Fertility Services Regulation Needs Re and New Thinking
- A brief study on Assisted Reproductive Technology and its legal
regulations in India
“As the family goes, so goes the nation and so goes the whole world in which
we live.” -John Paul II
The above statement can be considered as a universal fact. In other words, one
can say that every single family in every nation contributes collectively to
make this world go on and on. The human race has evolved in many different ways
spanning a time period of thousands of years but the urge to procreate has not
changed. Humans are probably only species to maintain lifelong contact with
their children and no matter what they don’t let go of that emotion. So it is
natural that when men start his family the urge to have children is natural.
The desire to procreate is a very fundamental attribute of the human race.It
will not be possible to say of those families who cannot chip in or a couple who
cannot become parents. In medical terminology, the incapacity to have own child
is known as Infertility. Infertility, though not life threatening, causes
intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile
couples themselves.Sadly, many are denied the joy of parenthood due to
several reasons like biological, medical or otherwise.
For families facing infertility, decisions about family building become complex.
In previous days people were forced to undergo for adoption, but infertility has
traditionally been an area of medicine and because of advancement in science
physicians got a chance to help their patients, in them, one of the way to have
biologically related child by infertile couple through medical intervention is
‘Assisted Reproductive Technology’ (ART). In present society this technology is
famous as ‘test tube baby technology’.
One of the most important advantages in ART is, through ART people may have
genetic relation with their child. In case of adoption children may or may not
be genetically related to the adoptive parents.
Definition of ART:
Assisted Reproductive technology (ART) has been defined under the ART
(regulation) Bill (in India) as “assisted reproductive technology”, with its
grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means all techniques that
attempt to obtain a pregnancy by handling or manipulating the sperm or the
oocyte outside the human body and transferring the gamete or the embryo into the
reproductive tract of a woman.
Origin of ART:
Although it is generally perceived that assisted reproductive technology (ART)
is a recent development, the practice of artificial insemination became common
in the mid twentieth century. The first known example of artificial insemination
dated as far back as 1785 and was conducted by a Scottish surgeon, John
Hunter.But ART was popularized in the year 1978.On 25thJuly 1978, world’s
first human test tube baby Louise Joy Brown was born at Oldham General
Hospital in England. Architects were Robert Edward and Patrick Steptoe.
Officially it was the beginning of ART in the world. By the birth of Louise
Brown, the world celebrated the start of a new era of assisted human
reproductive technology. Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2010
for his efforts.
Origin of ART in India:
The world’s second and India’s first IVF baby Kanupriya Agarwalalias Durga, was
born in Calcutta on 3rdOctober 1978, about two months after the world’s first
IVF baby, Louise Brown. This was achieved by the Great scientist and Creator of
the India’s first (in fact unofficial) test-tube baby, Dr. Subhash Mukhopadhyay. In
this research Mukhopadhyay was assisted by Sunit Mukherji and S.K.
Eight years after the birth of 'Durga', India's second Test-tube baby
(officially first) Harsha Chawda was born at the state run hospital K.E.M.
Hospital in Mumbai on 6thAugust 1986.Some records say that Harsha is the
'first' Test-tube baby because of the controversy involving around Durga’s
birth.Baby Harsha created by Dr T.C. Anand Kumar, a reproductive biologist,
with his team. He is known for having created India’s first test-tube baby
(officially). However after baby Harsh’s birth, the field of assisted
reproduction has been developed rapidly in our India with newer techniques,
modifications of existing ones and new approaches. In fact ART is a field that
is dynamic and ever changing.
There are many different types of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART's)
available today; they are IVF, GIFT, ZIFT,ICSI, Donor eggs or sperm and more
importantlySurrogacy.Surrogacy is not a technique, but an
arrangement;it is also included under the umbrella term of ART.ART
technology is commonly known as ‘test tube baby technology’.For the most
part, ARTs do not treat the biological problems that give rise to infertility
but circumvent them—most ARTs offer ways to create children despite underlying
fertility problems. More importantly, ARTs sometimes require the use of
reproductive resources—sperm, eggs, or wombs—from third parties who are not
expected to play a role in raising the resulting children.
