 2016 before registering a sharp spike in 2017. In 2015, 11,592 cybercrimes were recorded in India, which was an increase of 20.5% compared to 2014. In 2016, growth rate of cybercrimes fell further by 6.3% as 12,317 crimes were registered. India recorded 21,796 cybercrimes in 2017, an increase of 77% from 2016. Countrywide, 1.7 cyber-crimes were committed per one lakh population in 2017.

By seeing the statistics are we going to know that data protection laws or IT Act have a scope for amendments. Cause of the issues like not a proper coverage of cybercrimes, weak implementation of laws, extremely low 8conviction rate and some other errors the effectiveness of the acts or cyber laws is debatable.

Types and prevention of cyber crime:
Prevention of our data Below mentioned security guidelines and good practice maybe lower the risk of cybercrimes.
  1. By updating your computer:
    Keeping your computer or phones updated with latest software is one of the best to keep attackers away from computer system & data. By regularly updating your device, you block the attackers from being able to take advantage of software flaws, that they use to break the system.
     
  2. Keeping a strong password:
    Choose strong password and keep them safe is the need of today's world, to keep your password strong use eight characters, symbol, letter and combination of it. don't ever use your name, surname, birthdate anything which is personal. Not keeping the same password for every service. Change the password on regular basis or at least after 90 days.
     
  3. Protect computer with software security:
    Several type of security is necessary for online security. Security software essential including firewall and antivirus program. firewall is usually your computer's first line of defense-it controls who and what can communicate with your computer online and antivirus is for online securities.
     
  4. Protect your personal information:
    Exercise your caution while sharing your information like name, address, phone no., bank details etc. etc. Cause most the sites asking for the details for billing or shipping address of purchasing goods. don't respond to emails that ask for personal information, not a single legitimate company ask of details on email message or when in doubt contact the company. don't click on unknown links as they are taking you to the fraudulent sites.
     
  5. Review your bank and credit card statement regularly:
    The impact of data & identity theft online crimes can be reducing by reviewing bank statement regularly and informing immediately if you see any doubtful transactions.

Conclusion:
Society is too dependent upon technology. thus, crime committed via electronic media or technology is increasing. Qualified people committed crime more so we need to know about principals and ethics of computer for their use in proper manner.by studying past incidents, we can learn from them and use that information to prevent future crimes. After weighing the pros and cons of cyber laws and cyberspace it is clear that IT Act or the laws regarding cyber laws still has long way to go and requires a number of amendments.

Cyber laws need to change and evolve as quickly as hackers do if it has any hope of controlling cybercrime. Law must also find a balance between protecting citizens from crime, and infringing on their rights. There will always be new and unexpected challenges to stay ahead of cyber criminals and cyber terrorists but we can win only through partnership and collaboration of both individuals and government. There is much we can do to ensure a safe, secure and trustworthy computing environment.

End-Notes:
  1. varsha,analysis on cyber crime in india, http://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-797-an-analysis-on-cybercrime-in-india.html Last seen on 2/01/2021
  2. Robin George,data theft in cyberspace-issues & law http://www.legalserviceindia.com/article/l267-Data-Theft-in-Cyber-Space.html Last seen 24/12/2020
  3. Anushka johar,Cybersecurity: Internet security 101: Six ways hackers can attack you and how to stay safe - The Economic Times last seen 25/12/2020 6 4173LS(Pre).p65
  4. https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Information-Technology-Amendment-Act-2008-IT-Act-2008 last seen on 2/01/2021 2127LS.p65
  5. Data Theft in Organisations and Legal Issues last seen 24/12/2020
  6. Section 43 in The Information Technology Act, 2000 last seen 2/01/2021
  7. 63.5% increase in cybercrime cases in India in 2019; most cases in Karnataka: NCRB seen on 30/12/2020
  8. Digital India Sees 63.5% Increase In Cyber Crime Cases, Shows Data seen on 1/01/2021 cyber attacks: 37% increase in cyberattacks in India in Q1 2020: Report, IT Security News, ET CISO last seen 2/01/2020 https://www.statista.com/statistics/875912/india-number-of-cyber-crimes-related-to-sexual-harassment/ last seen 2/01/202
  9. Present-scenario-of-cybercrime-in-INDIA-and-its-preventions.doc last seen 28/12/2020 Personal Data Protection Law In India Legal Developments last seen 28/12/2020 https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-how-to-how-to-recognize-and-protect-yourself-from-cybercrime.html last seen 28/12/2020
  10. Will New Antivirus Software Remove Existing Viruses? Last seen 25/12/2020
  11. How Hackers Violate Your Privacy - Privacy Policies last seen 25/12/2020
  12. What are the different types of Malware? - Comtact Last seen 29/12/2020 7
  13. Blackmailing On Social Media last seen 30/12/2020 Sextortion in India: hackers can blackmail you for lakhs through these 4 scams | 91mobiles.com Last seen 30/12/2020

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