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Women Rights Under Indian Labour Laws: A Socio-Economic Study

Women in India from antiquity were accorded the most exalted and respectful place in the society. During the post Vedic period they were confined within the four walls of the house and their role remained restricted to the traditional household work for cooking, maintenance of home and rearing of children. They were not supposed to seek any gainful employment outside the family. This hindered the economic development and reduced their social problems.

But due to industrialization and urbanization new social norms and values emerged.( Job opportunities, economic hardship and favorable cultural and social situations encouraged cultural and social situation encouraged women to seek employment outside the home.) After independence of the country the number of women to come out of their houses for work increased day by day. Although entering of women into work forced raised their economic and social status, yet it give rise to many problem and difficulties to them by way of exploitation, discrimination and dismal working conditions.

The problem of difficulties got multiplied due to their peculiar social, biological and psychological conditions and due to their illiteracy and ignorance. To undo the discrimination and exploitation, their arose a need to provide them some security and protection through law i.e., Constitution of India( Article 14, 15, 16, 23, 39, 43 and 46) which are provided for protection and security to women workers.

The protection are provided through different Plans, Program, Policies and Schemes of the Government. The UN system has been playing important role in the process of bringing awareness about women's unequal position in society. (The International Labour Organisation has stressed that the interests of women as workers are generally indistinguishable from those of men and it has gone further in emphasizing that a women workers should be given special attention as they have special difficulties which drive from their functions in the family and social attitudes and customs.)

The Government undertook various legislative measures for protection to women workers: The Factories Act, 1948, The Mines Act, 1952, The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976, The Payment of Wages Act, 1936, The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 etc.,

Statement Of Problem
It has been found that the protective measures taken by the Government such as separate toilets and washing facilities, drinking water etc., are not either provided or not adequately maintained. There are virtually no medical facilities and maternity benefits. The laws, policies and welfare system that are proposed for women workers cannot be effective unless they themselves are conscious of law and acquire the strength to ensure that laws are brought into force and the organs of public opinion and movement and organisations mount vigil and intercede to ensure that the provisions of the laws and welfare system are acted upon.

One of the greatest thing is that the women facing the problem relating to the rights and privileges of women in India. From ancient to still today, women are struggling to find her social status and a respectable place in the society at the time Indian women were in a need of some laws in order to improve their social position and to ensure proper safety against mental and physical torture.

At that time Dr B.R. Ambedkar took certain constructive and much needed steps in favour of Indian women. Due to the revolutionary changes brought by our constitution and efforts made by Indian women, they have earned themselves a respectable position in the society and as a result they are treated equally with men. The constitution not only grants equality to women, it gives the measures and solution for the problem of women's and also empowers the state to adopt measures of positive approach in favour of women.

The Constitution of India mandates that women must be treated as equals and prohibits any discrimination against women in all areas, including education, vocational training, skill development and employment. Our Constitution also protects the rights of women workers by ensuring that their health and safety is duly protected in the course of employment, particularly those of pregnant women.

The Constitution also safeguards the dignity of women workers and ensures that they are provided a safe working environment free of sexual harassment. In order to fulfil the constitutional mandate all labour laws contain special provisions regarding the health and safety of women workers by regulating their working hours and by reducing the burden women have to carry. Recently a special law has been enacted to protect against sexual harassment at the workplace.

Factors affecting employment of women:
  1. Social factors:

    • Social Attitude: It is the most important factor and also responsible for low level of women's employment. Such an attitude which does not encourage women for employment has its root in the particularly existing in the society since ages. It confined them to play the role of home maker. Social ethos and perception control and essentially constrict women' work. (There are different standards of human behaviour for men and women in social sphere and women's participation in employment outside home is inappropriate, undesirable and potentially dangerous to their chastity and womanly virtue.)

    • Traditions, customs and taboo: Families still believe not to allow girls to work for income. If they are allowed to work, their income is not meant to run the house. Fathers are reluctant for their girls employment in the first instance, and against utilising their money for household express. Customarily female children are discouraged to go out of town for education and particularly for employment(Again economic compulsions are weakening such traditions and customs but not enough to mend them). A number of jobs are just like taboo in our society and women either discouraged or legally barred from employment. Ex: taxi, truck or auto driving is not meant for women in India as these jobs are not considered safe. Women are movers in the society but earth moving jobs are denied to them.

    • Marriage: In our society, marriage seriously undermines employment of a female. Consequently she enters late in the job market or makes re- entry because they have sometimes, discontinue their employment on account of marriage. This particular custom has priority over everything and marriage comes first in case of females and as a result they lose employment for this and they face the problem of re-entry or late entry into labour market.

