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A Critical Evaluation Of Social Media Regulations In India

In recent years, the usage of social media has grown drastically in India, with sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram boasting millions of users. Social media platforms have transformed how individuals communicate and connect with one another. The unregulated propagation of false information and hate speech, on the other hand, has raised worries about their damaging influence on society.

As a result, numerous nations, like India, have enacted laws to restrict the use of social media. This seminar paper will investigate the specific rules and regulations that govern social media in India, and as the researcher, I would like to express my suggestions and observations for better regulations that can improve the efficiency of the legal system through media regulations by analyzing social media regulations in India.

Communication is the process of transmitting information through various ways, whereas media is the medium or instrument through which we store or transfer information. As we all know, there are three branches of government: the legislative, which creates the rules, the executive, which carries them out, and the judicial, which punishes those who disobey the rules.

The Fourth Pillar of Democracy refers to the media as an important and integral aspect of a democratic society. Many people believe that the media is more impartial and absent of elements of state power, in contrast to the previous three pillars, which are all oriented towards power but the media serves as a source of information as well as the voice of the people.[1]

The media also connects the three branches of government and serves as a watchdog to ensure accountability and the fulfillment of their respective constitutional tasks given to the particular pillar. The three primary categories of media are broadcast media, print media, and the recently introduced modern digital media. Whereas Broadcast Media is concerned with telecasts on television and other electronic devices capable of reaching a huge number of people at once, Print Media is concerned with newspapers, journals, and periodicals, Modern digital media encompasses all types of communication that are transferred electronically throughout the world via computer networks and fiber optic cables.

Earlier people used to get news updates through the news on TV, radio, newspapers, etc. but in the modern era, everything has shifted online, today internet is the place where people get updates about news, watch movies online, etc. There are many social media platforms like WhatsApp, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Telegram, and many more. Social networking platform users may have discussions, exchange information, and create digital material. Social media usage is quickly expanding, and the twenty-first century may be regarded as the "boom" period for social media. During the epidemic, social media was our sole means of communication.

This has increased the usage and dependence on social networking sites to stay connected for business, school, and social purposes; platforms like Zoom and Microsoft Teams have experienced an instant surge in users during this era. Together with the positives, it highlighted a number of drawbacks.

People of all ages use social media extensively. But nonetheless, the increased use of digital media presents privacy and ethical concerns. These worries about privacy can have major professional, personal, and security consequences. Because social media was designed to exchange information, maintaining perfect privacy is incredibly difficult. Participation in social media entails the breach of certain personal and private boundaries, which carries some danger. Because of the lack of individual privacy safeguards in this environment, immoral and undesirable actions have resulted in privacy and security breaches, all of which have led to the current spike in cybercrime. Because of these disadvantages, social media must be adequately monitored.

What Is Social Media?

Social media has become an integral part of modern communication and has revolutionized the way people communicate, connect, and engage with businesses and organizations. It is a technological platform that enables individuals to share information through written words, images, videos, and music. Social media has become popular among people of all ages, particularly youth, as it provides a means for expressing their opinions and discussing issues.

Various types of social media platforms are available, including social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, as well as blogs, vlogs, and social news[2]. These platforms have made social media easily accessible to people. However, social media, like any other technology, has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the most significant advantages of social media is that it provides up-to-date information. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook are used to instantly share news and information.

This allows people to stay up to date on the latest events and trends regardless of their location. Social media also makes it easier to communicate with friends and family, making it easier to keep in touch with loved ones who may live in different parts of the world. People use social media platforms like Instagram and Facebook to share their experiences, photographs, and personal updates. This makes people feel more connected to and engaged with their social circles, regardless of distance.

Banking, customer service, and online shopping have all become more accessible as a result of social media. With the rise of social media, businesses can now provide services and support to their customers more quickly and efficiently, improving customer experience and satisfaction. However, social media can be dangerous, especially when used excessively. One of the most serious concerns about social media is its impact on mental health.

Constantly checking social media platforms can lead to overuse and neglect of real-world interactions. This can lead to feelings of loneliness, isolation, and depression. Misinformation, fake news, and propaganda are another potential danger of social media. Social media platforms are frequently used to spread false information and propaganda, causing confusion and distrust. Regardless of the risks associated with social media, it is critical to recognize that social media itself is not inherently dangerous. Any tool or activity, including social media, can become problematic when used excessively[3]. It is essential to use social media responsibly and strike a balance between online and real-world interactions.

