Every human being is born free with various inherent rights like that of right
to live with dignity and honor .so its basic human right of every human to live
a life of dignity ,but since time immemorial women section of our society is
subjected to certain inhumane treatment by committing various offences against
them and curtailing their right of having a dignified life .women Is the most
vulnerable section of almost every society in the world and same is the case
with Indian society. In India women fell prey to end number of crimes among
which some of the crimes even go unrecognized.
However the various major crimes
against women are Rape, Dowry death, female feticide, Sexual harassment,
Domestic violence, Acid attack etc. Now the basic question that arises here is
why women are being subjected to such crimes ,why don't they receive due honor,
why are they being curtailed of their freedom. There are indeed various factors
or root causes responsible for this and its very important to go through the
root cause to understand any problem and to work on them to reach towards any
end or to get desired result.
Major Crimes Against Women:
Crimes against women start even before her birth and continue till his last
breath. No matter in what stage of life she is, she fell prey to the male
dominated society. Like when she's not even born, the crime of female feticide
is being committed, when she's child she faces the gender discrimination
,inferior treatment, no free access to studies ,when she's young ,sexual harrasment, eve teasing rape is being committed ,when she's married crimes like
dowry death, domestic violence are being committed ,which means that women is
safe nowhere, and she nowhere gets due regard and respect.
The concept of patriarchal families is there from the
existence of human life in society, males are being given preferences over
females on different grounds like they are considered as dominant, bread earners
for family and support of old age for parents. Female feticide means a process
where the foetus is being removed or aborted because of sex of foetus. Female
feticide is being done despite having the regulatory laws.it does include
various factors like that of preference to male children, girls being considered
as burden upon parents etc.
One of the brutal crimes against women prevalent in our society is rape.
Its most gruesome and barbaric act of violating bodily integrity and honor of
women .Rape is one of the most growing crimes and is growing at an alarming
rate. Rape is forced and unwanted. Rape means unlawful sexual activity and
usually sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of injury
against a persons will.
The comprehensive definition of rape is provided in
Indian penal code 1860 which means that the crime of rape is not new and laws
have been there to deal with this crime .section 375,376 of IPC deals with rape
and rigorous punishment is there for rapists .There have been subsequent
amendments and main issue of focus remained definition of rape. Rape of women by
men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions.
Sexual harassment of women is growing expeditiously .its very
unfortunate that women are safe nowhere ,sexual harassment is being done at
almost every place be it workplace, public transport ,public gatherings etc.
sexual harassment is any unwanted sexual behavior that makes someone feel upset
,scared, offended or humiliated, or is meant to make them feel that way.
are different laws governing sexual harassment of women in public spaces in
India. Section 354A of Indian penal code defines sexual harassment and
punishment for sexual harassment .. Also prevention of women sexual harassment
act of 2013, commonly known as POSH act has been passed to give protection to
women from sexual harassment at workplace because its mostly done in workplaces
and also In public transport, eve teasing has become a norm now and
unfortunately victims of unware.
Acid attack ,one of the most inhuman, barbaric act done against
women. Acid attack means throwing acid on girl usually on face to ruin her
beauty, pride and confidence as beauty is always being connected to face. The
cases of acid attack are rising day by day. The main cause of acid attack is
male ego. In most of the cases its found that the reason of acid attack is
rejection of male like rejection of proposals, any other favors and in order to
take revenge girls are being attacked with acid that satisfies the male ego.
Acid attack is penalized under section 326A of IPC that provides for minimum 10
years imprisonment for this offence that is extendable to life with fine. Also
the offender wants to disrupt the socio-economic life of such a woman. This
section was inserted by criminal law amendment act, 2013.
Domestic violence is any sort of violence committed by
someone in victims domestic circle. It includes mental, physical and sexual
abuse in a domestic setting .its also termed as domestic abuse or intimate
partner violence . It's a serious threat that leaves life long effect on victim.in most of the cases women are victim of this crime. So, The protection
of women from Domestic violence act 2005 has been passed to regulate this crime.
This act provides protection to women from ,from men in domestic sphere.
Dowry death: Dowry one of the biggest menace in our society dowry Is an age
old concept. Dowry is one of the main reasons of female foeticide as parents
conceive girl child as burden upon them as they could not provide dowry. Dowry
means giving of cash ,good, or any sort of property by brides family to groom's
family at time of marriage. Its an social evil that has ruined the life of end
number of women and has led to the tortures and crimes against women. Dowry also
lead to late marriages that in fact is another major issue of current era. Dowry
makes parents vulnerable to commit crimes as they go to any extent to get their
daughters married and fulfil the demands of grooms family.
I want to site an incident here; a drug peddler was caught by police in my
nearby village and during investigation he made a statement that I was left with
no other option because I have to collect dowry and get my daughters married.
Marriages nowadays have become a trade where a person marries not only to get a
partner but to get the hefty amounts. Women are being subjected to ill treatment
by husband or in-laws for dowry demands and are often being beaten to death,
attacked with acid, driven to suicide or any other inhuman treatment is being
done to them for non fulfilment of dowry demands.
Section 304B of Indian penal code deals with dowry death and this offence is
punishable by imprisonment of seven years which may extend to life imprisonment.
