Some instances where revolutionaries were mostly based on individual acts of
The growth of revolutionary terrorism in Indian politics throughout the first
decade of the twentieth century was accompanied by strong involvement from
extremists within the Congress. The revolutionaries were more concerned with
getting things done quickly than with the efficacy of persuasion. The
revolutionary terrorists wanted to depose the British from power in India. They
were influenced by Irish terrorists and Russian nihilists, and adopted their
strategy of trying to assassinate corrupted and despised authorities.
participated in Swadeshi dacoities to raise revenue for the procurement of
weaponry and other items. The revolutionary terrorists were active in Bengal,
Punjab, Maharashtra, and other parts of India, as well as in other nations. Many
terrorist youth secret groups arose as a result of this.
The Bhadralok class is credited with starting revolutionary activity in Bengal.
Pramotha Mitra in Calcutta and Pulin Das in Dacca founded secret societies such
as the Anushilan Samiti
. Similar societies included the Swadeshi
and the Sadhana Samaj
B.Ghose and Bhupindra Nath Datta founded Yugantar
, a weekly, in 1908. In 1908,
Bengal revolutionaries Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki detonated explosives on
the wagon of Kingsford, a despised Muzzafarpur magistrate.
The Chapekar brothers, Damodarand Balkrishna, executed the first political
assassination of a European in Maharashtra, at Poona. V.D. Savarkar founded the
Mitra Mala in 1904, which subsequently evolved into the Abhinav Bharat
, a secret
organisation modelled after Mazzini's Young Italy.
Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh spearheaded the revolutionary struggle in Punjab.
Rash Behari Bose and Sachindranath Sanyal detonated a bomb upon an English
The Ghadar Revolution
Sohan Singh Bhakna formed the Ghadar Movement in the United States, which
Hardayal acknowledged. Rehmat Ali Shah, Mohammed Barkatullah, Ram Chandra, Bhai
Paramanand, and others were among its important leaders. It published a weekly
named Ghadar with the aim of getting an armed insurrection to India.
The Ghadar party, led by Lala Hardayal, operated out of Germany and established
an Indian Independence Committee in Berlin. The Committee intended to mobilize
Indian residents overseas, deploy troops to India to encourage revolt among the
army, supply improvised explosives to Indian revolutionaries, and even prepare
an expedition of British India to free the nation.
In response to the revolutionaries' efforts, the authorities took harsh steps
against them. Many laws were created to put a stop to the revolutionaries'
The rise of militant nationalism in India resulted in the emergence of
revolutionary terrorism as a corollary. As a result of the Swadeshi and boycott
movements, it took on a more activist tone. In 1902, Jnanendranath Basu
established the very first revolutionary organisations in Midnapore, and
Promotha Mitter and Barindra Kumar Ghosh created the Anushilan Samiti in
The revolutionaries used many ways to spread revolutionary ideals, such as
forming secret organisations in India and overseas, publishing pamphlets, books,
and magazines, organizing military conspiracies, assassinating tyrannical and
unpopular leaders, and so on. In Muzaffarnagar, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose
tossed an explosive at a wagon transporting Judge Kingsford in 1908.
Barrah Dacoity was founded in 1908 by Dacca Anushilan and Pulin Das. In 1912,
Vicerory Hardinge was the target of a sensational explosives attack planned by
Rasbehari Bose and Sachin Sanyal. The Chapekar
Bros, Damodar and Balkrishna,
assassinated the Poona plague commissioner, Rand, and one Lt. Ayerst in the
state of Maharashtra in the year 1897. Mitra Mela
, a secret club founded by
Savarkar and his brother in 1899, amalgamated with Abhinav Bharat in the
year 1904. Curzon Wyllie was killed by Madan Lai Dhingra in 1909.
It was in the year 1915, while the first world war was still going on, that a
committee known as Berlin committee for the purpose of Indian Independence was
established by Virendranath Chattopadhyay and others including Hardayal. Bhaga
Jatin was a Bengali rebel who was killed in a battle in Balasore. It was only
after the noncooperation movement withdrew abruptly, that the revolutionary
terrorism was resurrected.
Revolution that took place in Russia in the year 1917 along with the journals
like Atmasakti and Bijoli, including books and novels such as PatherDabi
authored by Sarat Chandra and Bandi Jivan authored by Sachin Sanyal were
something that greatly influenced Indian revolutionaries.