Regulation of ART:
No doubt assisted reproduction is a great scientific achievement and has been
giving hope to millions of couples suffering from infertility but one has to
agree that each and every issue has its own merits and demerits which are
inevitable. So in the case of ART also there are number of problematic issues
which have been raising numerous controversies regarding ethical, legal, social,
health etc questions, that society must address in which the lion share is
occupied by legal as well as ethical issues. Over time, in response to these
issues some governments in industrialized countries moved towards regulating ART
services. Stricter legislations to limit patients’ access to treatment in
various ways like ban or limited certain procedures (such as prohibition of
multiple embryos implantation etc), excluded some patients from treatment (older
women, lesbians and gay men, single women or men), restrictions on eggs, sperm
donation and on surrogacy arrangements etc.
Internationally there are two main different approaches to the regulation of
ART. Some countries such as the UK, Germany and most of Scandinavia have passed
laws covering most of the aspects of ART. Many other countries such as the USA
have fewer laws in this area, and the regulation of fertility treatments is
overseen by professional bodies. There is much debate in the field of assisted
reproduction as to where the balance should lie between professional standard
setting and legislation.Unfortunately, even India also not provided
statutory regulations up to now.
In India since 2002, ART has been recognized as infertility treatment under the
Government of India Ministry of Tourism Policy.In the year 2005 for the
first time Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and National Academy of
Medical Sciences (NAMS) by the order of the Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare, Government of India, have come out with National Guidelines
for accreditation, supervision and regulation of ART clinics in India, which are
non-statutory provisions.After this, in the year 2009, 18th Law commission
also submitted its 228threport on ‘Need for legislation to regulate assisted
reproductive technology clinics as well as rights and obligations of parties to
In the year 2012 government of India limited surrogacy to some kind of
foreigners.Very recently in hurried move government released information to
the press that it looks for disallowing commercial surrogacy for foreign
nationals. Also, ICMR sent out the notification to all ART Clinics
on27thOctober 2015requesting them not to “entertain” foreign nationals for
surrogacy arrangements in India.This step taken by the government in
response to a Public interest litigation petitionfiled by Jayashree Wad, an
advocate on record in Supreme Court impleading herself in the Jan Balaz Case(German
Couple’s Case) and requested the court to ban commercial surrogacy. More over a
group of Indian cabinet Ministers on 25thAugust, 2016 approved a new surrogacy
bill 2016 and gave its green signal to the bill to introduce in
Parliament,which aim to prohibit total commercial surrogacy even for
Indians. Present Minister for External Affairs Sushma Swaraj said that “this new
bill aimedto ban commercial surrogacy. More over only Indian nationals will be
allowed for altruistic surrogacy. Foreign nationals or even NRI or OIC will not
be allowed. And only married couples will allow opting of surrogacy that means
Gay, single, live-in couples are not allowed”.
In fact all these are non statutory provisions, though Indian legislature
drafted ART regulation bill in the year 2008, 2010, 2013 thereafter, very
recently in the year 2014. The struggle for enacting proper law did not come
true even today. The ART Bill 2014 circulated or placed in the public domain for
discussion, comment or opinion.
Moreover, recently the Health Ministry proposed the draft Surrogacy Bill, 2016
aims at regulating commissioning of surrogacy in the country in a proper
manner,with lots of restrictions on receiving surrogacy. Like aboveIndian
government, came out with a draft bill on Assisted Reproductive Technology
(Regulation) Bill and Rules 2008, which later replaced by 2010, 2013 and 2014
bills. But up to now (2018) the struggle for statutory regulation regarding ART
was not fulfill in India.
ART services development in India has been creating numerous ethical,
economical, social and legal controversies. Here more importantly offering ART
by Indian people and clinics to foreigners pawed the way for commidification of
motherhood and miss use of technology for exploitation of poor women. In this
circumstance Hon’ble Supreme Court and Hon’ble High courts had interpreted the
ART regulations, ancillary issues relation to it and its goals in an appreciable
manner through innovative interpretations in many cases from 2008Baby Manji
Yamada caseto very recently Jayashree Wad PILCase.