    • Domestic chores: Since ancient time women's prime responsibility has been domestic chores as if they are meant for it. It adversely affects the employment prospects. They have to do only those jobs which would give them enough time for domestic chores. Women try to avoid assignment in job which jeopardise their domestic activity and schedule which ultimately affect their options in employment and promotions.

    • Immobility: Lack of mobility either because of household chores or due to inadequacy of arrangement for care of children does restrict employment of workers. For men occupational diversifications and mobility are not very difficult proposition, but for women it is great galling. Women cannot easily move to other places because of family obligation, low skill. But when men move, all the family responsibilities come to the shoulder of women. Women have immobility in terms of space, time and energy. Similarly their mobility in terms of time also gets affected during pregnancy and few months after delivery of baby.

    • Child care: Indian society has tradition of assigning responsibility, partially of not fully to female children to look after young siblings in the family since female children are asked to take care of their young siblings, even in their childhood. Bearing and rearing children compels them to compromise with their employment.

    • Dependency: The way female children are brought up in our society, especially in villages and towns that they become dependent on male persons. When they travel even as grown up, females depend on some male member of the family. It makes them to remain confined to their place and hence restricts their employment opportunities and options.

    • Accommodation: Women who gets jobs on employment out of their town face the problem of accommodation from the point of view of safety and security. Those who are in employment and have transferable job find it difficult to move so far away due to fear that they may not get a suitable accommodations. Therefore women try to avoid this situation at the cost of their employment and at the same time there are limited working women hostels. They prefers to work locally available. It becomes a hindrance in employment for women.

  2. Economic factors

    • Education: In general Indian still tend to think of the education and careers of boys as more important than those of girls, for the simple reason that boys inevitably become the primary breadwinners of their own families when they marry. Investment in education gets priority for male children in Indian society. Female children rarely get preference in the matter of education especially at tertiary levels. Parents usually compromise for the quality of education and expenses in case of female children as they invest just to educate them and not from the viewpoint of employment. Education of girls is increasing their value in the matrimonial market and on the contrary male children education aim at their career and hence the best possible education is provided to them.

    • Training: Job oriented courses of elementary nature are generally preferred for females rather than males. Women are largely in computer courses, boutique and fabric painting and similar elementary courses which lead them to low paid jobs and land them in the secondary segment of labour market. Therefore, women's advancement in employment is generally hampered. Exclusive women training programmes are very few at least in the private sector.

    • Unionism: Women generally lack unionism as they have dual responsibility. Lacking unionism among women workers make them relatively vulnerable and does not inspire to fight against sex based problems such as reservations in promotion and training programmes. As a result discrimination against women could not be eliminated in India.

    • Infrastructure: Lack of infrastructure and other facilities is hindrance in women's employment. Even collateral rule does not accept women as guarantors unless they have fixed their assets in their names. A discriminatory approach to provide infrastructural facilities to women is commonly observed in India. It also hampers their employment prospects.

    • Payment: The assumption that women are not primary breadwinners and that they provide only supplemental income to their families has resulted in their extensive exploitation. Low payment offered to women has confined them to the lower cadre in employment. In addition, the contributions of women make to the running of the home and family businesses( maintaining vegetable plots or poultry) are often rendered invisible, because this work is not formally paid and generally is taken for granted. Of all employed women, a greater number work in public sector, where wage discrepancies tend to be far more than in private sector. In small cities and towns women teachers get less remuneration than the minimum wages paid to men workers. Wage discriminate discourage them to go for performance and hence their career advancement get blocked.

    • Supplementing Income: The women join the employment when economic condition of the family so demand or warrant and they are withdrawn when solvency permits. Women work during economic distress of the family, they are asked to lend helping hand to its survival. Women work is exclusively for the family rather than for their own sake and sustenance. They enter job market when male's earning become inconsistent, inadequate or withheld. Recruitment option exercised by the family limits women's flexibility in the labour market.

    • Technological Development: When a new technology is introduced to automatic specific manual labour, women tend to lose their jobs because they are confined to and are responsible for the manual duties. Studies have shown that technological change has eliminated many jobs traditionally performed by women and alternative job opportunities have not been created for women at the same rate as for men.

