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History, Purpose And Types Of Punishments Given To Criminals

Punishment, History, Purpose, And Types Of Punishment

  • The concept of punishment in its formation is now recognized to be an integral revengeful practice, whatever may be the additional role of revenge as reasoning or objective of punishment. An abundant validation of punishment would continue by presenting that society wants the hazard. The exercise of punishment since the aim of social edict cannot be reached or else because it is practical to assume suffers from illegal violent behavior to tolerate the cost of the unfair treatment.
  • Restraints in the use of vulnerable punishments are essential, given how consultant and supremacy can be mistreated. In the dictionary meaning, the term "Punish" means to make someone suffer for a crime or for an unlawful activity of the imposition of penalty as punishment for an offense.
  • In criminal law, "Punishment" means any pain, penalty, suffering inflicted upon a person by the authority of law and the sentence of the court for some crime committed by him or for his exclusion of a duty enjoyed by a law. It maintains the law and orders which safeguards the person and the property. The culprit abstain from wrongdoing for the fright of punishment and therefore, punishment and law are indivisible.
  • The concept of the punishment also recognized from the time being of Dharma shastra. In the Hindu shastras, the king had the superiority to penalize the wrongdoer or law � breaker and protects the law followers. As we recall our past, death sentence was given for a very small offenses but it has been awarded only in the "Rare Case".

Types of Punishment:

Capital Punishment:
  1. Stoning:
  2. Pillory:
  3. Crushing:
  4. Blowing from a gun:
  5. Capital Punishment by hanging:
  6. Mutilation:
  7. Branding:
  8. Other type of punishment:

Punishments in History

  • Stoning:
    • Stoning the criminals to death is also known to have been in practice during the medieval period. This mode of sentencing the offender is still in practice in some of the Islamic countries like Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, etc.
    • The offenders involved in sex crimes are generally punished with this type of punishment.
    • The accused person is made to stand in a small trench dug in the ground and the people surround him from all sides pelt stones on him until he dies.
  • Pillory:
    • This type of punishment was in practice till the 19th century. The criminal was made to stand with his hands and head locked in an iron frame so that he could not move his body.
    • Pillory is a wooden frame with holes for inserting the head and hands of the criminal. The system of pillory existed in slightly different forms during the Mughal rule in India.
    • Hardened criminals and dangerous offenders were nailed to walls and shot or stoned to death.
  • Crushing:
    • This is an ancient form of execution used in India, Indonesia, Burma, etc.
    • Criminals were crushed using elephants or horses.
  • Blowing from a gun:
    • This method involved tying the victim to the mouth of a cannon, which was then fired.
    • Reported as a means of execution since the 16th century, associated with the colonial government of British Raj.
  • Capital Punishment by hanging:
    • One of the most common methods of execution, still used in many countries, usually with a calculated drop to cause neck fracture and instant loss of consciousness.
  • Mutilation:
    • This mode of punishment involved separating a limb or organ to maim and make imperfect.
    • Known to have been in practice in ancient India during the Hindu period and in several European countries.
    • Considered more painful than capital punishment and has been discarded in modern times due to its barbaric nature.
  • Branding:
    • Branding of prisoners was commonly used in oriental and classical societies.
    • Roman, English, and American penal laws supported this mode of punishment, where criminals were branded with marks on the forehead for identification and public ridicule.
    • Now abolished with the advent of humanitarianism in penology.

Types of Punishment under IPC

  • Section 53 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 enumerates different punishments which the court may award to a person convicted for a crime:
  • Death Penalty
  • Imprisonment for life
  • Imprisonment, either rigorous or simple
  • Forfeiture of property
  • Fine

Criminal Rehabilitation

  • Criminal rehabilitation includes therapy and education programs for criminals during or after prison life.
  • Instead of punishment, they are taught how to live a better life and become productive members of society.
  • Disciplinary infractions may result in corporal punishments within certain systems.

Types of punishment under IPC:
  • Section 53 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 enumerates the different punishments which the court may award to a person convicted for a crime:
  • Death Penalty
  • Imprisonment for life
  • Imprisonment which is of either description: Rigorous or simple
  • Forfeiture of property
  • Fine
Criminal Rehabilitation includes the therapy and education programs for criminals in prison life or outside the prison. Instead of punishment, they are taught how to love a better life. It is an attempt to change an individual's attitude and behavior. There are programs that are to prevent habitual offenders, help a criminal get to their normal state of mind and not to be punishing for their action that may cause the criminal to change and become an outstanding citizen that follows the rules instead of the individual getting out and committing another crime. The approach was later transformed into one of discipline and labor, also performed in silence. Through hard work and a strict disciplinary regime, prisoners were meant to mediate over why they chose a criminal path in order to amend their ways. Disciplinary infractions were met with corporal punishments.

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