Also ,Dowry prohibition act 1961 prohibits demand ,receipt, or payment of dowry
in marriage and provides for imprisonment of 6 years and fine equal to dowry
Factors responsible for these crimes:
There are various factors responsible for these crimes. Some of the main reasons
are quoted below:
- Gender discrimination:
All these crimes have their root in gender discrimination. Women folk is
considered as inferior to that of men. Women from their childhood are being
compared to men, they are restricted in every sense may it be education,
freedom to go anywhere, freedom to make decisions ,freedom to choose life
partner. The will of men are being thrusted upon women. This
sense of superiority make men free to commit any crime against women and to
treat them like anything they want.
Children are being raised in a set up from
their childhood ,where they are taught that women are weak, dependent, meant to
do household chores only, this ultimately gives male child a sense of
superiority due to which they grew up with a mind set that women are dependent
inferior to them and they hold a total control over them. This mind set of being
superior ultimately lead to crimes.
- No proper implementation of laws:
Even though there are numerous laws to deal
with the crimes against women happening in society but the crimes are still
raising at an alarming rate and scale of crime continues to go up. Lack of
proper implementation of laws is one of the main factors responsible for these
- Lack of legal knowledge:
People don't know about their rights ,laws,
regulatory mechanisms that are provided by legal system. If people have been
well versed with the legal knowledge ,these crimes wouldn't have gone so high
like if a victim is aware of laws she uses approaches to competent authorities
to get her rights and make every possible step to get victim punished.
- No moral education:
lack of moral education is the biggest factor responsible
for the crimes in society .children are not being inculcated with ethical and
moral values from their childhood that leads them to do these crimes and treat
women with no respect at all.
- Media and television:
women are being portrayed as a thing of attraction and
lust that automatically develops a thinking in men that they are meant to be
treated like a thing of pleasure .Also indecent things are being normalized by
television and media like that of stalking ,drinking alcohol etc that
automatically leaves an impact on peoples mind and is structuring minds of next
- Lack of awareness:
Many individuals don't know about these crimes and their
punishment, most of the victims are under fear of social stigma and under threat
of criminals due to which many of the crimes go unreported that creates a room
for criminals to commit these crimes again and again and crimes keep on rising
.Also people of unaware of these crimes as they are being normalized and people
have become used to them.
- Substance abuse:
substance abuse has also became the factor responsible for
crime's against women .substance abuse makes person intoxicated and a person
couldn't differentiate between right and wrong .Most women fell prey to
intoxication of men as they are being raped, beaten by men when they are
intoxicated .substance abuse makes a person go to any extent like if we see a
recent example in Kashmir ,a boy killed her mother and stole her jewellery for
- Stigmatization of victims:
victims are being stigmatized on reporting of
crimes ,they get a social stigma that hinders them to report the cases or raise
their voice against the crimes happening with them. This encourages criminals to
repeat the crimes and scale of crimes keep raising and women keep on suffering.
- Subservient role of women:
Female submission has been endorsed as
inborn/natural to women's nature. women are expected to obey men unquestioningly
that deprive them of their rights .The men are raised to lead and take charge
while women are taught to take responsibility of maintaining peace in home. This
again leads to ill treatment of women. Women find safety in allowing the male to
dominate the relationship and because the submissive role is automatically
expected women fear changing the situation.
- Economic instability of women:
women are mostly economically dependent on
women due to various factors ,they are not given free hand to education, job
etc. less wages are paid to them as compared to men for same work .this
dependence gave men a sense of superiority as they perceive women as helpless
and subject them to different crimes.
Recently, during our industrial tour to industrial sector while talking to the
female workers they made some statements that were enough to describe their
situation of being deprived of their rights, they said that for same work for
which men are paid 9k we are paid 4k,while questioning about sexual harrasment
or being treated as inferior ,they remain silent and one among them said ,we are
destitute they are not .This statement was huge and described the miserable
condition of women folk in society.
The NCRB report also shows that the rate of crime against women (number of
Incidents per 1 lakh Population) increased from 56.5 per cent in 2020 to 64.5
per cent in 2021.Crime against women Rose by 15.3 per cent in 2021 from the
previous year, according to latest data released by the National Crime Records
Bureau (NCRB), with 4,28,278 cases registered last year following 3,71,503 cases
A total of 4,28,278 cases of crime against women were registered during 2021,
showing an increase of 15.3% over 2020 (3,71,503 cases).Majority of cases under
crime against women under IPC were registered under 'Cruelty by husband or His
Relatives' (31.8%) followed by 'Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her
Modesty' (20.8%), 'Kidnapping & Abduction of Women' (17.6%) and 'Rape' (7.4%).
The crime Rate registered per lakh women population is 64.5 in 2021 in
comparison with 56.5 in 2020.
A total of 43,414 cases of crime against women were registered during 2021,
showing an increase of 22.9% over 2020 (35,331 cases).Majority of cases under
crime against women were registered under 'Cruelty by Husband or his relatives'
(33.0%) followed by 'Kidnaping & Abduction of Women' (20.0%), 'Assault on Women
With Intent to Outrage her Modesty' (17.5%), and 'Rape' (7.4%).
Biased definition of rape .
No sex education.
No proper implementation of laws.
||Preference to male child.
weak social security.
taking females as burden
||Lack of moral education.
No proper sensitization.
Lack of awareness.
Social-stigmatization of victims.
Lack of awareness.
Lack of education.
Unregulated and unchecked sale of acid.
Lack of awareness.
Traditions and customs.
Poor behavioral control.
Social shame of victims.
Lack of education.
B.A-LLB 6th Semester -
Central University Of Kashmir
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