    • Gender Based Division Labour: The gender based division which has extended from household work to work outside the home. Women are primarily involved in agriculture activities which require less skill and more back breaking and low paying work. Even in industries in which women are employed in large numbers like textile, export oriented industries like garments, electronics, building and construction industry gender based division of labour can be seen. Though India has a large number of labour laws, they tend to ignore women's experiences and their outlook tends to be paternalistic.

Women Rights under Indian Labour Laws

Labour law apply to that area of activity where workers are working under a contract of employment. Working women form a major thick peak of society. The women workers need special protection and equal treatment under the law. To protect the women, many legislative provisions have been provided in almost all labour statutes which address problems of women labourers in their employment situation. The legislation relate to regulation of employment in dangerous occupations, prohibition of night work, restrictions on carriage of heavy loads, wages, health, gratuity, maternity relief, equal pay for equal work, social security, etc.,

The rights contained in the labour laws has been divided in the following heads:
  1. Measures in regard to health safety and welfare for women: Unless the workers are physically and mentally healthy they cannot perform their duties effectively. The basic aim of the welfare services in an industry is to improve the living and working conditions of workers and promoting the physical, psychological and general well being of the working population. Thus, it is necessary to adopt measures to maintain their health and to provide safety and welfare measures to the women workers and regulate their working condition.

    There are various labour laws which deals with health, safety and welfare to women workers which are as follows:
    1. The Factories Act, 1948:

      The Act was drastically amended in 1987 whereby safeguards against use and handling of hazardous substances for setting up hazardous industries were laid down like latrine and urinal facilities separately for men and women, prohibition of work in hazardous occupations where it provides that no women shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime mover of any transmission machinery, lubrication or adjustment which would expose the women to risk of injury from moving any part either of that machinery, washing and bathing facilities are provided for women workers and shall be kept clean, creches (It is a nursery and a place where babies of working women are taken care of while the mothers are at work) which provides that in every factory there shall be a suitable room for the use of children under the age of 6 years of such women and should be adequately clean, ventilated, accommodation and sanitary condition, Hours of work which provides that the daily hours of work of adult workers have been fixed at 9(Section 54 of the Factories Act, 1948)but sometimes men can work for more time but it does not permit women workers to go beyond the limit, maximum permissible load, prohibition of night work and may other safety measures.

      Pearson v Belgium Co LTD.(1896) 1 Q B 244:The question was whether stationary parts of a machine can be cleaned by women if the machine as a whole is in motion. It was held by the court that if machinery as a whole is in motion even stationary parts of the machine cannot be cleaned by woman.

      Richard Thomas and Baldwins Ltd. V Cummings(1955) 1 AII ER 285:The court observed that there would be no breach of statutory duty if an injury occurs while the machinery is unfenced, if the power is cut off and the machinery is under repairs and the parts are not in motion but are moved by hand for purposes of repairs.

    2. The Mines Act, 1952:

      The Act has been enacted to amend and consolidate the law relating regulation of labour and safety in mines. Mines means any excavation where any operation for the purpose of searching for or obtaining minerals has been or is been carried on and includes all open cast workings, railways, tramways and sidings belonging to a mine, all levels and inclined planes, all shafts belonging to a mine. It includes prohibition of night work which provides that women should be allowed to work between the hours 6 a.m and 7 p.m. and there should be an interval of not less than eleven hours between he termination of employment on any one day and the commencement of the next period of employment, prohibition of work in hazardous occupation, creches, latrine and urinal facilities and other general provisions

    3. The Plantation labour Act, 1951:

      The Act regulates the condition of work of plantation workers and provides for their welfare.( Plantations means nay plantation to which this act applies and includes offices, hospitals, dispensaries, schools etc used for any purpose connected with such plantation but does not include factory.) It also includes prohibition of night work, creches, latrine and urinal facilities and many other general provisions.

    4. Building and other Construction Workers' Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service Act, 1996:

      The purpose of this Act is to regulate the employment and conditions of service of constructions workers and to provide for their safety, health and welfare measures. The special feature of this act is that it covers all private residential buildings if the cost of construction is more than one lakh rupees. Building and other construction work is defined as construction, repairs, etc., It include special provision like latrine and urinals, accommodation, creches and other general provisions.

    5. The Beedi and Cigar Workers(Condition of Employment) Act, 1966:

      The purpose of this act is to provide for the welfare of workers in beedi and cigar establishments self-employed and regulation of work conditions. The Act applies to all employees in beedi and cigar establishments except self-employed persons working in their own houses. It includes prohibition of night work, creches, latrine and urinal facilities and other general provisions.