Social Media and its Origin
The origins of social media may be traced back to the early days of the internet when the first online communities and bulletin boards were founded. Yet, it was not until the mid-2000s that social media fully took off, with platforms like Friendster, Myspace, and Facebook emerging. Users may build accounts, interact with friends, and post various sorts of content, such as images and movies, on these sites.

With the emergence of new platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, and TikTok, social media continued to change and spread throughout time. Live streaming, augmented reality filters, and short-form video content are among the interesting features and capabilities provided by these platforms. Today, social media is an indispensable part of many people's daily lives, with billions of users worldwide connecting with one another and engaging with organizations and brands.

Social and Cultural impact of social media
The impact of social media on society and culture has been significant and wide-ranging. One of the most notable effects has been on communication and social interaction. Social media has made it easier for individuals to connect with each other, regardless of their location or time zone, leading to the emergence of new forms of online communities and social networks.

These online platforms have facilitated the sharing of ideas, collaboration on projects, and support for one another[4]. However, social media has also received criticism for its negative impact on mental health and well-being. Studies have shown that excessive use of social media can lead to anxiety, depression, loneliness, as well as self-esteem, and body image issues. Furthermore, social media has been linked to the spread of misinformation, cyberbullying, and online harassment, which can have detrimental consequences for individuals and communities.

Despite these challenges, social media has also presented opportunities for positive change and social impact. For instance, it has been used to raise awareness about critical social issues, such as climate change, racial justice, and LGBTQ+ rights. Social media has also played a pivotal role in mobilizing communities and organizing social movements, such as the Arab Spring and the Black Lives Matter protests[5].

Challenges and opportunities of social media
Individuals, corporations, and organizations face both obstacles and possibilities as a result of social media. Managing the massive volumes of data created by social media networks is one of the most difficult issues. While this information may be used to gain insights into user behavior and preferences, it can also be used for malevolent reasons such as targeted advertising or political influence.

Maintaining privacy and security on social media platforms is another key concern. Users frequently publish sensitive information and personal information on these platforms, rendering them vulnerable to hacking, data breaches, and other types of criminality[6]. Social media firms are responsible for protecting user data and ensuring the safety and security of their platforms. Despite these obstacles, social media offers several potentials for companies and organizations. Social media can be an effective marketing tool, allowing businesses to access new audiences, interact with consumers, and raise brand awareness. It may also be used to collect useful consumer feedback and insights, track trends and sentiment in real-time, and enhance customer service.

Types of social media platforms
There are several types of social media platforms, including:
Social Networking Sites:
These are platforms that allow users to connect with friends, family, and colleagues, and build personal networks. Examples include Facebook, LinkedIn, and Myspace.

Microblogging Sites:
These are platforms that allow users to share short messages or updates, typically limited to a certain number of characters. Examples include Twitter and Tumblr.

Media Sharing Sites:
These are platforms that allow users to share photos, videos, and other media. Examples include Instagram, YouTube, and Flickr.

Discussion Forums:
These are platforms that allow users to have conversations and discussions on a variety of topics. Examples include Reddit and Quora.

Bookmarking Sites:
These are platforms that allow users to save and organize web content, such as articles and blog posts. Examples include Pinterest and Pocket.

Blogging Sites:
These are platforms that allow users to create and publish their own content in the form of blog posts. Examples include WordPress and Blogger.

Messaging Apps:
These are platforms that allow users to communicate with each other through messaging. Examples include WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger.

Virtual Reality Platforms:

These are platforms that allow users to interact with each other in virtual environments. Examples include Second Life and VRChat.

The popularity and usage of these platforms vary depending on factors such as age, interests, and cultural differences.

Regulating The Social Media

In India, the regulatory framework for social media is a collection of laws, rules, and regulations that are enforced by various government agencies such as the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), the Department of Telecommunications (DoT), and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB)[7]. With over 600 million internet users, India is the world's second-largest internet market, and social media has become a vital element of the country's digital environment. Yet, as the usage of social media platforms grows, there is growing worry about the dissemination of disinformation, hate speech, and other harmful content online.

As a result, laws, and regulations to manage social media platforms have been put in place to guarantee that they serve the public and national interests. One of the rules that govern social media in India is the Information Technology Act.