Form the above discussion one can understand that whenever the choice occurred
to the judiciary to pronounce judgment regarding the ART regulation and
incidentally had relation to ART services like surrogacy it had done its best to
protect the goals of the ART regulation and interest of the country.
The Supreme Court has not only made the fundamental rights and directive
principles real and effective, but has also expanded the scope of several
fundamental rights by its pronouncements and has evolved new human rights
jurisprudence in India by adding reproductive rights. It has undergone a radical
change in the last few years and it is now increasingly being identified by
justices as well as by people as “the last resort for the purpose of the
It is the fact that the implementation of the ART regulations in strict manner
by the administrative is not happening in reality even after the Apex Court of
India had issued several guild lines. Finally, one has to agree that without a
full pledged legislation to deal with ART services it is very difficult to
courts to tackle issues has been rising by ART.
Ethical Concern in ART:
It is fact that ethics may vary from place to place time to time and country to
country more importantly from situation to situation, for clear understanding of
ART services one has to understand several issues such as the structure of the
assisted reproductive family, the welfare of the child, genetic material
donation (donation of sperm or egg or embryo), age criteria (age of the
intending parents/commissioning parents), pre-implantaion genetic diagnosis/
selective embryo reduction (to have desired baby, including sex selection),
confidentiality, right to know information by child born through ART, more
importantly contract of commercial surrogacy, legitimacy of the child born
through ART (mainly by third party donation or help) etc. ethical issues has
been giving rise several conflicts between all these issues.
There are number of disadvantages in ART services that to in cross bordered ART
services. It is fact that ART services are evils which, interfere with natural
capacity, but it is a necessary evil in this present era. According to
utilitarian theory it is the responsibility of the state to make a law which
provides ‘greatest happiness to the greatest number’ in case of ART regulation.
So, there is an urgent need to address this ART issue through law, which must
and should maintain balance between etc.
So, there is an urgent need to embark on a massive nationwide sensitization and
advocacy campaign for proper law with specific focus on the importance of the
ART services to reinforce the view stated by law commission of India, in its
228threport as ART services are an asset and not a burden. ART has been giving
hope to the numerous infertile couples that to theses ART services for
foreigners providing finance as well as global market to India, Which is the
concept of reproductive tourism within India. Though there are little bit
problems they can be minimized with proper law. Prohibiting surrogacy to
foreigners, commercial surrogacy to Indians without statutory law may lead to
number of problems, so basing on this reasons there is an urgent need for
addressing this contemporary issue.
After the birth of world’s first test tub babythis ART has been updating in
accordance with advancement of days. ART isa field that is dynamic and ever
changing, such as pre-implantation genetics, cloning etc. New technologies have
been changing the capabilities of ART. Based on the need of the particular
individual numerous methods available in ART, such as IVF, GIFT, ZIFT, ICSI,
Donor eggs or sperm and more importantlySurrogacy.
These technologies lead to numerous appreciations at the same time criticism
also. More over different nations approach for this ART is also different based
on the history and cultural background of the nation.
Now a day’s people approaching ART clinics to have their biological child, to
escape from stigma, social suffering, mental agony and because of several
reasons regarding childlessness. For having ART treatment people are also
travelling to other countries, without boundary barriers, which caused for
reproductive tourism or cross border reproductive care. Many are calling it
simply as ‘reproductive tourism’ or ‘reproductive exile’ instead of calling it
as ‘cross border reproductive care’, but these words are not reflecting
patients’ real mental agony and necessity, in particular their emotion to avoid
there social stigma as infertile. More over these terms made them as offenders.
As said by law commission in its 228threport infertility is a cause for several
problems for couple like in India.Just prohibiting these services on vague
moral grounds without a proper assessment of social ends and purposes would be
Since ages it is evident that people who are not satisfied with unreasonable
customs, vague morals and unjust laws of the society, and who find great
satisfaction beyond all these, they like to refuse to these unreasonable norms
of society at any cost. In case of ART services one can witness it. So in this
era there is a need for reasonable regulations at international as well as in
The right to have ART services to establish one’s own family recognized as one
of the important human right in international legal regime. But there are no
uniform approaches and regulations regarding ART in all nations. Different
nations have different approaches on these services, some countries providing
ART services without any restrictions, but providing with some restrictions and
some have rigid regulations on ART and some not. It is also fact in case of
India, but the struggle for making law regarding ART regulation was not become
real even today in India.
