Article 226 of Constitution of India confers a power of judicial review on all
the High Courts of India. It enables them to issue to any person or authority,
including in appropriate cases any Government, Directions, Orders or Writs,
including Writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo
Warranto and Certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by
Part III of Constitution of India and for any other purpose, i. e for the
enforcement of any other legal right. The power conferred on the High Court
under Article 226 (1) of Constitution of India can, in a proper case, be
exercised even against the legislature.
The five Writs specifically mentioned in Article 226 of Constitution of India
are known in English Law as prerogative Writs, for they had originated in the
King's prerogative power of superintendence over the due observance of law by
his Officers and Tribunals. The prerogative Writs are extraordinary remedies
intended to be applied in exceptional cases in which ordinary legal remedies are
Article 226 Before Its Amendment
Firstly, the legislative history of Article 226 of Constitution of India is
required to be examined. It originally read thus:
226. (1) Notwithstanding anything in Article 32, every High Court shall have
power, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction
to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases any
Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including
writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and
certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred
by part III and for any other purpose.
(2) The power conferred on a High Court by Clause (1) shall not be in derogation
of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by Clause (2) of Article 32.
Khajoor Singh Judgment And Amendment
Interpreting this Article 226, as it stood then, the Supreme Court in Lt.
Col. Khajoor Singh Vs Union of India, AIR 1961 SC 532, held that there is
two-fold limitation on the power of the High Court to issue Writ under Article
226 of Constitution of India, namely:
- the power is to be exercised 'throughout the territories in relation to
which it exercises jurisdiction', that is to say, the Writs issued by the
Court cannot run beyond the territories subject to its jurisdiction, and
- the person or authority to whom the High Court is empowered to issue
such Writs must be ``within those territories'` which clearly implies that
they must be amenable to its jurisdiction either by residence or location
within those territories.
The Court, in Khajoor Singh further held that the place where the cause of
action arose had no relevance for determining the territorial jurisdiction of
the High Court. This ruling made the Parliament to amend Article 226 (2) which
reads as follows (15th Amendment to the Constitution of India introduced Clause
(1-A) to Article 226 which was subsequently renumbered as Clause (2) by the
Constitution 42nd Amendment):
226 (2): The power conferred by Clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs
to any Government authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court
exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of
action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such
power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the
residence of such person is not within those territories.
Delhi HC's Illustration Of Scope Of Amended Article 226
Justice Badar Durrez Ahmed of Delhi High Court in Jayaswals Neco Limited
Union of India, illustrated the effect of this amendment by giving a simple
The Judge further explains:
An explanation of the above table is necessary. For the purpose of demonstrating
the territorial jurisdiction of two High Courts in State A and State B,
there are four possible situations which have been set out in the table above.
At S. No. 1, the person, authority or government to whom the writ is to be
issued is located in State A. The cause of action has also arisen in whole or
in part in State A.
Therefore, it is the High Court of State A alone which
has jurisdiction both under Article 226 (1) as well as under Article 226 (2). In
the case of S. No.2, the person, authority or government is located in State
A, but the cause of action has arisen (in whole or in part) in State B, the
territorial jurisdiction for the filing of a writ petition would lie both with
the High Court of State A and of State B. The High Court of State A would
have jurisdiction by virtue of Article 226 (1) inasmuch as the location of the
person, authority or government to whom the writ is to be issued is within that
The High Court of State B would have jurisdiction because, although the
location of the person, authority or government is in State A, the cause of
action (in whole or in part) has arisen in State B. The next case is given
under S. No. 3. Here the location of the person, authority or government is in
State B, but the cause of action has arisen in State A. In such a situation,
both the High Courts of State A and B would have jurisdiction. But the High
Court of State A would have jurisdiction under Article 226 (2) on account of
cause of action and the High Court of State B would have jurisdiction by
virtue of Article 226 (1) on account of location. Lastly, at S. No. 4 is a case
which is the inverse of the situation in S. No.1, both the location and the
cause of action arise in State B.
Therefore, it would be the High Court of
State B alone which would have jurisdiction to entertain the writ petition
both under Article 226 (1) and 226 (2).. This clarifies the position with regard
to the territorial jurisdiction of a High Court in respect of a writ petition.
The Judge also referred to the Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the
Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Bill, 1962, which read as follows:
Under the existing Article 226 of the Constitution, the only High Court which
has jurisdiction with respect to the Central Government is the Punjab High
This involves considerable hardship to litigants from distant places. It is,
therefore, proposed to amend Article 226 so that when any relief is sought
against any Government, authority or person for any action taken, the High Court
within whose jurisdiction the cause of action arise may also have jurisdiction
to issue appropriate directions, orders or writs.