  2. Social Security Measures for Women: Social security is a basic need of all women regardless of employment in which they work and lie. Women have to face various contingencies when they involved in employment such as sickness, maternity, disablement, employment insecurities and risks. They constitute an important step towards the goal of a welfare state by improving living and working conditions and affording the women protection against the uncertainties of the future.

    The various legislations measures adopted by the Government and which provide protection to the women workers in certain contingencies are as:
    1. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961:

      The Act was passed with a view to reduce disparities under the existing Maternity Benefit Act and bring uniformity with regard to rates, qualifying conditions and duration of maternity benefits. The Act repeals the Mines Maternity Benefit Act, 1941, the Bombay Maternity Benefit Act, 1929, the provision of maternity protection under the Plantation Labour Act, 1951 and all other provincial enactments covering the same field.

      The Act does not apply to factory or establishment to which the provisions of Employee's State Insurance Act, 1948 applies except as otherwise provided in Section 5A and 5B of the Act. The Act seeks to regulate the employment of women in certain establishments for certain periods before and after child birth and to provide maternity benefit and certain other benefits to women workers.

      It applies to every establishment being a factory, a mine or plantation including any such establishment belonging to Government and to every establishment wherein persons are employed for the exhibition of equestrian, acrobatic and other performance. It includes restriction on employment of pregnant women which provides that no employer should knowingly employ women during the period of 6 weeks immediately following the day of her delivery or miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy, Right to payment of Maternity Benefit which provides that they will be liable for payment to them at the rate of average daily wages for the period of actual absence immediately preceding and including the day of her delivery and for six weeks immediately following that day.

      It provides that a woman shall be entitled to maternity benefit for a maximum period of 12 weeks of which not more than six weeks shall precede the date of her expected delivery, protection against discrimination, leave for miscarriage and illness (they will be entitled to leave the wages at the rate of maternity benefit for a period of 6 weeks immediately following the day of her miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy), leave for illness ( leave for a maximum period of one month with wages at the rate of maternity benefit are allowable in case of illness out of pregnancy), increase maternity leave to 6 months (The Sixth Commission has recommended enhancement of maternity leave upto six months.

      The Maternity Benefit Act, 2017 allows having a maternity leave for 26 weeks for biological mothers and for mothers who have adopted a child could got a leave for 12 weeks. The Commission has proposed enhancement of maternity leave from 135 to 180 days for two children and further continuation of leave upto two years for the same purpose with creche facilities that can be contributory, nursing breaks(every women who returns to day after delivery of child, shall in addition to the interval of rest allowed to her, be allowed in the cause of her daily work, two break of 15 minutes duration each child for nursing the child until the child attains the age of 15 years, no deduction of wages( The employer should not make any deductions from the normal and usual daily wages of a woman entitled to maternity benefit rarely due to the light nature of work assigned to her or for the nursing breaks allowed to her.

    2. Municipal Corporation of Delhi v Female Workers (AIR 2000 SC 1275):

      The Supreme Court declared that the maternity benefit is applicable to casual workers and daily wage workers also. In this case the question was whether the muster roll employees (which are casual and daily wage employees) of municipal corporation are entitled to maternity benefit. There is nothing in the Maternity Benefit Act which entitles only regular women employees to the benefit of maternity leave and not to those who are engaged on casual basis or on muster roll on daily wage basis.

    3. Sexual Harassment:

      Sexual harassment is not only viewed as a discrimination problem related to safety and health, but also as a violation of fundamental rights and human rights. It is offensive at a very level and in a way undermines the right to equal opportunity and equal treatment of women at the workplace. The first and foremost effort ought to be to prevent the occurrence of such harassment in the first place, but in the event that such harassment does occur, it ought to be punished and the victims protected.

      Women are often unaware of their rights and also many a time keep things quiet in fear of losing their jobs. Employers need to be more proactive about spreading awareness and fighting against sexual harassment at the workplace. Employers and trade union ought to take more active steps towards the prevention and punishment of such activities. This can be done through policies and procedures adopted within the industry itself.

      There should be an adequate complaint, mechanism, disciplinary rules, sexual harassment, awareness, defence training, and communication strategy. The 71st session of the ILO Conference 1985 adopted a resolution on the matter which states �sexual harassment at the workplace is detrimental to employee's working conditions and to employment and promotion prospects. Policies for the advancement of equality should therefore include measures to combat and prevent sexual harassment.

      Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013: The Sexual Harassment at workplace Act of 2013 is a special Legislation aiming towards providing a safe and hostile free environment at work to women. An effective implementation of the Act will contribute to the realization of their right to gender equality, life and liberty, equality in working conditions everywhere. The sense of security at the workplace will improve women's participation in work, resulting in their economic empowerment and inclusive growth. The Act is gender specific to only women.

    4. The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923:

      It deals with cases of an accident, or some disease occurs at workplace resulting in death or disability of women workers is not merely a financial loss, but also of house keeping function. The rate of compensation in case of death is an amount equal to 50 percent of the monthly wages or an amount of Rs 80,000 whichever is more. But mainly we will deal with the legislations for the women workers are:
      • Minimum Wages Act, 1948:

        It is primarily designed for the protection of workers in the unorganised sector, where majority of women work. It is to provide minimum statutory wages for the scheduled employments with a view to obviate the chances of exploitation of labour through payment of very low and sweating wages. It also provides for the minimum daily working hours, weekly rest day and overtime.

      • Sanjit Roy v State of Rajasthan (236):

        The court held that every person who provides labour or service to another is entitled atleast to the minimum wage and if anything less than the minimum wage is paid to him, he can complain of violation of fundamental rights under Article 23 and ask the court to direct payment of minimum wages to him so that the breach of Article 23 may be abated.

      • Payment of Wages Act, 1936:

        It was enacted to regulate payment of wages to workers employed in industries and to ensure a speedy and effective remedy to them against illegal deductions and unjustified delay caused in paying wages to them. Wages includes all terms of money and payable to the employee including any sum payable for termination of service, wages in lieu of holidays or leave, overtime wages and bonus payable.(It does not include value of any house accommodation, supply of light, water, medical, contribution to any pension travelling etc.,

      • Equal Renumeration Act Safeguard Women's Right, 1976:

        Part IV relating to the Directive Principles of State Policy Article 39 of the Constitution envisages that the state shall direct its policy, among other things and every employer is under a legal obligation to pay the same wages for men and women if they perform the same work or work of a similar nature. The Act is now applicable to almost every kind of establishment. Even if it is being performed at different places, the salary has to be the same. An employer cannot discriminate against women while recruiting unless employment of women is prohibited or restricted by law. Thus, in matters of recruitment, promotions, training or transfer, the employer is prohibited from discriminating against women.

        The responsibility of ensuring that the provisions of the Act are strictly followed and also that there is no discrimination between men and women in the sphere of recruitment, promotions and training lies with the employer. It is also the responsibility of the employer to maintain proper registers, documents or must rolls etc., which can be scrutinised by the labour officer the district. Any woman who faces discrimination in these aspects can file a complaint before the labour officer of her area. Thus in Air India case (Air India v Nargesh Meerza, Air 1981 SC 1929) the judiciary has played an active role in enforcing and strengthening the Constitutional goal of equal pay for equal work.

      • Sanjit Roy v State of Rajasthan (AIR 1988 SC 238):

        The Supreme court directed the State government not only to pay the minimum wages but also to pay wages in accordance with the principle of equal pay for equal work to both men and women worker engaged in famine relief work.

      • Bhagwan Das v State of Haryana (AIR 1987 SC 2040):

        The Supreme court was of the view that persons doing similar work cannot be denied equal pay on the ground that mode of recruitment was different and a temporary or casual employee performing the same or similar duties and functions is entitled to the same pay as that of a regular or permanent employee.

        The Supreme court held that equal wages will be payable even to casual workers engaged through contractor when they are doing the same work.(FCI v Shyamlal K Chatterjee, 2000 LLR 1293 SC)

Madhu Kishwar and others v State of Bihar and others(1992, SCC 102):
The petitioners who were members of Oran tribes of Bihar challenged the Chhota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 on the ground that under the said Act the succession of property was confined to male only. It was contended by the petitioner that that the Act was violative of fundamental rights to equality. The court held that as citizen of the country, the female members of these tribes were entitled to Constitutional guarantee given to them under Article 14. However instead of deciding the case on merits the court directed the state of Bihar to explore the possibilities of inheritance to female also.

Air India v Nargesh Meerza (AIR 1981 SC 1829):

The court held that the termination of service on pregnancy was unreasonable and arbitrary and was therefore, clearly violative of fundamental right Under Article 14 of the Constitution. Having taken in service and after having utilised her services for four years to terminate her service if she becomes pregnant amounts to compelling the poor air hostess not to have any children and thus interfere with and divert the ordinary course of human nature.