Because of age old traditions and culture India also interpreting this ART
services in a negative way by putting too much unreasonable restrictions. ART
has been raising a wide range of issues like social, medical, legal and ethical,
more so in case of surrogacy, as it involves humans (as third party) to
participate in this process for the benefit of others either for some monetary
benefit or for pleasure. Some feminists say, in surrogacy, wealthy people are
exploiting poor people and they mad women womb as money bag, so it should ban.
Scholars opine that not only surrogacy, but also all ART services and
reproductive travel, exemplifies the commodification of the body.
Many people demanding that too much commercialization in ART should stop,
because, some people as well as some countries providing these services only to
monetary benefit and they are viewing it as one of the money yielding business.
Based on this commercial surrogacy is banned in many countries and in some it is
permitted with certain restrictions. In India, there is no specific law relating
to surrogacy or ART services except non-statutory guidelines by ICMR in the year
In India ICMR came up with ‘Guidelines for Accreditation, Supervision and
Regulation of ART clinics in India 2005’, noticing the mushrooming of
infertility and ART clinics in the country after India’s second (officially
first) test tube baby Harsha created by Dr T.C. Anand Kumar, a reproductive
biologist, with his team.The guidelines received critical assessment from
different quarters, especially women’s groups and social activists.
Subsequently, because of law commission recommendations in its 228threport,
Indian government drafted ‘the assisted reproductive technology’ bill 2008,
later 2010 and 2014 which is pending to become an Act.
Under ICMR guidelines as well as, all these ART regulation bills it is mandatory
to register the ART clinics and banks in order to regulate them in proper
manner. It is also aimed to prevent the transmission of communicable diseases
from donors to children, prohibition of sex selection, to maintain
confidentiality regarding identity of the donors, most importantly to provide
ethical and legal codes for ART seekers as well as to the providers. It also
includes surrogacy arrangements.
Even after this new ART bill 2014, there are strong voices against commercial
surrogacy mainly surrogacy services by Indians to foreigners as well as by
Indians for monetary benefits. So, in the year 2015 the Indian government
Prohibited surrogacy arrangements to foreigners.Later the Government has
recently proposed a novel legislative proposal on Surrogacy in the year
2016.The draft Surrogacy Bill, 2016 aims at regulating commissioning of
surrogacy in the country in a proper manner, more over this bill prohibiting
commercial surrogacy, it allows only altruistic surrogacy. It was approved by
group of cabinet Ministers and cabinet gave its green signal to the bill to be
introduced in Parliament.In fact by this new Surrogacy Bill 2016 Indian
government solely addressing, dealing with the issues related to “surrogacy” in
exclusion of other ART Techniques by which it narrowed the surrogacy bill scope.
By this one can presume that ART bill 2014 may be replaced by new bill in
accordance with surrogacy bill 2016.
It is true that in all issues there will be good as well as bad; it is the duty
of the people and government in a civilized society to avoid conflicts through
proper regulation for peaceful enjoyment of life. Though ART services are evils,
are interfering with natural process of getting child, because of numerous
reasons it become a necessary evil. This evil can be controlled by states with
due care. Finally one can say that though there are number of disadvantages in
ART services that to in cross bordered ART services. It can be made it as, more
useful and less harmful through proper laws by state.
After a critical reading the author of this research report saying that, first,
people should come out from all myths regarding the ART and they must accept
this new and innovative medical science technology. It is duty of the society to
respect the feeling of childless couples; based on vague moral, religious and
ethical grounds it is not good to comment or to restrict ART. It neither healthy
to society nor to the country.
Each one in this society has a role to play, to understand the importance of the
ART - as parents, siblings, family members and friends. And as a professionals,
either teachers, doctors, lawyers, judges, administrators, law enforcement
persons, elected representatives, journalists, writers, artists...... etc.
whatever the status of an individual, everyone has to communicate other by arts,
crafts, writings, speeches... etc. and whatever the medium, the messages like
seeking ART neither a sin nor illegal but it should only obtain by needy.