The Information Technology Act is the principal law that by establishing a legal foundation for electronic governance and governs all areas of electronic communication, including social media. The Act also creates the Cyber Appellate Tribunal and the Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee.

The Information Technology Act, 2000 was amended in 2008 to include Section 66A, which made it a criminal offense to send any information that was considered "grossly offensive" or "menacing" through any electronic communication device. This section was intended to prevent the spread of inflammatory or hate speech, which could lead to communal disharmony or incite violence. In 2015, the Supreme Court of India struck down Section 66A, stating that it was violative of the fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution of India. The court held that the provision was vague, overbroad, and had a chilling effect on free speech.

In 2018, the Information Technology Act was amended again to include Section 69A, which empowers the government to block public access to any information that it deems necessary in the interest of national security or public order.

The government has enacted regulations governing the operations of social media businesses in the nation, including the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Regulations, 2021. These regulations require social media intermediaries to hire Indian-based grievance officers to manage user complaints and remove specific sorts of information within 24 hours of receiving a complaint. The laws also require social media sites to use automated methods to identify and remove illegal information, such as defamatory, vulgar, or invasive privacy. Social media networks must also post monthly compliance reports that include information such as the number of complaints received and the actions taken

The Constitution of India recognizes the importance of individual rights and freedoms, including the right to freedom of speech and expression under Article 19 This fundamental right includes the freedom of the press, as the press is an important medium for the dissemination of information and ideas, and plays a crucial role in promoting public opinion and debate. While the constitution does not explicitly mention press freedom of speech and expression, but its members, such as journalists and editors, have the same rights as any other citizen. The media plays a crucial role in conveying public opinion, which is essential in maintaining a democracy. The public's viewpoint is just as important as that of the legislature in protecting a country's democracy.

A massive data privacy scandal involving Facebook and Cambridge Analytica was revealed in 2018, involving the alleged use of Facebook users' data to influence the 2016 US presidential election. Cambridge Analytica, a political consulting firm, is said to have obtained data from millions of Facebook users without their knowledge via a personality quiz app. This information was then used to create psychological profiles of users and to target them with political advertisements aimed at swaying their votes in favour of specific candidates, including Donald Trump.

The scandal raised concerns about Facebook's data privacy practices and the potential for social media to be used as a tool for political manipulation. In India, the government demanded that Facebook and Cambridge Analytica clarify their actions and disclose any information related to the exploitation of Indian users' data. The Indian government was concerned that Indian users' data might have also been used for political purposes or to influence Indian elections. The scandal highlighted the need for stronger regulations to protect users' data and prevent its unauthorized use for political purposes.

The case of Shreya Singhal v. Union of India deals with the issue of free speech and expression on the Internet. The petitioner, Shreya Singhal, challenged the constitutionality of Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, which allowed authorities to arrest individuals for posting or communicating "insulting" material online. The Supreme Court of India ruled that this section was unconstitutional as it violated the basic right to free expression provided by the Indian Constitution. The court found the section's phrasing to be vague and imprecise, resulting in arbitrary arrests and harassment of innocent people.

Need To Regulate The Social Media

Social media has become an indispensable component of modern life, revolutionizing how people communicate and receive information. While social media has many advantages, it has also created a number of obstacles and concerns that demand control. In this scenario, regulating social media has become an urgent requirement in order to solve the problems related to its usage.
  • The proliferation of fake news and disinformation on social media is one of the most serious concerns. Social media platforms are subject to the propagation of rumors and disinformation, which can have serious effects such as instigating violence, causing fear, and undermining public trust. Controlling social media can assist to limit these dangers by enforcing methods to verify the source and accuracy of information uploaded on the social media platform.
  • Another issue is the proliferation of hate speech, cyberbullying, and internet harassment. Individuals have suffered substantial psychological and emotional suffering as a result of hate speech, cyberbullying, and online harassment on social media. By putting stringent restrictions on the material posted on social media platforms and enforcing penalties on violators, social media regulation can assist to prevent the spread of hate speech and online harassment.
  • Another area where social media regulation is required is privacy issues. Social media sites amass massive amounts of user data, which they use for targeted advertising, among other things. This has prompted serious privacy concerns, which may be addressed by establishing rigorous data privacy rules and regulations to protect users' personal information.
  •  Lastly, social media regulation can aid in the treatment of internet addiction. Excessive social media usage has resulted in addiction and other mental health issues, particularly among young people. Controlling social media sites can assist to encourage responsible use and protect users' mental health and well-being.
Social media has become an indispensable aspect of modern life, and regulating it has become an urgent necessity in order to solve the issues related to its usage. Regulation of social media platforms can assist to reduce the hazards of false news and disinformation, hate speech, cyberbullying, and online harassment, as well as safeguard user privacy and encourage responsible usage of these platforms.

