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Pandemic-upheaval in education

Education is fundamental to sustainable development, it is a powerful driver of development and one of the strongest instruments to reducing poverty and improving health; it enable peoples to be more productive, to earn a better living and enjoy a better quality of life, also most importantly it develops a rational thinking, while also contributing to a country's overall economic growth. Education is critical for breaking the poverty cycle and its importance is reflected in the commitments of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EFA).

In the second week of March, state governments across the country began shutting down schools and colleges temporarily as a measure to contain the spread of the novel corona virus it is closed for a month and there is no clue when they get reopen. This is difficult time for all students in board exam, nursery school admission, entrance exam of various universities and competitive examinations, among others, are all held during this period.

As the days pass by with no immediate solution to stop the outbreak of Covid-19, school and university were closed many countries have implemented localized closures impacting millions of additional learners. UNESCO is supporting countries in their efforts to mitigate the immediate impact of school closures, particularly for more vulnerable and disadvantaged communities, and to facilitate the continuity of education for all through remote learning. The UNESCO report estimates that the corona virus pandemic will adversely impact over 290 million students across 22 countries. The UNESCO estimates that about 32 crores students are affected in India, including those in schools and colleges.

It not only effect a system of education but also effect a mental health of the students , they are preparing for different entrance examination which is going to held in month of May ,June but got postponed due to novel corona viruses which directly attack' the students mind.

Impact In School Education

The structure of schooling and learning, including teaching and assessment methodologies, was the first to be affected by these closures. Only a handful of private schools could adopt online teaching methods. Their low-income private and government school counterparts, on the other hand, have completely shut down for not having access to e-learning solutions. As we before this pandemic there were no such trending of online classes and our government never promoted this culture of education they only try to cover up book and class room form of education because of which this pandemic is the worst time for education.

Impact In Universities

As universities closed down almost overnight, the faculty and the administration were scrambling to put together some methodology to keep the semester going, online became the only recourse and all the hesitations were cast aside in a hurry. The initial weeks were arduous and onerous from both sides � the teachers and the students. Many instructors who prefer teaching using power-point slides, found this transition easier to handle.

Others preferred collaborative platforms like MS-Teams (formerly Skype Professional) or Zoom and many others that were mostly used as video chartrooms for both social and professional purposes. Others found tablets a good substitute for the blackboard, so much so that the sellers ran out of stock in no time. In all this, the internet has been put under tremendous pressure to provide the necessary bandwidth and much to the credit of its architects, it has withstood this test.

The inhibition surrounding these platforms may now disappear � although necessity is the mother of invention, commercial motivation is also a powerful driver. Indeed, there is now a strong lobby emerging that is advocating online instruction as a solution to many issues that traditional education is unable to address. The rationale is very similar to the benefits of distance education with the added advantage of technology providing easier solutions that didn't exist a decade ago. So, what seemed like a force majeure in the aftermath of COVID-19, may actually become a post-covid alternative and challenge the sacred cows of the (increasingly expensive) university education. There is also a realistic possibility that the post-Covid education may continue to gain momentum in an online mode, even after Corona has been vanquished!

Government Initiatives

Government has come up with e-learning program. Many edu-tech firms have tried to leverage the occasion by offering free online classes or attractive discounts on e-learning modules. These measures have been met with overwhelming response by students with some startups witnessing as high as 25% uptick in e-learning. Remote learning seems a viable solution to students during this time as they offer convenient, on -the- go and affordable access to lessons. E-learning also comes as an interesting and interactive alternative as compared to classroom teaching. Nevertheless, Covid-19 has prompted experts to rethink the conventional mode of education.

Digital education appears to be a viable solution to fill in the void for classroom education for a period of three to four months while minimizing the chances of any infection to students until classes resume. More importantly, it has also brought the hitherto peripheral issue of digital education in India to the centre stage. Going forward, digital education is likely to be integrated into mainstream education. This will enable inclusive education by facilitating learning across diverse geographies in India. Moreover, it will provide an opportunity for educators to come up with customized learning solutions for every student.

