The Arbitration & Conciliation Act, 1996 (Principal Act) was amended by way
of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015 (Amendment Act) with
effect from 23 October, 2015. These amendments brought many significant changes
to facilitate vigorous growth of Arbitration in India.
One of these changes, was
amendment to section 36 of the Act, the effect whereof was the removal of
automatic stay in execution of the Arbitral award as under the old section, if
an application under section 34 was filed, the arbitral award could only be
enforced when the said application was refused.
Soon after the amendment came into force, the courts across the country were
confronted with the question whether Section 36, as substituted by the Amendment
Act, 2015 would apply in its amended form or original form to the pending
appeals instituted under Section 34 before the date of amendment, i.e.
This led to several conflicting views on the issue by High courts that variously
- That the Amending Act applies to court proceedings commenced before the
Amending Act came into force.
- That the Amending Act does not apply to court proceedings commenced
before the Amending Act came into force.
- That the Amending Act does not apply to court proceedings related to
arbitrations that commenced before the Amending Act came into force.
Thereafter, the Hon'ble Supreme Court in Board
of Cricket in India v. Kochi Cricket Pvt. Ltd. And Ors.
was called upon
to interpret section 26 of the Amendment Act which reads as follows:
Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the arbitral proceedings
commenced, in accordance with the provisions of section 21 of the principal Act,
before the commencement of this Act unless the parties otherwise agree but this
Act shall apply in relation to arbitral proceedings commenced on or after the
date of commencement of this Act.¯ [Emphasis supplied]
The Supreme Court observed that section 26 is divided into two parts and held
that first part refers to the Amendment Act not applying to certain proceedings,
whereas the second part affirmatively applying to certain proceedings.
observed that in the first part of the section 26, the arbitral proceedings¯
and their commencement is mentioned in the context of section 21 of the
Principal Act and that the expression used is to¯ and not in relation to¯. The
court held that the expression the arbitral proceedings¯ in the first part of
Section 26 refers only to proceedings before an arbitral tribunal and not court
The court also relied on the statutory scheme apparent from heading
of Chapter V of the Principal Act titled Conduct of Arbitral Proceedings¯ which
only deals with the proceedings before the arbitral tribunal and not before
court. Further, the court held that since conduct of arbitral proceedings is
largely procedural, that is the reason, that in the first part of the section, a
discretion has been given to the parties, if they agree otherwise.
Regarding the second part, the Court observed that the expression in relation
to¯ is used instead and the expressions the arbitral proceedings¯ and in
accordance with the provisions of Section 21 of the principal Act¯ are absent
which shows that the second part is not controlled by Section 21, and applies
only to court proceedings that are in relation to¯ arbitral proceedings.
Thus, the Apex court concluded that the Amendment Act is prospective in nature
and will apply (a) to arbitral proceedings which have commenced on or after
October 23, 2015 and (b) to court proceedings which have commenced on or after
October 23, 2015.
Applicability of The Amended Arbitration Act To Section 36 Proceeding:
Though, the court held the Amending Act, 2015 to be prospective in nature, it
took a different view on applicability of amended Section 36 to Section 34
petitions filed before commencement of the Amendment Act.
The court held such proceedings under section 36 to be retrospective in nature
due to the following reasons:
- Firstly, Enforcement¯ and Execution¯ are different concepts, Enforcement¯
being substantive and Execution¯ being procedural in nature. Section 36 refers
to execution of an award as if it were a decree attracting the provisions of
Order XXI and Order LXI, Rule 5 of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 and would,
therefore, be a provision dealing with execution of arbitral awards.
- As execution of a decree pertains to the realm of procedure, and that
there is no substantive vested right in an award debtor to resist execution.
- The words has been¯ used in Section 36(2) in relation to filing of petition
under Section 34 of the Act will be a factor suggesting that petitions under
Section 36 post the Amendment Act will also be governed by the amended
- Also, the court proceedings in relation to arbitral proceedings are
independent from arbitral proceedings and would not be viewed as a
continuation of arbitral proceedings.
- That, the automatic stay on execution under the old Act acted as only a
procedural clog on the right of the decree holder, who could not execute the
award in his favour unless the conditions under the (old) Section 36 were met.
This does not imply that there was a corresponding right in the award debtor to
stay the execution of an award.
- Court was of the opinion that grant of automatic stay under the earlier
regime was unfair and defeated the purpose of alternate dispute resolution
Hence, considering an earlier judgment in National Aluminium Company Ltd. v.
Pressteel & Fabrications (P) Ltd. and Anr
5 which was also referred to in the
246th Law Commission Report, wherein it had been recommended that the erstwhile
Section 36 be substituted, as the automatic suspension of the execution of the
award when an application challenging the award is filed, defeated the objective
of the alternate dispute resolution system; held the retrospective applicability
of section 36, as substituted, is found to be in line with the statement of
objects and reasons for the Amendment Act.
Amendment Act will be applicable to arbitral proceedings and court
proceedings only if they commence after the Amendment Act came into force i.e.
after 23 October 2015.
Certain provisions in the Amendment Act may effectively have retrospective
operation, depending on the nature and effect of the provision in question viz.
Through this judgment, the judiciary has clearly signalled its commitment to
take a pro-arbitration and pro-enforcement approach which ensures a radiant
future of Arbitration Dispute Resolution in the country.