Further initiatives have also been made by the Indian government to control social media sites. In 2018, the government demanded that Facebook and Cambridge Analytica clarify the alleged exploitation of Indian users' data. The information was allegedly used to sway the 2016 US presidential election. In India, Facebook has subsequently been involved in a number of additional scandals, including charges of prejudice and the dissemination of hate speech.

In 2019, the Indian government urged TikTok to delete improper content, resulting in the removal of millions of videos. In recent years, the government has also blocked other applications, including TikTok, PUBG, and WeChat, claiming national security concerns. These actions have raised questions about the government's intentions and commitment to free expression and online freedoms. Others have accused the government of using national security as a justification to censor information critical of it or its policies.

Landmark Cases
Shreya Singhal v. Union of India
The case of Shreya Singhal v. Union of India addresses the topic of Internet free speech and expression. The case began with a petition submitted by Shreya Singhal, a law student, who questioned the constitutionality of Section 66A of the Information Technology Act of 2000.

Section 66A of the Information Technology Act of 2000 authorized authorities to arrest anybody who posted or communicated insulting material on the internet. The clause was highly criticized for its confusing and imprecise phrasing, as well as for being utilized to restrict free speech and expression. Shreya Singhal's appeal challenged the section's legality, claiming that it infringed on the basic right to free expression provided by Article 19(1)(a) of the Indian Constitution.

A two-judge panel of the Supreme Court of India heard the case and ruled that Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000, was unconstitutional and infringed the basic right to free speech and expression. The court ruled that the clause was too wide and imprecise and that it allowed the police too much freedom to interpret and implement it, resulting in arbitrary arrests and harassment of innocent people.

The court's ruling in the Shreya Singhal case was noteworthy in that it reaffirmed the value of the free expression and expression in a democratic society, as well as the necessity to balance it against legitimate governmental objectives. The court acknowledged that the internet and social media have become powerful instruments for individuals to communicate their thoughts and beliefs and that any attempt to restrict them must be studied carefully to ensure that they do not infringe citizens' basic rights.

The Shreya Singhal case established a significant precedent in Indian law, leading to the recognition of online free speech and expression as a fundamental right. The decision has been helpful in limiting the misuse of power by law enforcement authorities and in protecting the constitutional rights of citizens.

Arnab Manoranjan Goswami v. State of Maharashtra
Arnab Manoranjan Goswami v. State of Maharashtra is a recent high-profile lawsuit that has gotten a lot of attention in India. Arnab Goswami is a notable journalist and the creator of Republic TV, a popular news station in India. In November 2020, he was detained by Maharashtra police on suspicion of aiding suicide in connection with the deaths of Anvay Naik, an interior designer, and his mother. Goswami filed a petition before India's Supreme Court, arguing that his detention was politically motivated and violated his fundamental rights, particularly his right to free speech and expression.

He claimed that the case against him was based on flimsy evidence and that he was being targeted because of his critical coverage of the Maharashtra government. The Supreme Court of India granted temporary release to Goswami, saying that the state had breached his right to liberty by arresting him without due process. The court also chastised the Maharashtra police for their detention of Goswami, claiming that it was not in conformity with the law.

The Arnab Goswami issue has raised serious concerns about press freedom in India and the government's role in media regulation. It has sparked heated debate in the media, prompting requests for increased protection of journalists' rights as well as clearer limits on the use of sedition laws and other legal instruments that can be used to restrict free expression. The case has also highlighted tensions between the media and the administration, with many critics claiming that Goswami's detention reflected the government's hostility towards critical reporting. Others have also chastised Goswami for perceived sensationalism and his participation in supporting a particular political agenda.

Ultimately, the Arnab Goswami case emphasizes the significance of free speech and expression, especially in the context of a dynamic and diversified media ecosystem. It emphasizes the importance of increased accountability and transparency in the use of law restrictions that might be used to limit free expression, as well as the importance of a strong and independent judiciary to preserve individuals' basic rights.