In the year 1924, Sachin Sanyal, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee, established an arrmy
known as Hindustan Republican Army
(HRA) in Kanpur to plan an armed revolt
to topple the colonial administration. The main activity of HRA was indeed the
, where legitimate railway revenue was stolen.
In the year 1928, Chandrasekhar Azad organized a Hindustan Socialist Republican
association at Delhi. And in December of that same year, Bhagat Singh along with
Rajguru and Azad shot a police official named Saunders for issuing Lathi charge
on their freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Rai in the city of Lahore.
Since a bill for Public safety and Commercial disputes were about to be launched
in the central assembly in the year 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were
called upon to launch an explosive on the central assembly for preventing them
from passing the legislative bill. While Azad was assassinated at an Allahabad
Police meeting held in February of 1931, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were
executed by hanging on 23rd of March, 1931. 
Strategies utilized by the revolutionaries:
Reasons for failure of the revolutionaries:
- They revolutionaries aimed at terrorizing the authorities and wished to
Assassinate British officers they believed were extremely exploitative
- They worked to spread the Patriotic sentiments among the masses.
- One of their objective was to encourage youths and adolescent people for
bravery and inspire them to be heroes who fight for the country.
- And eliminate the dread of the British Government from the hearts and
minds of people of India.
- Though, they originally emphasized individual acts of bravery they
subsequently saw the prospect of mass revolution.
- The revolutionaries were mostly from the urban middle class, who were
disconnected from the peasants and labourers. The revolutionaries did not
succeed in mobilizing the common masses and failed to motivate the people. In
reality, they had no support among the general public. Individual heroism was
something they believed in. The revolutionaries were unable to achieve their
goals and earn the favour of India's common folk, and this became one of the
main reason behind untimely and inevitable fall.
- They lacked sufficient and necessary unified strategy and centralized
command, while the he British administration pursued them with a vicious and
oppressive tactics to suppress their revolutionary movements.
- Gandhiji's innovative non-violent and peaceful campaign was much more
widespread and efficient than others.
- The revolutionary movement of the revolutionaries did not succeed in
achieving its goal of freedom and independent nation. The revolutionary
campaign in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar happened to come to an abrupt
end with the killing of Chandrasekhar Azad in a gunfire incident in a common park in
Allahabad in the month February 1931.
- The martyrdom of Surya Sen also sealed the fate and marked the end of
terrorist activity in the state of Bengal.[7
- The revolutionaries did not even attempt to mobilize a large armed
revolt in their stages of commencing revolutionary movements.
- They emphasized on specific acts of bravery and aimed at liberating the
nation through such acts.
- As they were disorganised, they lacked an effective communication
to appropriately manage amongst all the leaders.
- Their actions were inspired by Russian nihilists who were only
interested in short-term gains. This was intended to induce fright in the
minds of British people, but it did not succeed in instilling nationalism.
- Because their approach and indoctrination were restricted, they were
unable to gain widespread support and backing.
- Their actions had a religious aspect to them, and they regularly evoked
- They reflected youth dissatisfaction with the inactive operations of
significant political parties such as the Indian National Congress and
- They instilled the notion of fighting the British with arms.
- Tilak's thoughts and tactics influenced early revolutionary movement
greatly. Tilak had previously initiated the Shivaji and Ganesh festivals as a
strategy to bring the elite and the uneducated masses closer together. Tilak
positioned himself as a defender of Hindus religious practices, and through his
publications, he expressed vocal encouragement for revolutionary activists.
Aurobindo invited him to Bengal in 1906 to commemorate the Shivaji celebration,
which was tied to the Bhawani worship. Thus, in the formative days of the
motion, the utilization of Hindu imperialist ideology, Hindu vernacular,
religious symbols, and ceremonies repelled Muslims and prevented them from
joining in revolutionary movements.
The British's severe and brutal actions upon India's commanders were too much
for the revolutionary movement to withstand. Furthermore, their employment of
violence as a political apparatus justified the British to respond back
by committing even more violence. Nonetheless, rebels like Bhagat Singh, Surya
Sen, Chandrasekhar Azad, and thousands of all others won unrivalled reputation
among the people as a result of their noble and heroic sacrifice. Though some
might criticize their methods for achieving national liberation, but no one
can question or criticize their aims.
Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Amartya Shivam
Authentication No: SP126173427525-18-0921