The Judge observed:
The crucial words are only and may also. The object was not to take away the
jurisdiction of the High Court's which they had prior to the introduction of the
amendment but, to enable other High Courts to also have jurisdiction provided
the cause of action arose within their normal jurisdictional precincts.
[Supreme Court of India in Alchemist Limited Vs State Bank of Sikkim, (2007)
11 SCC 23] observed that the effect of the amendment was that the accrual of
cause of action was made an additional ground to confer jurisdiction on a High
Court under Article 226 of the Constitution. It observed thus:
The legislative history of the constitutional provisions, therefore, make it
clear that after 1963, cause of action is relevant and germane and a Writ
Petition can be instituted in a High Court within the territorial jurisdiction
of which cause of action in whole or in part arises.
What is Cause of Action?
In the restricted sense cause of action means the circumstances forming the
infraction of the right or the immediate occasion for the reaction. In the wider
sense, it means the necessary conditions for the maintenance of the suit,
including not only the infraction of the right, but also the infraction coupled
with the right itself. Cause of Action can be defined as every fact, which it
would be necessary for the plaintiff to prove, if traversed, in order to support
his right to the judgment of the court. Every fact, which is necessary to be
proved, as distinguished from every piece of evidence, which is necessary to
prove each fact, comprises in cause of action. Cause of action implies a right
to sue. [Om Parkash Srivastava v/s Union of India & Anr,, (2006) 6 SCC 207].
In [Oil & Natural Gas Commission v/s Utpal Kumar Basu & Ors., (1994) 4 SCC
711], it was observed that in determining the objection of lack of territorial
jurisdiction the Court must take all the facts pleaded in support of the cause
of action into consideration albeit without embarking upon an enquiry as to the
correctness or otherwise of the said facts. In other words the question whether
a High Court has territorial jurisdiction to entertain a writ petition must be
answered on the basis of the averments made in the petition, the truth or
otherwise whereof immaterial. To put it differently, the question of territorial
jurisdiction must be decided on the facts pleaded in the petition.
Some Case Laws
Let us look at some case laws, which illustrate the application of Article 226
(2) of Constitution of India.
[C.B.I. Anti - Corruption Branch Vs. Narayan Diwakar, AIR 1999 SC 2362]
Narayan Diwakar was an Officer of the Indian Administrative Service, who was
officiating as Collector of Daman and then transferred to Arunachal Pradesh.
Even prior to the transfer, three First Information Reports were lodged by the
Central Bureau of Investigation, at Bombay. The Superintendent of Police, CBI,
Anti - Corruption Bureau, Bombay, issued a wireless message to the Chief
Secretary, Arunachal Pradesh to advise the IAS Officer to meet the Inspector of
Police, CBI, ACB, Bombay, in connection with the investigation of one of the
FIRs. The IAS Officer challenged the same before the High Court at Gauhati,
which invoked its jurisdiction under Art.226 (2) and quashed the summons. The
Supreme Court held that the Gauhati High Court was clearly in error in deciding
the question of jurisdiction in favour of the officer.
Reading of an advertisement in a place will not give rise to cause of action
In [Oil & Natural Gas commission Vs. Utpal Kumar Basu & Ors, (1994) 4 SCC
711], ONGC brought out an advertisement calling for tenders to set up a Kerosene
Recovery Processing Unit at Hazira Complex in Gujarat. The respondent, based in
Calcutta, came to know of the floating of such tender from a newspaper
circulated within the Territorial jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court;
applied for the same and later on being denied of consideration, approached the
Calcutta High Court against the grant sought to be made in favour of another
tenderer. Assuming jurisdiction, the High Court passed an order in favour of the
Petitioner, which was challenged by the ONGC before the Supreme Court.
The SC held that the fact that the advertisement was read in Calcutta and that
the tender and related messages were sent from Calcutta were found to be
irrelevant insofar as considering the issue raised in the lis.
The Apex Court expressed the view that none of the facts pleaded to invoke the
jurisdiction constituted facts forming an integral part of the cause of action.
Facts having no bearing on the dispute are not part of cause of action.
In [Union of India Vs. Adani Exports, (2002) 1 SCC 567], Adani Exports
Ltd invoked the jurisdiction of the Gujarat High Court, claiming the benefit of
a Scheme introduced under the Import Export Policy on grounds that they carried
on the business from Ahmedabad.
