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New Education Policy, 2020

From changing our perception to building our opinion, education provides us with the knowledge and power to change the world. The future of any country depends upon the quality of the education system. The ultimate aim of the education is to shape a child's personality and make him/her better human being. Starting from family to getting into schools a child is exposed to various fields which facilitate the cultivation of a healthy thought process and helps in grooming their cognitive abilities. The educational institution helps a child to imbibe immense knowledge which is instrumental for their development. So it has a vital role to play in molding a nation’s future by providing them with all round development.

Three education policies have been made in India till now. First was made in 1968, second was in 1946 which was being modified in 1992 and this is India’s third education policy of 2020.

Objective:
  1. In order to achieve universal literacy at primary schools by 2025.
  2. To achieve student and teacher ratio to 30:1 in each school
  3. DEEKSHA (Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing) portal has been launch to train teachers.
  4. To increase focus on knowledge gaining, implementation of knowledge, reading, writing, speaking.
  5. To add high quality resource in the education system.
  6. Increase gross enrollment ratio in school by 2035

Currently in secondary education we are having 56.5% enrollment ratio of students for class 11th and 12th.
In higher education for college degree enrollment ratio of students is 26.3%.

Many changes have been made in different things like:
  1. School Education
  2. Language
  3. Higher education
  4. Technology
  5. Finance
  6. Implementation

School Education
As of now in school all students have to study common subjects from class 1st to class 10th and then in last two years they have to study some specific subjects of their choice ex. arts, science, commerce etc which were known as the 10+2 system.

Now the first change made by the government in the school system is that the 10+2 system has been changed to 5+3+3+3+4 format.

Foundational stage
There are 5 year total in the foundational stage which are diverge into 3+2 where 3 year of pre-primary school is there and 2 year is for class 1st and class 2nd. As earlier on in government schools this 3 year of pre-primary school was not there but now it is added.

Preparatory stage
In which 3 year study is there from class 3rd to class 5th.

Middle stage
Under middle stage study is from class 6th to class 8th is there

Secondary stage
Under secondary stage 4 year study is there from class 9th to class 12th. Earlier on students have to select their subjects after class 10th but now as per new educational policy selection of subjects will be done from class 9th onwards as of now students can study their chosen subjects from from9th to class 12th.

Major modification in school system
  1. New education policy expands age group 6-14 years of mandatory schooling to 3-18 years of schooling.
    As per article 21A of Indian constitution it provide free and compulsory education to all children at the age of 6-14 years in such a manner as the state may by law determines.
    Article 21A was added in constitution by 86th constitutional amendment act 2002 which made education from 6 to 14 years of age compulsory. Now the new education policy has expanded the age group but no amendment has been made in the constitution so far.

    Criticism
    Angarwadi workers are not quipped or trained to teach
    Now due to this change government is depend on anganwadi workers in the pre-primary stage as students were taught from age 3 to 6 and the ECCE teachers are not trained to teach students so government want to trained them with qualification of 10+2 and above shall be given a 6-month certificate programme in ECCE (Early Childhood Care and Education).

  2. Board Exam Pattern
    The exam pattern has also been changed by the government as 10th and 12th board exams will be continued but they will be low stakes as they were before. Earlier on students used to get admission on the basis of their 10th class result.

    The main focus of the government in board exams is to test the knowledge of students and how they are implementing that knowledge.
    Twice a year board exams will be held in which students can improve their result.
    Students will be able to choose many of the subjects and level in which they want to give their board exams.
    There will be no hard separation among curriculum, extra curriculum or co curriculum among arts science or between vocational or academic streams.
    Now co-curriculum activities and subjects of sports will be treated at same level and they will also be counted as subjects.
    Students and opt courses as per their interest or preferences, peers and teachers reviews will be there.
    Skills like analysis, critical thinking and conceptual clarity will be taught in the school.

Language
The new education policy has put focus on the mother tongue of students as the medium of instruction

Wherever possible the medium of instruction at least till class 5th but preferable til class 8th and beyond that it will be home language, mother tongue, local language or regional language and this should be followed by private and government schools both.

The three language formula will be continued and no language will be imposed on anyone
At least two of three languages which are being taught should be Indian.
Example-In Tamil Nadu the languages which are taught are Tamil and English so third language cannot be French because two languages should Indian.
The new educational policy only recommends the mother tongue as medium of instruction but it is not compulsory it depends on the states implementation.
Recently Andhra Pradesh has decided to make English as their medium of instruction in schools, they have changed from Telugu to English medium.

Criticism of primary education in mother tongue
  1. Unequal learning in private and government school.
  2. Class divide will be furthered.
  3. English is the dominant language of the internet, science and technology.
  4. Different languages in different regions of India.

Higher Education
  1. College admission and entrance exams
    As of now in order to take admission in the college we have to give different exams for it, but now in the new education policy the system has been stream line into an common entrance exam for admission.

    CEE (Common entrance exam) will be conducted by national testing agency for admission in universities and colleges across the country.
    CEE include common aptitude test and second paper as per the subject exam and CEE will be conducted twice every year but all the professional courses like medical, law, IIT etc exams will be conducted separately and not included in the CEE.

    Criticism of CEE system
    The common entrance exam system will not be mandatory and will be as per the individual universities and college to use NTA assessment for their admission or not.
     
  2. Establishment of HECI(Higher education commission of India)
    At present we are having UGC (University grant commission) which governs all universities and colleges of our country and now it is being replaced by the HECI (Higher education commission of India)
    Now only one body will be there which will regulate all the higher education in the country and the main objective behind this is to make all colleges and universities multidisciplinary by 2040.
    It aims to build university in every district.
     
  3. Establishment of national research foundation
    Overall governance system will be “light but tight” and regulation will be done by single regulator for higher education.
     
  4. Four year undergraduate courses with multiple exit options.

Technology
The New Education Policy promotes the use of technology and in advancing the teaching and learning process.
NEFT (National educational technology forum)

The establishment of national educational technology forum will be done:
  1. To increase massive online courses.
  2. Divyang friendly educational software will be there.
  3. e-content will be provided in various languages.
  4. Virtual classes and labs will be there where students can do experiments.
  5. Online assessment and online exams will be there.
So there is an urge to advance our technology so that every section of the society would get equal benefit and this unprecedented pandemic has a catastrophic effect which is dismantling the learning process of the students.

Teacher Recruitment
National educational policy says that teachers must be at the centre of the fundamental reforms in the educational system.
The new education policy must help to re-establish teachers at all levels as they are the most essential member of our society because they shape our new generation of citizens.
Teacher’s eligibility test will be extended to cover teachers across all stages of the school education, now teachers have to give interviews and live demonstration of how teacher is going to teach in the class and it will be helpful to identify the teacher motivation and passion as it will be followed in both private and government schools.

Finance
The current public (government-centre and state) expenditure on education in India has been around 4.43% of GDP and now in the new education policy government has decided to increase it to 6% of GDP (gross domestic product)

Conclusion
Indian education system should give equal opportunities to every citizen to develop themselves so for that certain reforms are necessary; the new education policy is a way of hope. To widen the scope of education, practical knowledge must be given to let children prosper in their lives.

Advancing our technology would be beneficial to offer children with a better learning experience or to enhance the teaching standards like the smart class room should be there. The policy seems to be quite effective but everything depends upon its implementation. If implemented effectively then it could transform the Indian Education system.

Written by: Saksham Ahlawat - B.A.LL.B (hons) Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali.

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