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Contemporary Challenge On Sport Gambling Saga Among Muslims In Nigeria

Before Islam gambling was regarded as s social evil. When Islam came into existence ALLAH strictly forbade ALL forms of gambling include betting and lottery and other game of chance. Islam is the aspect which affects the soul, heart, body, and every section of your daily life is the last divine religion, it was aimed to examine the place of sport in the light of Qur'an, hadith and opinions of the Muslim scholar in Islam and data were obtained by literature review.

The paper discussed most of the prevailing effects of Sport Gambling among Muslim in Nigeria. The paper suggested ways to Eradicate or kick-out the growing prevalence of gambling/online betting among Muslims today. Furthermore, ithas discussed the Islamic rulings regarding all forms of gambling or betting with prevalence Verses from the Glorious Qur'an and Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Content analysis was adopted as the methodology for the research.

Introduction
There is no dispute that gambling is strictly forbidden by Islam.

It is universal in that regard and is permanent. The material and spiritual structure of man is not to be in the form of a permanent veil, to be found at the peak of spirituality, esthetic pleasure and excitement. For this reason, in the Islamic religion, which is in perfect harmony with the natural course of human life, it is the most beneficial sport of entertainment and fun that does not carry haramism and harmful shadow, and it is also a profession of reward. Sport Gambling/Betting in Nigeria and the fact that many Muslim ummah across the Country are getting involved in it daily.

Betting over which sport team may win have become a multi-million Naira business. Nigeria is witnessing a huge expansion in sport betting and other forms of gambling. Lotteries, poker, sport bets, and online gambling are all new trends. Many entrepreneurs, local and foreign companies are pocketing millions of Naira from Nigerians who wants quick money.
Gambling and other terms such as gaming and 'games-of-chance' are driven from the Anglo-Saxon terms 'gamen' and 'gamon' which mean sport or play Qimaar is another Arabic word for Gambling. The general use of the word gamble denotes any decision executed in any transaction or pursuit involving risk and uncertainty.

(Ibn Faris, 1981) Still in Arabic, the word Al-Maysir, which means "Gambling" has the same meaning with Al-Qamar. Qal'aji (1988) has defined it "as any game that allows the winner to take the bet items from the one(s) who lost." Ibn Manzur says that Qamara is equivalent to Rahana (Ibn Manzur, nd.). It also has the meaning of Al-muranah, that is al-Mukhatarah, which is "the taking of risk."(Ibn Manzur, nd.) Ibn Faris says that Al-muqamir is the person who gambles.

Rihan or Betting was another ancient form of gambling. In old term people used to bet money on horse racing, fighting and other games and sports.

(The Oxford English Dictionary). The use of the word gambling is usually refers more specifically to economic activity that is mainly based on gain, loss, risk, and uncertainty as relate to the 'game of chance'. Economically, therefore, to gamble is to play 'games-of-chance' for money especially for unduly high stakes, or to stake money (especially to an extravagant amount) or on some fortuitous event

(Green 1930) in his work, Betting and Gambling, suggested a definition he claimed to be more comprehensive. He defined 'gambling' as an agreement between two parties whereby the transfer of something of value from one to the other is made dependent on an uncertain event, in such a way that the gain of one party is balanced by the loss of another (Green, 1930). Also according, this definition fits all types of gambling such as playing 'games-of-chance' or betting on horse racing and other sporting events between clients and bookmakers or between individuals; including all kinds of sweepstakes, lotteries and similar enterprises (Gambling, 1931). The definition and includes certain business transactions.

Gambling In The Qur'an And Prophetic Traditions
In the Qur'an the word MAYSIR which refers to gambling appears three (3) times and in three (3) different places, namely in Chapter 2 Verse 219. Chapter 5 Verse 90 and 91. Whereas the word QIMAR Which specifically means Betting does not appears anywhere in the Qur'an.

The prohibition of gambling in the Qur'an takes place in stages beginning with the verse 219 of chapter 2 followed by verse 90 and 91 of Chapter 5. When discussing the wisdom of the prohibition of gambling, a renown classical Quranic commentator Al-Razi (1981) explains that among the consequences of Maysir and Qimar are hostility, cursing disagreement among the participants, harmful to economic growth besides distracting people from remembering Allah (S.W.A) and performing daily prayers.

