Process to compel production of document or other things
- Search warrant
- General search
- Seizure & others
Its basically an order for procuring attendance of a person and production of
documents which shall be in writing, in duplicate & signed by the presiding
officer of such court & shall bear the seal of the court. In general, it is
served by the police officer but other public servant or officer of court can
also serve the summon. Directly giving message is the best way of serving
Section 91 of the CRPC which deals with summon issued to produce document or
other thing says that if it is in an opinion of a court or a police officer that
they may require a document or other thing for the purpose of investigation,
inquiry or a trial from a person then in such case a court can issue summon or a
police officer may issue a written order towards such person for producing such
document or other thing which is specified in the summon.
What does other things mean in this particular section?
Here other things mean those things which can be produced in a court of law such
as tangible or moveable things or any physical object but it will not include
those things which are not real.
Is it mandatory for a person to attend personally in a court of law for
production of such document or other thing?
No. it is not mandatory for a person to attend personally rather he may send
such things or documents even through other person also.
Can a magistrate issue summon to produce a document which is in the custody
of postal or telegram authority under this section?
No. a magistrate cannot issue a summon under this section to produce a document
which is in the custody of such telegram or a postal authority.
If any person other than a witness provides such document or other thing then
in such case will it be deemed as a witness?
No. such mere production of document or other thing in pursuance of summon will
not be deemed as a witness under this section.
Can a person include the accused as well? If yes then will it be
Yes. it can include the accused except the accused who are under trial. Here
accused is bound to produce the document which will not incriminate him but the
police officer cannot direct the accused to produce document which will
incriminate him under article 20(3) of the Indian constitution. For example- if
a police officer asks the accused for a gun through which he had murdered or
killed someone then it will not be valid according to the article 20 of the
Indian constitution as such order will tend to incriminate the accused as he is
giving the evidence against himself but if a police asks a person X or an
accused Y to produce a document only for the purpose to check their residential
address or any id proof then in such cases X & Y both is bound to produce such
document as it will not incriminate them in such cases.
As it is seen that section 91 restricts magistrate to issue a summon to a postal
or telegram authority for production of document or any other thing but section
92 talks about the process by which one can get a document which is in the
custody of postal or telegram authority. It says that if any person need some
document which is in the custody of such telegram or postal authority then in
such case that person can first apply to a district magistrate or a chief
judicial magistrate or a court of session or a high court as they only have got
the powers to ask such telegram or a postal authority for production of document
or other thing and if district or a chief judicial magistrate or a court of
session or a high court is satisfied that production of such document is
necessary for the purpose of investigation then they will direct such telegram
authority to produce it. But if a magistrate other than a district or chief
judicial magistrate thinks that they need a document which is in the custody of
such telegram authority then can only ask such authority to make a search and
detain any such document required for the purpose of investigation, inquiry or a
trial till the order comes from the district or a chief judicial magistrate.
If the executive magistrate X have a reason to believe that production of
document is necessary for the purpose of investigation which is in the custody
of the postal or telegram authority then according to above mentioned section
91, he has not got the powers to ask such authority so in such case what will he
So here in this case the executive magistrate can either apply to a district or
a chief judicial magistrate or a high court as mentioned under section 92 as
they have only got the powers to ask such authority for the production of
document or the executive magistrate can ask such authorities to make a search
and detain it till the order comes from the district or chief judicial
Search warrants (particular & general search warrants)- it is a judicial order
by which police authorities are asked to find out the necessary things which
will serve the purpose of investigation of a crime. It can be a particular
search like the things to be searched will be specified or it can be a general
search warrant through which police authorities are asked to search for
unspecified places because there may be some of the situations where if they
believe that they can find something necessary for the purpose of investigation
of a crime.
says that that if a court asks any person to produce any
document as required under section 91(1) & such person refused to produce such
document so in that case court can issue a particular search warrant
For example if a person say X was asked to produce any document according to
section 91 but he didn�t provided such document in a court of law so now in such
cases court can issue a particular search warrant i.e.; searching for the
specified thing but this search warrant will not include the accused as it will
incriminate the accused but if a court is not aware of the possession of the
document or if a court think that they can get any type of evidence for the
purpose of inquiry or a trial then in such cases the court will issue a general
search warrant which can also include the accused irrespective of the fact when
proved it may have the tendency to incriminate him as here the accused himself
is not giving such things which are seized by the police authorities for
if a crime took place in a market area and it is not known to anyone like by
whom it was committed or how it was committed then in such cases court can
issue general search warrant i.e.; finding unspecified things. also leaving
district or a chief judicial magistrate any other magistrate cannot issue search
warrant in case of any parcel or any document which is in the custody of such
telegram or postal authority.
Is it necessary that a summon should be issued at the very first place?
No. it is not necessary that a summon should be issued at the very first place
because there might be some of the situation where the possession of the
document is not known to anyone so in such cases court can directly issue a
Can a police officer search without a warrant?
Yes. According to section 165 of the CRPC police authorities have got the powers
to make a particular search without a warrant only if they have a reason to
believe that they can get any evidence which is necessary for the purpose of the
investigation of a crime but the police authorities will have to follow the
procedure given under section 100 of the CRPC also police authorities cannot go
for such search without a FIR under this provision.
it relates to the detention of false documents or some of the places which is
generally used for the deposit of the stolen property.
Section 94 generally gives power to a district magistrate , sub divisional
magistrate or a magistrate of a first class to issue a search warrant to the
police officer if there is a suspect about a place which is used for the
commission of unlawful activity but the police officer to whom such search
warrant was issued should be above the constable rank also such police officer
can enter and search that place as specified in the warrant , they can also
seize or detain a thing which can be an evidence of such crime & will have to
produce it before the court or detain it till the offender is produced before
the court or keep it in a safe place.
Also, police authorities can arrest all those persons who were involved in
committing such unlawful activity. Here magistrate should conduct an inquiry
through which he needs to be satisfied that the place is used for deposit of
stolen property. this section basically talks about the particular search as it
deals with some of the objectionable articles such as illegal production of
currency notes, coins etc. are mentioned under this provision.
Section 100 deals with issue of search warrant in a closed place so it basically
says that if a search warrant is issued and the place where such search is to be
made is closed then in such cases the person residing or the person in charge of
that particular place has to allow the officer for entering in that particular
place & also such person will be helping the officer in such search.
The person executing the warrant has to show the warrant to the person residing
or the person in charge of such closed place but if entry to such closed place
is not given then in such cases the entry will be done according to the section
47(2) of the CRPC i.e. by the process of breaking the doors ,windows etc. or
the officers can use reasonable force for such entry in closed place and it has
to be done if an officer has a reason to believe that person to be arrested has
entered into that place.
If there is a suspect that the person in charge of such closed place is hiding
anything then the officer can even search that person also and if such person is
a woman that the search will be made by another woman with strict regard to
decency and before making such search the person executing the warrant shall
call the two respected peoples of the locality or in absence of such persons
they can call any other person from a different locality to attend and also be
the witnesses for such search also search will be made in the presence of
witness and list will be made of all the items which are seized by the person
executing the warrant and will be signed by the witnesses.
Though it is not mandatory for the witnesses to be present in a court of law but
if a court issues a summon to be present then in such case it is mandatory for
them to be present otherwise it will be deemed as an offence committed under
section 187 of the IPC. The occupant of such place or any person in his behalf
shall be present during the search and the list made of all the seized items
will be given to such person as well.
Award Winning Article Is Written By: Mr.Rakchit Mishra
Authentication No: MA114207801600-22-0522