Dattatreya Motiram v State of Bombay (AIR 1953, Bom 311):

Chief Justice Chagla held that as per Article 15(1) and 15(3) the state could discriminate in favour of women against men, but it could not discriminate in favour of men against women.

State of Kerala v K. Kunihipacky (AIR 1965 Ker 108):

The question of preferring female lectures in state colleges exclusively for women came under picture. A male lecture claimed that a female lecture junior to him in experience had been promoted to a professorship in the same department, violating Article 16.

Traditionally, only females had been appointed to teaching position in women's colleges when available. The state argued that since the preference of females in women's colleges was an established practice, preference for a female teacher was proper. The court held that while the preference of women in women's college was not unreasonable given the general inequality between sexes, seniority cannot be overlooked, directing the government to reconsider the promotion after the contestant presented reason to support their promotion.

In effect the court held that females can be given preferences over male in women colleges, a conventional practice but, once appointed, senior male and female employees of equal calibre should be promoted. The question arises would the court take the same step if a female claimed discrimination in men's college where most employees are men, the answer is probably the court would upheld the convention of extending preferences to men in men's college.

Mrs. Sivanarul v The state of Tamil Nadu and others(1985 II LLJ 133):

The court held that an order of termination of the services of a lady teacher serving in a private school recognised and aided by the Government, based on a clause in the contract of service, on the ground that she got married was not only obnoxious, but also opposed to public policy and bad.

Mohini Philip v Union of India and others(1993 (II) LLJ 182):

The petitioner was working as a nursing officer in military service was ordered to be released and relieved from service on the ground of marriage. The court held that irrelevant consideration have been taken into account to order the release on marriage ground only. Thus, the order was arbitrary and unreasonable and quashed the order of termination. It further held that there is a circular which provides for assessment of standard of performance after marriage not violative of Articles 14 and 16.

The above study brings the conclusion that the dignity of women in society provides an exact measure of the development of society. Now a days women engage themselves in agriculture, plantation, mine beedi, crafts, home based work etc., But unfortunately there are various factors that have caused women lagging behind men like social attitude, traditions, custom, marriage, gender based division labour, lack of confidence, sexual harassment fear.

Women workers at work place face the problem of low and discriminatory wage, exploitative working conditions etc. It can be concluded that women workers conditions cannot be improved unless they are giving special protection and the governments have paid due attention towards miserable working and living conditions of women. The Constitution of India has given special attention towards the needs of women to enable them to exercise their rights on an equal footing with men and participate in national development. It also aims to creation of an entirely new social order where all citizens are given opportunities for growth and development and where no discrimination takes place on the basis of race, religion, sex, caste, colour, etc.,

It can be seen from the multiple special provisions made for the welfare of the women that both at the national and international levels, there has been a movement towards the empowerment of women in labour laws. There has been a clear move towards making equal pay, equal access to opportunity, prevention and redressal of sexual harassment and provision of maternity benefits a reality in India.

Women represent half the world's population and gender inequality exists in every nation on te planet. Until women are given te same opportunities that men are, entire societies will be destined to perform below their true potentials. The greatest need of the hour is change of social attitude. Women are generally unable to give proper and quality time to households, kids and family. Working women generally face workplace sexual harassment, mental pressure and safety issues. Women face problems leaving kids at home and going to office early in the morning. People making particular perception or draw conclusion about characters of working women.

Recommendations And Suggestions
  • It can be suggested that government should monitor the implementation of judicial decisions on cases relating to injustice against women and ensure that victims have prompt access to effective remedies.
  • Organisations should have an internal code to ensure security of women's employees and take measures to ensure that they discharge their job in a secure atmosphere.

  • Governments should make it mandatory for companies to install Global Positioning System in vehicles carrying women, in all industries which engage women in night shifts. The directions and guidelines issued by the supreme court should be observed strictly and women should be aware of their rights.

  • There is a need to educate them through mass media, seminars, conferences, through adult education programmes and through trade union. Labour Department and Law Faculties can play an important role by publishing their rights through hand books , newspapers and through legal awareness.

  • Steps should be taken by the government to ensure that no exploitations of labour takes place. This will ho a long way in the upliftment of the standard of living of women workers in general.

  • It has been recommended that in fixing minimum wages, the basic minimum needs of workers and his/her family for sustenance should be kept in view so that the wage prescribed is a just wage.
  • There is also need, to do everything possible to increase women's employment opportunities and to raise their productive efficiency.

  • It is suggested that the workers are advised to follow the small size family plan.
  • To make labour legislations result oriented, infrastructural facilities need to be provided and strengthened.

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