He added that betting in Qimar and Maysir also gave rise to the desire to try to win, especially after losing until all the property was finally used. Surely the loser of this gambling will fall poorly. This will cause a lot of social malaise and destroy the socio-economic fabric of a society.

In the Prophetic Hadith, it is clearly mentioned, that the prohibition of certain activities that bear the elements of Maysir or Qimar is stated as follows; 
For example (Al-Bukhari, no. 4860; Muslim, no. 1647) reported that the Prophet (PBUH) once said:
When told to you let us bet, then let it give charity. In another Hadith, (Al-Bukhari, no.1270) also reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said, Look out for these two dice, as indeed, both are of non-Arab gambling." Another hadith collector (Al-Bayhaqi, 1414 AH) reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said, "Indeed God has forbidden wine, gambling, kubah (a game that uses boards, fruit and dice, also known as tabo or nard) and every intoxicant is illegal."

Gambling In The Islamic Scholars Perspective
In Islamic terminology, gambling is referred to as Maysir or Qimar interchangeably, which mean betting and wagering (Ibn Kathir 1410H). A notable classical Islamic law scholar (Ibn Al-'Arabi 1934) for example, describes the nature of qimar, wagering or gambling as a game where "Each one of two contestants seeks to defeat his partner in an action or statement in order to take over property set aside for the winner" (Rosenthal 1975).

Another reputable Islamic scholar (Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani 1934) defines wagering as "taking one thing after the other from one's partner in a game" or, "every game with a condition that the winner out of two contestants gets something from the loser". (Al-Shawkani 2005) defines it as a situation where there must be one of the player gains and another loose. Although there are differences in the wording used to define it, generally the definitions share the common fundamental elements of the terms.

Generally in modern applications, the act of gambling sometimes referred to betting on the occurrence of a future event. Another to (Al-Qurtubi 2006) in his work mentions that Malik, the founder of one of the four schools of Islamic law, divided the Maysir into two types, namely, playful Qimar or gambling which includes backgammon, chess and any form of game that lead to carelessness and Qimar or gambling in the form of betting which includes anything that a man put his money or property as a stake to be lost or won.

The views of Malik above assume that all forms of games that resulted in careless attitude as a form of gambling, although there is no element of betting. Based on the Malik's view, Maysir is more general than Qimar or betting.

(Ahmad 2010). In short, we can say that wagering, as it has been understood in Muslim scholarship, contains two important features. First, it is a kind of game without any serious purpose and benefit and second, it involves the element of betting where the participants put up their stake by which only one party will win the whole stake while the other will lose altogether. (Muhammed Ibn Zakariyya Al-Razi 1981) has quoted a different view from Al-Shafi`i(RA), the founder of the Shafi'I school of Islamic law that if the games do not involve betting, and does not lead to any form of sins, then it is not illegal and is not included in the meaning of Maysir or gambling since prohibited gambling involves giving out or taking up money or property. (al Razi) It means that according to Al-Shafi'i's views gambling happen only when the exchange of property involves and if there is no exchange of property involve than there is no gambling although it may be prohibited because of different reasons.

Therefore (Al-Mahalli 1956), Al-Shafi'I school jurist of 13th Century says that the wagering or gambling that is prohibited is those that the participants are in the condition of between losing all or gaining all. After examining the view of the scholars' in interpreting the prohibition of gambling in the Qur'anic verses and prophetic traditions, it can be concluded that gambling which was debated by the Islamic scholars takes place in some form. First, gambling in the form of betting.

This form involves three main elements namely, the participant either wins or loses, it involves property bets and the transfers of property through betting. Second, gambling in the form of a futile game that makes people neglect their responsibilities although it does not involve any property betting. Islam prohibits both these kinds of gambling as agreed upon by the Islamic scholars. However, most of the scholars are of the view that games that are not involving any form of betting and not leading to the negligence from the responsibilities and hostilities among the people are not forbidden.

In short, we can say that among the Muslim scholarship what constitute prohibited gambling is of two situations. First, in the event of any bets issued by all participants. This bet is what will be rewarded for anyone who wins a match and second every participant in the competition will not miss out on two probabilities or risks namely either profit or loss.