The SC held that each and every fact pleaded in an application does not ipso
facto lead to a conclusion that those facts give rise to a cause of action
unless those facts are facts which have a nexus or relevance with the lis
involved in the case.
Facts which have no bearing with the lis or the dispute involved in the
case, do not give rise to a cause of action so as to confer Territorial
jurisdiction on the Court concerned, the SC held.
Jurisdiction of HC cannot be invoked by challenging constitutionality of a
statute in vacuum.
In [Kusum Ingots & Alloys Ltd. Vs. Union of India, (2004) 6 SCC 254], a
Company having its Registered Office at Mumbai, obtained a loan from Bhopal and
challenged the vires of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial
Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (for short SARFAESI Act)
before the Delhi High Court when proceedings were taken by the creditor Bank
under the said Act. The jurisdiction of the Delhi High Court was invoked on the
ground that the seat of the Union Government was in Delhi and the High Court of
Delhi has the requisite jurisdiction. The Supreme Court found that the
jurisdiction of a High Court cannot be invoked to determine a Constitutional
question in a vacuum and the same has to be agitated before the High Court,
within whose Territorial jurisdiction, the injury was occasioned.
[Nawal Kishore Vs Union of India, (2014) 9 SCC 329]
In this case, the appellant was a seaman, registered as such by the Department
of Shipping, Government of India, at Mumbai. He was declared unfit for sea
faring activities due to his heart condition and his registration was cancelled.
On being so discharged, the appellant settled down at his native place, within
the State of Bihar, and made representations raising financial claims, as per
the statutory provisions and the terms of the contract.
compensation claim was answered by the Official Respondents pointing out his
entitlement to severance compensation; but declining any disability
compensation, as such, which, according to the Official Respondents, was an
entitlement to persons who were disabled in the course of seafaring activities.
The dismissal of the Writ Petition by the High Court of Patna was found to be
bad, on the specific facts arising in the aforesaid case.
Cause of action arises at the place where order is passed.
In Kusum Ingots, the SC also held that cause of action arises at the
place where the order was passed.
When an order, however, is passed by a Court or Tribunal or an executive
authority whether under provisions of a Statute or otherwise, a part of cause of
action arises at that place. Even in a given case, when the original authority
is constituted at one place and the Appellate Authority is constituted at
another, a writ petition would be maintainable at both the places. In other
words, as order of the Appellate Authority constitutes a part of cause of
action, a writ petition would be maintainable in the High Court within whose
jurisdiction it is situate having regard to the fact that the order of the
Appellate Authority is also required to be set aside and as the order of the
original authority merges with that of the Appellate Authority.
Mere service of order not a part of cause of action
J&K High Court in [Atal Bihari Vs Union of India & Ors., 2008 (1) JKJ
53] while following the law laid down by various judgments of Hon'ble Supreme
Court of India including that of [State of Rajasthan Vs Swaika Properties,
(1985) 3 SCC 217] holding that a mere communication of a notice would not give
rise to any cause of action unless service is notice was integral part of cause
of action. Likewise in [Aligarh Muslim University Vs Vinay Engineering
Enterprises (P) Limited, (1994) 4 SCC 710 and [National Textile
Corporation Ltd. Vs Haribox Sawalram & Ors., JT 2004 (4) SC 508], it has
been observed that mere fact that the writ petitioner received reply to the
correspondence made by it at Calcutta would not constitute the integral part of
cause of action, therefore, Calcutta High Court did not have the jurisdiction to
maintain the writ petition. In case of [Union of India Vs Adani Exports Ltd.
& Anr., AIR 2002 SC 126], similar question arose which was answered in the
same manner holding that entire facts pleaded in support don't give rise to
cause of action as within court's territorial jurisdiction.
A Full Bench of the High Court of Kerala held that mere service of order at a
place is not sufficient to give rise to cause of action for assuming territorial
jurisdiction under Article 226 (2) of Constitution of India. [Registrar,
Indian Maritime University Vs Dr. K. G. Vishwanathan & Anr., 2014 (4) KHC
The Full Bench overruled the view expressed by a Division Bench in Writ Petition
No. 1549 of 2006 titled [Selvin Abraham Vs Punjab and Sind Bank,
decided on 28.06.2013] that service of notice of dismissal is an integral part
of cause of action.
Written by: Dinesh Singh Chauhan, Advocate, J&K High Court of Judicature,
Email: [email protected], [email protected]