A complete revolution in the way we learn today has been brought about by Technology. Each student gets in contact with a world-class education, which is not easy to impart by the traditional white chalk and blackboard method of teaching. This new learning is more interesting, personalized and enjoyable. A massive open online course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.

India is considered to be the biggest market for MOOCs in the world after the USA. Since the population of India is huge, massive open online course (MOOC) is said to open gateways for a lot of Indians in terms of bringing an educational revolution. Online distant learning programs give a great opportunity to avail high-quality learning with the help of internet connectivity. So many different ways to define e-learning and the educational approaches that can be taken in these learning environments, many colleges and extra curriculum activity classes have started making use of the technology. Through applications such as Zoom, various colleges especially engineering and designing colleges which makes imparting of knowledge and learning

Challenged Faced By Students

  1. Unequal Access To Technology

    Lack of access to technology or fast, reliable internet access can prevent students in rural areas and from disadvantaged families. Lack of access to technology or good internet connectivity is an obstacle to continued learning, especially for students from disadvantaged families.

    In response to school closures caused by COVID-19, Universities recommends the use of distance learning programs and open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education. To aid in slowing the transmission of COVID-19, hundreds of libraries have temporarily closed. For students without internet at home, this increases the difficulty of keeping up with distance learning.
  2. Student Learning Outcome

    School closures negatively impact student learning outcomes. Schooling provides essential learning and when schools close, children and youth are deprived opportunities for growth and development. The disadvantages are disproportionate for under-privileged learners who tend to have fewer educational opportunities beyond school. When schools close, parents are often asked to facilitate the learning of children at home and can struggle to perform this task.

    This is especially true for parents with limited education and resources. Student drop-out rates tend to increase as an effect of school closures due to the challenge of ensuring all students return to school once school closures ends. This is especially true of protracted closures. Disadvantaged, at- risk, or homeless children are more likely not to return to school after the closures are ended, and the effect will often be a life-long disadvantage from lost opportunities. Schools are also hubs of social activity and human interaction. When schools are closed, many children and youth miss out of on social contact that is essential to learning and development.
  3. Anxiety Among Students

    Although the University Grants Commission and many universities have quickly decided to conduct classes and examinations online, its implementation in the country is not an easy task. Access to smart phones and the internet is still very limited. At the same time, it is undeniable that technology can play a big role in offering alternatives to regular academic activities, so one effect of this pandemic may well be to bring significant changes in the traditional education sector in regards with the use of technology as a tool for learning.

How administrators and teachers respond to this difficult time will decide the future. Because of postponing of exam and not clarify their doubts reading exam students face a mental health issue like anxiety and so on and Ban on online classes - violates right to education under article 21(A) of Indian constitution

The thought of skipping college and studying from home always sounds excited untill one consider the longistic. how exciting it feels to take classes at home spending time with family instead of rushing to college. Due to this pandemic country goes under the lockdown shifted all education into virtual mode. government has taking alot of intitative to promote e-learning , this suddenly sift in virtual mode of education face several challenges.

In a report issued by UNESCO on 21April noted that a half of the total number of learners some ,8.26million kept out of the classroom by covid-19 does not have access to household computer and 43% does not have internet connection.

National institutions of mental health and nervo science also discourage online education of LKG and UKG upto 5th standard was reyling on there reports and guidelines. With taken in view all these data karantaka government order ban on online classes class upto 5th. the department of primary and secondary education issued a government order. the department directed all the school across the state of all the boards to complete ban on online classes from nursery to class 5th. It also state that no fees shall be charged for this purpose many parents and guardians welcome their move, were as some not because they easily have internet access and their children has all the facilities which is needed in online classes.

A petition was filed by anumita Sharma and several others seeking to revoke the decision of ban on online classes in Karnataka High Court, while reading out interim order Cheif Justice abhay sreenivas oka and branch obessered that banning on online classes violates the article 21 , 21(A)of Indian constitution.

Article 21 of the Constitution of India states that �No person shall be deprived of his life or his personal liberty except according to a procedure established by law.� This right applies to every person and not just to citizens. The words �life� and �personal liberty� have been interpreted in a wide manner by the Supreme Court of India. Therefore Article 21 itself is a code of rights that captures the heart and soul of the Constitution by prioritizing the freedoms of an individual and protecting them from the might of the State.