Problems In Regulating Social Media Laws

The emergence of social media has presented policymakers and regulators with a variety of issues, notably in balancing the necessity for regulation with the preservation of free speech and privacy rights.[8] The contradiction between the necessity for control and the preservation of free expression is one of the most critical issues in regulating social media. Social media platforms have grown in importance as means for free speech, especially in nations where traditional media channels are regulated or limited. The proliferation of hate speech, fake news, and other types of damaging content, on the other hand, has prompted calls for more regulation of social media platforms.[9]

Another difficulty in controlling social media is the intricacy of these sites. With millions of users and billions of interactions every day, social media networks are extremely complicated. Governing these platforms necessitates knowledge of complicated algorithms, data privacy concerns, and the impact of material on consumers. One of the most difficult aspects of policing social media algorithms is that they are continually evolving. Complex algorithms are used by social media firms to select what material users view on their platforms, and these algorithms are modified on a regular basis to boost engagement and advertising income[10].

This means that any control of social media algorithms must be adaptable to these developments. Another issue linked with social media regulation is the Another issue related with social media regulation is data privacy. Social media networks acquire massive quantities of personal data from its users, such as their location, browsing history, and online behavior. This information is frequently used to target advertisements and provide customized content, but it may also be abused or stolen by third parties. In recent years, there have been a number of high-profile data breaches, including the Cambridge Analytica affair, in which the personal data of millions of Facebook users was taken without their knowledge. This has prompted calls for further regulation of social media companies to guarantee that users' data is secured and that they have more control over how their data is used.

Another problem linked with social media regulation is the platforms' worldwide reach. Because social media sites traverse national borders, it is difficult to implement restrictions. This has sparked questions about the role of international law in regulating social media, as well as the necessity for increased intergovernmental collaboration.[11] Another difficulty in controlling social media is the enormous volume of material that is shared on these sites on a daily basis. Because social media firms lack the means to monitor and regulate all of this information, dangerous or illegal content frequently goes undiscovered. Terrorist organizations, for example, have utilised social media platforms to distribute propaganda and attract new members, and hate groups have used them to spread racist and anti-Semitic content. As a result, social media firms have been urged to do more to monitor and control dangerous information on their platforms.

Possible ways to social media regulation:
Collaborative regulation: One idea is to create a collaborative approach to social media regulation. This might entail social media platforms collaborating with governments, civil society groups, and other stakeholders to create a set of best practices and rules for controlling harmful content on these platforms. Stakeholders may collaborate to produce more effective and nuanced solutions that take into consideration the complexities of social media.

Transparency: Another option is to promote transparency about how social media firms work. This might entail compelling businesses to reveal more information about their algorithms and data gathering techniques, as well as giving users more choice over how their data is utilised. Increased openness would serve to create confidence among users and authorities, as well as highlight areas where further regulation is required.

Algorithmic accountability: Given the role of algorithms in moulding the material that people view on social media, more algorithmic responsibility is required. This may entail adopting new norms and principles for algorithmic transparency, as well as procedures for independent audits and supervision of these algorithms. Social media firms may guarantee that their platforms are more equitable and inclusive by making their algorithms more open and responsible.

Multi-stakeholder governance: More multi-stakeholder governance methods to social media regulation are required. This might entail bringing together governments, civil society organizations, academia, and industry representatives to produce solutions that reflect all stakeholders' interests and concerns. Multi-stakeholder governance can aid in making social media regulation more inclusive and representative of varied viewpoints and demands.

International collaboration: Given the worldwide character of social media, further international cooperation on regulation is required. This might entail the creation of new international norms and guidelines for regulating social media, as well as more collaboration among national governments in exchanging best practices and regulatory methods. Countries can find more effective answers to the issues of regulating social media by working together.

Education and media literacy: Lastly, there is a need for more social media education and media literacy. This might include creating new programs and efforts to assist users in better understanding how social media works, identifying and reporting dangerous information, and protecting their privacy and security online. We can assist people become more educated and responsible online participants by enhancing their media literacy.

To summarise, governing social media is a complex and difficult undertaking. We can, however, contribute to guaranteeing that social media platforms are fairer, more responsible, and more respectful of users' rights and needs by establishing collaborative, transparent, and inclusive ways to regulate.