Keeping in the mind that children are the precious than anything, researcher
(author) requesting Indian legislators to provide regulation of ART and cross
boarder reproductive care, with reasonable restrictions, not on vague moral and
ethical principles and it should implement with dedicative manner. Moreover,
whatever the law commends or prohibits it will only be successful when people
accept them. So, researcher (author) also requesting the society to accept ART
as a savior and God given gift to infertile couple. Yes, it is well established
fact that those societies which follow reasonable moral and ethical norms will
blessed with peace and prosperity but a growth of the society should not stopped
because of vague moral and ethical principles. At the same time individual and
society must and should remember that there will be a better tomorrow, if
technology utilized with reasoned mind and consciousness.
“Science is a beautiful gift to humanity; we should not distort it” – A.P.J.
*Assistant Professor, Smt. V.D. Siddartha Law College, Kanuru, Vijayawada,
Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin code: 52007. Phon No. 9491448532,
E-mail: [email protected].
Pope Saint John Paul IIwaspopefrom 1978 to 2005. He is widely known to
Catholics asSaint John Paul the Great, especially in the names of institutions.
(Visited on 2015 March 20).
“National Guidelines for Accreditation, Supervision & Regulation ofART
Clinics in India, 2005”Chapter 1 - Introduction, Brief history of ART and
Requirement of ART Clinicsfirst paragraph first lines. (farmed byIndian
Council of Medical Research (ICMR) andNational Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS)).
Available at:http://www. icmr.nic.in/art/Prilim_Pages.pdf.
“Surrogacy in India and its legal and ethical implications”, by Shaista Amin,
Research Scholar, Dept. of Law, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India and Asma
Rehman, Lecturer, Kashmir Law College, Nowshera, Srinagar, India. Published in
Journal of International academic research for multidisciplinary, Impact Factor
1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 4, May 2014.
The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (Regulation) Bill, 2014, Sec. 2(c)
Available at :http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/nmedia/draft/Draft%20Assisted%20Reproductive%20Technology
Wilder, B. (2002), Assisted Reproductive Technology: Trends and Suggestions
for the Developing Law. Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers,
on 2014 August 8).
Anindita Ghose’s tweet share on“the forgotten hero of IVF”(onThu, Oct 14
2010. 10:33 PM).
“The Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Impacted by Modern Assisted
Reproductive Technologies” by Paul R. Brezina and Yulian Zhao, Hindawi
Publishing Corporation, Obstetrics and Gynecology International, Volume 2012,
Article ID 686253, doi:10.1155/2012/686253.
The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (Regulation) Bill, 2014 sec. 2(zq)
defines surrogacy as “surrogacy” means an arrangement in which a woman agrees to
a pregnancy, achieved through assisted reproductive technology, in which neither
of the gametes belong to her or her husband, with the intention to carry it and
hand over the child to the commissioning couple for whom she is acting as a
surrogate; Sec. 2(zr) says about “surrogate mother” and Sec. 2(zs) says about
“surrogacy agreement” means.
Available at :http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/nmedia/draft/Draft%20Assisted%20Reproductive%20Technology%
There are two main types in surrogacy they are traditional or straight and
host or gestational.
Traditional orStraightSurrogacy:The surrogate mother is impregnated with
semen from the intended father or sperm donor and uses her own eggs. This means
that the surrogate mother is genetically related to the child. The insemination
procedure can be conducted at home, using an insemination kit, or can be
performed by a fertility clinic.
Hostor Gestational Surrogacy:The more popular and effective method, this
procedure involves in vitro fertilization (IVF) with the eggs of the intended
mother or those of an egg donor. Here the surrogate mother is not genetically
related to the child. This method is more complicated medically; it tends to be
more expensive than traditional surrogacy.
Available at :https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/Pages/art.aspx
“Surrogacy in India and its Legal and Ethical implications”, by Shaista
Amin, Research Scholar, Dept. of Law, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India and
Asma Rehman, Lecturer, Kashmir Law College, Nowshera, Srinagar, India. published
in journal of international academic research for multidisciplinary, Impact
Factor 1.393, ISSN: 2320-5083, Volume 2, Issue 4, May 2014.