In explaining the two conditions above, it is worth noting that Islamic scholars have not distinguished between competitions that involve skill or which rely solely on fate. There is also no difference between International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 2017, Vol. 7, No. 11 ISSN: 2222-6990.741 www.hamars.com.

Competition involving a big amount of money or property or small. In all cases, when any of the two features above are met, then it will be considered as prohibited gambling.

Online Betting Today 
Betting on the outcome of horse and god races, boxing, football/Soccer matches, volleyball, basketball, hockey, baseball, Chase, Draft game, Cards, and Dice game among others become popular forms of gambling in Nigeria.

An attempts on the part of professional gamblers to fix the out-come of such games caused numerous problem, take the case of two persons competing in a Cards on the condition that the loser pay the winner N1000 Or During (El classic) if Real Madrid didn't Win with 2.5 odd Barcelona, I will give you N5000. Or Chance of MESSI scoring is Over/Under Etc. Since one party gains and the other loses in a mere chance of game it falls under the definition of gambling.

Below is an illustration of gambling

The Evolution Of Football
Modern football, however, started in England at the end of the 17th century. Young people played it from International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (IJHAS), Vol. 3, No. 4, November 2018.

Three (3) rich families and between school teams. In 1863 the Football Association was founded in England and the first sets of rules were made. By the end of the 19th century, the game had spread throughout the rest of the world (www.english-online.at/sports/soccer/europeanfootball.htm).

In 1904, the International Association of Football now known Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) was formed. It has become the world's most important football organization. Today, all countries have national leagues in which teams played against each other for the national titles. In Europe, the best teams that compete in a tournament is called the Champions League (www.english-online.at/sports/soccer/european-football.htm).

The European football season has come, gone and upcoming, including the mad hurry of Nigerian youths involving thousands of Muslims that visit online betting houses and companies. It is now a normal spectacle when you go into the streets in major cities in Nigeria and you see queues of young men fighting to place their bets on the five major leagues in world football.

The English Premier League, Spanish Premier La Liga, Italian Serie A, German Bundesliga and the French League and other minor leagues are not excluded when desperate jobless Nigerian youth jolt to make cash through football betting. It is not something entirely new when you put on a television set and see adverts by mega betting houses, on Super Sports and other sports channels. It is not false to say that the betting houses are becoming the number one sponsors of football clubs, television viewing rights, sponsor of major sports programmes and more.

List Of Top Owners Of Betting Centers In Nigeria
  1. Owner of Bet9ja
    The owner of Bet9ja and chairman is KUNLE SONAME. It`s one of the richest people in Nigeria. He was the first Nigerian to buy a top European football club � Clube Desportivo Feirense. Kunle Soname secured over 70 percent of the top Portuguese football club. He is also the President of Remo Stars Football Club, a Nigeria Professional Football League (NPFL) Team.

    Kunlo Soname graduated from Lagos State University. He previously worked as Ikosi-Isheri Local Council. His main sphere of work is football. Therefore, he is responsible almost for every football event in Nigeria. He has been responsible for marketing and sponsorship activities of Nigeria National League since 2011. Today, Bet9ja is the exclusive Sponsor of NNL
     
  2. Owner of Nairabet
    AKIN ALABI is founder of Nairabet. Nigeria's first sports bookmaking company. A seasoned entrepreneur and philanthropist from Nigeria. He is the author of the business and marketing book, Small Business Big Money and also the founder of NairaBET.
    Before Nairabet and politics, Akin Alabi was a well know internet marketer known especially for organizing some well attended seminars on information and internet marketing sometimes in partnership with the Success Digest owners. He made thousands of dollars selling information products and other digital items through ClickBank and other affiliate platforms.
    Akin Alabi is the Mogaji (Head) of Ajiwogbo compound in Ibadan. He was appointed as Otuban by the Olubadan of Ibadan, HRH Saliu Adetun.
     
  3. Owner of Merrybet
    OPEOLUWA FASHAKIN is the owner of Merrybet Gold Limited. the name Opeoluwa Fashakin may not ring a bell in your ear, this is because he is more of a business man who doesn't like too much publicity. He is also the founder and CEO of EpaySystem.