We're as artcle 21 (A) in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article21(A), means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

On behalf of the State government pleader Vikram Huilgol told to the court that state is not denying the righ to education but some advisory need to be prepared some sought of regulation is required children cannot be allowed to sit before the screen for eight haur. Reference was made relying upon the NIMHAN's report which education from kindergarten upto 5th and also of Pragyata Guidelines issued by the Central Government.

�The World Health Organization (WHO) and American Academy of Pediatrics suggest that screen time should be one hour for children aged 2-5 years and two hours for others. However, this does not include interactive sessions for social or pedagogical purposes. This means a child should not watch cartoons for more than one hour, but he can chat with his grandparents,� said Gen Col Arjun Ray, CEO of Indus International Schools.

However, the court clarified that school authorities have no right to make online education compulsory for students or charge any extra fee for the same. �Our order should not be construed to mean that students who do not opt for online education should be deprived of their normal education as and when the schools are able to start education,�

The court added that the state government will have to take steps to ensure that those students not studying in �elite schools� and those in government schools were not deprived of education during this pandemic.

The government will have to create infrastructure to give education in such types of schools during this period, further bench said� Guidelines are read as a whole they does not intent to put an embargo on online learning; epically when there is a complete ban on opening of school till july 31.

Examine the readiness and choose the most relevant tools: Decide on the use high-technology and low-technology solutions based on the reliability of local power supplies, internet connectivity, and digital skills of teachers and students. This could range through integrated digital learning platforms, video lessons, MOOCs, to broadcasting through radios and TVs. Ensure inclusion of the distance learning programs, implement measures to ensure that students including those with disabilities or from low-income backgrounds have access to distance learning programs, if only a limited number of them have access to digital devices.

Consider temporarily decentralizing such devices from computer labs to families and support them with internet connectivity. Protect data privacy and data security: Assess data security when uploading data or educational resources to web spaces, as well as when sharing them with other organizations or individuals.

Ensure that the use of applications and platforms does not violate students' data privacy. Prioritize solutions to address psychosocial challenges before teaching: Mobilize available tools to connect schools, parents, teachers, and students with each other. Create communities to ensure regular human interactions, enable social caring measures, and address possible psychosocial challenges that students may face when they are isolated.

Plan the study schedule of the distance learning programs organize discussions with stakeholders to examine the possible duration of school closures and decide whether the distance learning program should focus on teaching new knowledge or enhance students' knowledge of prior lessons.

Plan the schedule depending on the situation of the affected zones, level of studies, needs of student's needs, and availability of parents. Choose the appropriate learning methodologies based on the status of school closures and home-based quarantines.

Avoid learning methodologies that require face-to-face communication. Provide support to teachers and parents on the use of digital tools organize brief training or orientation sessions for teachers and parents as well, if monitoring and facilitation are needed. Help teachers to prepare the basic settings such as solutions to the use of internet data if they are required to provide live streaming of lessons.

Blend appropriate approaches and limit the number of applications and platforms: Blend tools or media that are available for most students, both for synchronous communication and lessons, and for asynchronous learning. Avoid overloading students and parents by asking them to download and test too many applications or platforms. Develop distance learning rules and monitor students' learning process: Define the rules with parents and students on distance learning.

Design formative questions, tests, or exercises to monitor closely students' learning process. Try to use tools to support submission of students' feedback and avoid overloading parents by requesting them to scan and send students' feedback.

Define the duration of distance learning units based on students' self-regulation skills: Keep a coherent timing according to the level of the students' self-regulation and met cognitive abilities especially for live streaming classes. Preferably, the unit for primary school students should not be more than 20 minutes and no longer than 40 minutes for secondary school students.

Create communities and enhance connection: Create communities of teachers, parents, and school managers to address sense of loneliness or helplessness, facilitate sharing of experience and discussion on coping strategies when facing learning difficulties. And UGC give clear guidelines reading exam of all undergraduate, postgraduate student so that students has a clear vision.

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