Available at:http://www.jiarm.com/May%202014%20Issues.html(Visited on 2015
Storrow, Richard F. 2006. “Quests for Conception: Fertility Tourists,
Globalization and Feminist Legal Theory.” Hastings Law Journal, pp 57: 302-303.
Available at :https://web.duke.edu/kenanethics/casestudies/babymanji.pdf(see
(visited on 2014 May 3)
Kevin Coward and Dagan Wells, Textbook of Clinical Embryology, edited and
Published by Cambridge University Press. © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Available at: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ebook.jsf?bid=CBO9781139192736
(visited on 2014 August 8).
on 2015 October 12).
According to The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) guidelines of July 9, 2012,
surrogacy services prohibited to foreign single parent, gay couple.
Notice Number : 5/10/8/2008-RHN, Dated : 27/10/2015.
Available at :http://instarorg.blogspot.in/ And
Jayashree Wad v. Union of India , Writ Petition civil no. 95 of 2015 yr
Jan Balaz v. Anand Municipality and 6 Orson 17 June, 2008 (AIR 2010 Guj
Available at :http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/cabinet-clears-bill-on-surrogate-motherhood/1/747617.html
This draft bill available athttp://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/draft/
In fact surrogacy is one of the arrangements in ART for having biological
child through third party. ART means not whole and sole, but because of this
concept of surrogacy, ART got public awareness.
Baby Manji Yamada v. Union of India & Others. 13 SCC 518 or (2008)INSC
Jayashree Wad v. Union of India, Writ Petition civil no. 95 of 2015 yr
On 25 July 1978, world’s first human test tube baby Louise Joy Brown was
born atOldham General Hospitalin England. Architects were Robert Edward and
Available at :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Brown
Para 1.2 The growth in the ART methods is recognition of the fact that
infertility as a medical condition is a huge impediment in the overall wellbeing
of couples and cannot be overlooked especially in a patriarchal society like
India. A woman is respected as a wife only if she is mother of a child, so that
her husband's masculinity and sexual potency is proved and the lineage
continues. Some authors put it as follows: The parents construct the child
biologically, while the child constructs the parents socially. The problem
however arises when the parents are unable to construct the child through the
conventional biological means. Infertility is seen as a major problem as kinship
and family ties are dependent on progeny. Herein surrogacy comes as a supreme
saviour. Page 9.
Available at : http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/report228.pdf
See Law commission of India 228threport, cover letter Para 4 The legal
issues related with surrogacy are very complex and need to be addressed by a
comprehensive legislation. Surrogacy involves conflict of various interests and
has inscrutable impact on the primary unit 6 of society viz. family.
Non-intervention of law in this knotty issue will not be proper at a time when
law is to act as ardent defender of human liberty and an instrument of
distribution of positive entitlements. At the same time, prohibition on vague
moral grounds without a proper assessment of social ends and purposes which
surrogacy can serve would be irrational. Active legislative intervention is
required to facilitate correct uses of the new technology i.e. ART and
relinquish the cocooned approach to legalization of surrogacy adopted hitherto.
The need of the hour is to adopt a pragmatic approach by legalizing altruistic
surrogacy arrangements and prohibit commercial ones.
Available at : http://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/reports/report228.pdf
Available at :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subhash_Mukhopadhyay_(physician)
Notice number: 5/10/8/2008-RHN, dated: 27/10/2015. This notice send by Dr.
R.S. Sharma, Head, Scientist-G & Sr.DDG of Indian council of medical research,
department of health research (Ministry of health and family welfare) to all ART
clinics and banks the exact words are “Dear Drs., I am directed to inform you
that as per the stand of department of health research, ministry of health and
family welfare, govt. of India, the surrogacy will be limited to Indian married
couples only and not to the foreigners. Therefore, your are requested not to
entertain any foreigners for availing surrogacy services in India. This issues
with the approval of the Director General, ICMR”.
Available at :http://instarorg.blogspot.in/andhttp://www.icmr.nic.in/icmrnews/art/Letter%20to%20enrolled%
Available online at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/a_p_j_abdul_kalam_589737?src=t_science