    Fashakin is a graduate of computer science from Lagos State University LASU and had held position of a regional manager for Maxipoint Server Africa.
     
  4. Owner Of Surebet247
    SHERIF OLANIYAN AND OLASUPO BADMUS are founders Chessplus International owners of Surebet247. Sherif Olaniyan double as both MD/CEO of Surebet247 and his latest venture Money farm. He read Geography from University of Ilorin.
    Sherif Olaniyan and Olasupo Badmus Started as roommates at university of Ilorin where they decided to go into business partnership with Chessplus International ltd aimed at innovating a Playstation kind of gaming program. At graduation they went into the online enterpreneurship scheme which metsmorphed into Surebet247.
     
  5. Owner Of Winners Golden Bet (WGB)
    IDOWU OSUOLALE OBASA is the founder, Chief Executive Officer of Winners Golden Bet (WGB), promoters of Golden Bet Lotto. Obasa made his mark in management, media and business in over three decades of working. Obasa also co-founded Independent Communications Network Limited, Publishers of The News magazine.
     
  6. Owner of Betking
    ADEKUNLE ADENIJI co-founded BetKing with CEO Byron Petzer and made AUSTIN OKOCHA BRAND AMBASSADOR as a norminal partner.
    Adekunle Adeniji first work as manager virtual products at Bet9ja before he went on to co-found BetKing, since then he has also founded Micserah and most recently, Lofit Gaming Network Ltd.
     
  7. Owner of AccessBET
    COSMAS ADETAYO founder TM Gaming Network Ltd, AccessBET. He is seasoned online entrepreneur also founder Comas Whyte media ltd, Chief Editor Page1Magazine, co-founder CosBID.. graduate of Business Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife.
     
  8.  Owner of 1960Bet
    DOTUN AJEGBILE is founder and MD/CEO of 1960bet, registered as Nigeria Winners Bookmaker Company Ltd. Ajegbile is a graduate of Lagos business school and also owner of Dotun Ajegbile Foundation with initiative to improve the lives of youths irrespective of gender or tribe in Nigeria.
     
  9. Owner of SportyBet
    SUDEEP DALAMAL RAMNANI is the Founder and CEO of Sportybet and made NWANKWO KANU as brand Ambassador. SportyBet is an international sports betting and real-money gaming operator that delivers an omni-channel entertainment experience in regulated emerging markets.
     Sudeep is also an investor in Fintech and mobile payments and an advocate of the growing African internet ecosystem. He is Executive Director @ D&S Trading Co Ltd and Managing Director / Founder @ Gorilla Beverages Ltd.
    Sudeep Dalamal Ramnani is of India nationality but based in London. He is a graduate of Economics from London School of Economics and Political Science, as well as Chartered School.
     
  10. Owner of NaijaBet
    Who is the owner of NaijaBet?
    Comment below if you know the answer...we consider NaijaBet as one of the major brands in the industry.
    We already know Naijabet is a product of Kreativ Intergrated Concept and Management Ltd. But we want to know who is the major shareholder and findout his or her networth.

Gambling/Betting Among Muslim Youths In Nigeria
Abuja, Nigeria. September 16th, 2019-2020 Nigeria is one of many countries that is being inundated with sports betting. The Nigerian sports betting (online and offline) and gaming industry has grown geometrically in the past few years. This remarkable growth can be attributed to the country's population and increased access to the internet via enabled internet devices such as mobile phones, tablets, laptop, desktops or Betting Centers etc.

According to statistics, about 60 million Nigerians between the ages of 18 and 40 are involved in active sports betting. On average, these punters spend roughly ₦3,000 Naira every day on bets. For instance, data report from Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler (KPMG) in 2016 revealed that a leading sports betting company in Nigeria makes an average monthly turnover of $10 million dollars. Sport betting shops can now be spotted in almost every street in Lagos and new ones are popping up daily.

Gambling in Nigeria is regulated by the National Lottery Regulatory Commission (NLRC) and it is worthy to note that all forms of gambling are restricted from all residents of Nigeria below 18 years.

