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Gender Equality and Violence against Women

A Legal Framework Is Necessary For A Social Change In Which Women Have Equal Rights With Men. - Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Gender Equality is a basic Human Right in India for all genders. Gender is a socially constructed role and responsibilities distributed by our Society on the basis of male and female that leads to inequality. Gender equality denotes equal power and opportunities for each and every person in India, but girls and boys are mainly seeing a gender inequality in their communities and at home. Due to inequality, violence against women is increasing day by day on the bases of discrimination.

Violence against women and girl is a vital issue on a worldwide scale. Violence against women is not only based on gender discrimination but is also a consequence of it. Gender related killing is the main issue that started firstly on the gender based inequality.

Violence against women and threat of the violence by community and home is the main barrier to equal participation in society and women empowerment. Violence against women is a type of discrimination and a human Right Violation.

One of the most extreme violence against women is based on gender killing violence which is very harsh. India secured 133 rank out of 167 countries in women, peace and security Index. Georgetown University's Institute has been released its second report on Women, Peace, and Security Index.

Different Types Of Violence Against Women And Girls

Violence against women faces many problem in the world. Violence against women and girls includes child marriage, Domestic Violence, Dowry related violence, Sexual Harassment, Rape, including marital rape and Gang Rape, women and Girl trafficking and prostitution.

Different forms of violence which is experienced by women in committee from PreBirth to old age:

  1. Pre Birth- started from gender related abortion, effects of battering during pregnancy in the outcome of delivery
  2. Infancy - Female infanticide, emotional, sexual and physical abuse, difference in giving food and health care
  3. Girlhood- Child Marriage, sexual abuse and psychologicalabuse by family, relatives and strangers, child prostitution and pornography.
  4. Adolescence Age- economical persuasion for sex, sexual abuse in workplace and public place, sexual harassment, marital rape, rape, forced for prostitution and pornography,coerced for pregnancy.
  5. Reproductive age- Abuse by male partners, marital rape; dowry violence; partner homicide; Murder, psychologically abuse; sexually abuse in the workplace; sexual harassment; rape; forced for prostitution and pornography and trafficking.
  6. Older Age- Sexually, psychologically and physically abuse.

All violence have a long term effect on life but some types of violence are especially likely to have long term implication in the life of girls and women.

For example:
Sexual abuse during childhood leads to complication in pregnancy and at the time of delivery, and violence during childhood and adolescent age can increase the risk of depression that leads to suicide. Many of the physical injuries and mental depression by violence which endures and imposes a burden on a women throughout their lives. After marriage, there is an extentended amount of risk of violence started in their family where her husband, and in laws and relatives tortured, assault, marital rape, sexual Harassment or killed.

Global report on violence against women:

  • Physically and sexually intimate by partner violence 28.8%
  • In last 12th month 22 percent
  • Child marriage 27.3%

According to the report of world health organization, 35 percent of women and girls in world have experienced physically and sexually intimate by partner violence or non partner physically and sexually violence in their lifetime.

According to data released by National Crime Record Bureau total reported incidents of rape were 33,356 in the year 2018 in India, and according to report every fourth victim was a Minor. That means one rape case was reported every 15 minutes in India in 2018. These are the reported cases. There are so many cases which have not reported.

Domestic Violence Revealed

Domestic violence is a violence which mainly occurs in family. It is always experienced that there is a close relationship between the victim and the offender who commits crime. It contains emotional abuse, physical and sexual violence that leads to depression then suicide. Although domestic violence involve both man as well as a women as offender or victim. But here we are focusing in the violence against women. Today, 49 countries do not have the laws on the Domestic Violence. But India made a law for protection of the life of women who suffered from Domestic Violence which is Protection of Women from Domestic Violence act 2005.

Laws For Women In India From Safety Of Violence

  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
  • The Dowry prohibition Act, 1961 (28 of 1961) which is (Amended 1986)
  • The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
  • Protection of Violence from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
  • The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition And Redressal) Act, 2013
  • The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2013

Violence against women is the one of the vital problems in India. Women do not take a step and speak about the violence because of the fear, shame in the public. Threat of Violence against women is the main barrier to equal participation in society and women Empowerment.

This article looks at the different types of violence against women. Dr. BR Ambedkar, a social visionary gives an appropriate rights to women in the constitution and also some specific laws were made to stop violence against women but still women and girls are deprived of their rights due to the lack of the proper education and Women Empowerment.

In the case of violence against women it manifests itself in various forms and lot of preventive, curative measures are required, both immediate and long term. The continuing pressing issue of women's rights violation needs a broad response and aimed at changing the mindset of individual person and for the development of public policy. States have obligations for women to Protect, Respect and fulfill rights of women life free of violence.

Written By: Anvesha Gupta, NLUJA, Assam

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