Regulatory Framework Of Print And Electronic Media In India

The Press Council of India and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting are largely responsible for the regulatory framework for print and electronic media in India.
Print Media:
The Press Council of India is a statutory organization created under the Press Council Act of 1978. It is in charge of promoting and maintaining the standards of Indian newspapers and news agencies. The council has the authority to hear complaints against newspapers or journalists that violate journalistic ethics, and it has the authority to act against the offending party, such as imposing penalties or suspending publication. In addition to the Press Council, India has rules that govern the content of print media. The Indian Criminal Code is the most important of them, with prohibitions for defamation, obscenity, and incitement to violence.

Electronic Media:
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is in charge of regulating electronic media in India. The ministry gives licenses to television and radio stations and has the authority to withdraw these licenses if they violate regulations.

In India, electronic media is governed by the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act of 1995 and the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act of 1997. These regulations govern the ownership, operation, and content of television and radio stations.

In India, there are additional content rules in effect for electronic media. Restrictions against depicting violence, nudity, and bad language are among them. For infractions of these regulations, the ministry has the authority to levy penalties or cancel permits.

People's interactions, communication, and information consumption have been altered by social media. While technology has provided various benefits, such as increased connectedness and information access, it has also introduced new concerns, such as the propagation of disinformation and hate speech. Governments all over the globe are debating how to govern social media in order to handle these difficulties while also ensuring the safety and security of their population. India has put in place a regulatory framework for social media that consists of a patchwork of laws, rules, and regulations enforced by various government agencies.

While the regulatory structure offers some protection, it has also been criticized for being excessively broad and unclear, potentially leading to censorship and restricting free expression. More openness and collaboration between the government, social media corporations, civil society groups, and other stakeholders might be one method to overcome the issues and controversies surrounding social media regulation in India. This might include setting explicit principles and standards for content management, offering regular updates on enforcement actions, and participating in regular communication to resolve complaints and issues. More investment in media literacy and digital literacy programs is another option to solve the issues of social media regulation.

Individuals can become more engaged and responsible social media users if they are taught how to recognize and report disinformation, hate speech, and other harmful content. This might decrease the load on intermediaries while also ensuring that social media platforms are utilized responsibly and ethically. Finally, social media regulation in India must strike a balance between the need to safeguard public safety and preventing disinformation from spreading.

This necessitates a sophisticated and balanced strategy that considers individual rights, the duties of social media firms, and the role of government in maintaining public safety. To summarise, social media regulation is a complicated and fast moving problem that needs continual attention and participation. While India's legislative structure offers some degree of protection, ongoing communication and coordination amongst stakeholders is required to ensure that social media platforms are used responsibly and ethically. We can create a safer, more secure, and more inclusive digital environment for all by working together.

  1. Freedom of the press: Fourth pillar of democracy (March 7, 2023)
  2. "Social Media has become an Integral Part of Modern Society," Study Documents for Suffolk County Community College English Literature II course (March 7, 2023),
  3. Kuss, D.J., & Griffiths, M.D. (2015). Internet Addiction in Psychotherapy. In V. Zeigler-Hill, & T.K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-6). Springer. Doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0070.
  4. Whiteman, H. (2016, August 4). Social media and relationships. Medical News Today. Retrieved from
  5. Morrison, M. (2020, June 19). The Role of Social Media in Social Movements. Portland Monthly. Retrieved from
  6. Kuehnle, E. (2020, June 1). Key Social Media Privacy Issues in 2020. Tulane School of Professional Advancement Blog. Retrieved from
  7. Bhasin, R. (2022). Technology, Media, and Telecommunications in India. The Law Reviews, 10(1), 193-206. Retrieved from
  8. Kumar, S. (2014, October 23). Social Media and Freedom of Speech and Expression. Legal Service India. Retrieved from
  9. Chandler, C. (2019, April 15). Hate Speech on Social Media: Global Comparisons. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from
  10. Rogers, S. (2021, July 7). How Social Media Algorithms Work and 10 Factors to Watch For. Sprout Social. Retrieved from
  11. Chandler, C. (2021, September 29). Social Media and Online Speech: How Should Countries Regulate Tech Giants? Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from
Written By: Aditi, BBA LLB (Hons.) Corporate Law

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