Analysis of results revealed 'quest for quick money' (30 percent), 'Unemployment' (21 percent) and 'greed' (15 percent) topped the list of reasons why Nigerians engage in betting. Other reasons include; 'to cushion the effect of economic hardship' (12 percent), 'poverty' (10 percent), 'just for fun' (5 percent), 'passion for sports' (5 percent) and 'peer group influence' (2 Percent).

Below is the analysis in 2017
 
Online Betting in football games among Muslim youth today is huge business in Nigeria. The poll states International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (IJHAS), Vol. 3, No.4, November 2018, 6 that 60 million people within this age range are into betting and gambling. This is not surprising.

Gambling/betting behaviour is a big problems among Nigerian youth today, high level of involvement in gambling may result into problem gambling which is other refers to gambling addiction, this problems has been reported to predispose youth to various health related problem such as depression and even to the abuse of psychoactive substances.

(Griffiths & Wood, 2004).Today's youth are living in a digital age. Relying heavily on technology for entertainment, their recreational activities increasingly consist of activities that interact with computers, tablets, cell phones, and other mobile devices. Video games, and to a larger extent gambling/betting, have become a routine part of their leisure activities. While traditionally gambling and video game playing were thought to be distinct - one plays for points, the other for money; one is skill based, the other based on chance - these distinctions are becoming less clear.

There are definite psychological and behavioural parallels between slot machine gambling and video arcade game playing (Griffiths & Wood, 2004; Gupta & Derevensky, 1996). Both activities operate on behavioural principles of variable reinforcement schedules in order to reward and prolong play, use exciting and stimulating sound and light effects with game play to promote physiological arousal, require a response to predictable stimuli, involve eye-hand coordination, and necessitate varying degrees of concentration and focus. Additionally, both activities have similar negative effects associated with excessive play (for instance, poor academic performance, moodiness, loss of interest in activities previously enjoyed, interpersonal conflict).

Finally (Daily Trust, 2016). Sports betting have badly diverted the attention of youths from forging ahead in life. Some have relegated their religious duties, school, work, businesses and domestic work/family duties to the background and have given substantial attention, time, resources and energy to sports betting. Gambling/betting is tearing not only individuals apart but also families and societies. Betting especially as it relates to football, which has unfortunately bedevilled most youth today, leads to a total waste of time and effort, breeds laziness among the Muslims and pushes them away from Allah's remembrance.

Justification Of Prohibition Gambling/Online Betting Among Muslim.
In the Jahiliyyah era, the time before Islam, a person could gamble away with his wealth, possessions, and even his wife. When losing them, he would go so disappointed at his quick and unexpected loss that his anger would be inflamed. He could be angry to see his belonging suddenly in the hands of another winner.

Arabian history tell us that the war erupted and continued for forty years as a result of horse race between two hoses called Dahis and AL-Ghabraa.

In Islam gambling is strickly prohibit in the Holy Qau'an, we see thar gambling is mentioned while being associated with wine (khamr). Games, of chance, idols and dividing arrows are Satan's handiwork. In the early of Islam the Prophet (PBUH) was questioned regarding the permisability of gambling and alcohol. Allah (S.W.A) described Maysir, which we often translate as Game of Chance or Gambling as Abomination devised by Satan which all Muslim should avoid at all costs.

Gambling is fast becoming a norm in the society nowadays, from Street gambling to online football betting and other sport gambling/betting. Seen Muslim youths gamble is so frustrating, especially when they refuse to understand the Islamic stands on gambling. The legal ruling concerning gambling/betting in Islam is not contestable. It is as clear as the bright moonlight on the fifteenth day of the lunar Month. Qur'anic injunction is clear on it as enshrined in Qur'an 5:90

Shaykh Sayyid Saabiq (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Fiqh al-Sunnah that It is not permissible to bet in any case where money is offered by all, so that the one who wins will take all the bets, and if a person loses he will lose to his companions, because this comes under the heading of gambling, which is haram (Fiqh Al-Sunnah, 3/373). The prohibition on gambling is clearly stated in the Qur'an and stands immutable. This is based on the command of Almighty Allah which states: International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (IJHAS), Vol. 3, No.4, November 2018 10

(Qur'an, Chapter 5 Verse 90-91) O you who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, sacrificing to stones and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan's handiwork. Eschew such (abomination) that ye may prosper. Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you not then abstain?

In (Qur'an Chapter 5 Verse 90) Allah (S.W.A) says Believers! Intoxicants, games of chance, idolatrous practices, and divining arrows are abominations devised by Satan. Therefore, turn away from them so that you may be successful. I swear that anyone who is brought to me for having played it will be punished physically in his hair and body, and I will give his belongings to the person who brings him to me.

In (Chapter 2 Verse 219) Allah said. They ask you concerning wine and gambling. Say, in them is great and some benefit for people, but the sin in them is greater than benefits. 
(Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad). International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies (IJHAS), Vol. 3, No.4, November 2018 11 & 14

It is reported on the authority of Abu Musa Al-Ashari that the Prophet (PBUH) said: Whoever plays backgammon disobeys Allah and His Messenger. (Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad). This Hadith is very clear in its import. It describes playing backgammon as an act of disobedience of Allah and His Messenger. Needless to say, when something is described as constituting disobedience to Allah or the Prophet then it is forbidden.

Another Hadith quotes Abdullah Ibn Masoud as saying: Refrain from these two marked cubes that are associated with omen, for they are a form of gambling. (Related by Al-Bukhari in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad). This is a clear reference to Back-gammon which relies on two cubic dice with a number given to every side of each dice. It is not the dice itself that is a form of gambling, but the purpose for which it is used in a game. Since the throw of a dice is unpredictable, the whole game becomes a game of chance and such games are gambling. Hence, they are forbidden.

One may ask, Why Islam prohibits gambling? Why gambling is liable under Ta'zir punishment?
Is The Punishment Justified?
To answer these questions, a careful study and attention must be given to the nature of gambling itself and effects entail from the act.
Firstly, it corrupts morals making people sluggish in waiting for providence by whimsical means and giving up activities essential for making earnings such as agriculture, industry, business which are the foundation stone of social living and human prosperity and happiness in this mundane life.

In May 2018 23. The Former Governor Of Borno State Kashim Shettima: Orders Bet9ja, Nairabet Agents Out Of State.
He said gambling is a social vice he is committed to eradicating from the state. Borno state governor, Kashim Shettima, has ordered agents of online gambling sites, Bet9ja and NairaBet, out of the state.

According to a report by Daily Trust, the governor disclosed on Sunday, May 20, 2018, that he has issued a directive to get them out of the state because gambling is a social vice he is committed to eradicating alongside drug abuse.

While speaking at the 14th Annual Ramadan Lecture organized by Borno Radio Television Corporation in Maiduguri, he said, "I have given directives to all Bet9ja and Nairabet agents in the state to leave immediately. Drug and substance abuse gives birth to all immoral vices hence government's determination to fight all forms of social vices."
The governor also urged Muslim faithfuls in the state to unite and support the government's fight to rescue the state from the escalation of social vices.

Conclusion
Although the main purpose of this paper is to enlighten the Muslim Ummah that engaging one self in online Betting/Gambling and the effects such in the society today. Online Betting in Sports/Football is the form of making easy or quick money on gambling/betting among Muslim society today in almost all communities in Nigeria. And Islam vehemently prohibits such activities which stated Ta'zir as the punishment prescribed by judged to the offender found in such act.

Recommendations
  • Islamic Organisation and Religious Leaders/scholar and Imams should create an avenue to educate the Muslim Ummah on the dangers of betting/gambling
  • Awareness to be raised particularly among Muslim on the dangers of Online betting/gambling and the effects in the Society.
  • Awareness also to be Organised for manner of approached to these Muslim when pointing out the effect.
  • Gambling should be declared illegal, and gamblers should be warned and punishment is to be imposed by the government.
  • All Gambling/Online Betting shops and Web-Site should be Band.

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  • Borno State Governor Kashim Shattima Orders Bet9ja, Naira Agents out of the State. 24th May, 2018 https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/shattimafights-online-gambling-drugs-abuse-in-borno-251763.html
  • International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 2017, Vol. 7, No. 11 ISSN: 2222-6990

Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr Adamu Adamu Jauro Esq- Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, Gombe State
Email: [email protected], +2348066826024
Awarded certificate of Excellence
Authentication No: SP1001100NIG-20-0921

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