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Understanding the Development of the Social Protection Program Implemented in Tanzania

Tanzania has initiated different social protection programs that aim for the reduction of poverty and promotion of equality and human rights, which lead to improving the living standard of the citizen. The paper focused on explaining the different programs implemented by the government of Tanzania to enhance the improvement of social protection and quality of life and initiate strategies to reduce poverty in society.

The paper focused on the three main pillars of social protection in Tanzania Social insurance, social security, social assistance, and active labour market. The government of Tanzania initiates different social protection development policies in the country. The Tanzanian case serves as an example of how outside organizations affect social development protection methods in developing nations, even if they are the insurance owners. Domestic institutions can create, carry out, and record policies.

Their ability to succeed primarily relies on the assistance they receive from other organizations. Supporting evidence-based publications and marketing initiatives, funding pilot projects, and promoting of social justice can be significantly influenced by outside parties�designs for protection policies. Without substantial institutional ownership and support, Innovative partners and suggested ideas have a lower likelihood of receiving enough political backing.

Introduction And Background
Social protection programs account for an important component of Government expenditures and complement other Government social spending, including education and health spending. In the fiscal year 2016, the Government of Tanzania's total expenditures on social protection amounted to 2.35 percent of GDP.
  1. This included social assistance, pensions, employment programs, and generalized subsidies, which together amount to about TZS 2,436.7 trillion (US$ 1.11 billion).
  2. Old age pensions are the biggest spending component of the social protection system in Tanzania. Spending on social assistance and generalized subsidies are also significant, while spending on employment programs is relatively low. The Government of Tanzania has made considerable strides to strengthen the social protection system in the country over the last decade. [1]

There have been four main positive trends in the social protection system. First, the Government increased social protection expenditures, demonstrating its commitment to social protection.

Second, social assistance has shifted from food and in-kind-based programs, which are generally inefficient, to more efficient cash-based programs. Third, social assistance has shifted from relatively untargeted programs to those which are targeted more directly at poor people. Fourth, social assistance programs have eased demand-side constraints faced by households when investing in human capital. As a result, education and health have become more affordable to poor households, potentially reducing the intergenerational transmission of poverty

According to the World Bank Organization, Social protection is:
"The set of public measures that a society provides for its members to protect them against economic and social distress that would be caused by the absence or a substantial reduction of income from work as a result of various contingencies (sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age, and death of the breadwinner); the provision of health care; and, the provision of benefits for families with children.".[2]

Social protection programs play a key and vital role in any country in promoting human rights and equality for all, reducing poverty and inequality, supporting inclusive development and growth by improving human capital and productivity, facilitating domestic demand and structure, and transforming the growth of the national economy. From International Labour Organization (ILO) One of the main policy challenges in achieving sustainable growth and productive and decent employment is limited access to social protection.

ILO's two-dimensional approach to the extension of social security, which incorporates the established order of a countrywide social safety floor, emphasises the importance of investing in people's social protection as a means of reducing poverty and recognizing social protection as a human right. ILO believes that such investments will assist international locations in expanding the overall efficient ability of the population, making a contribution to the formalization Of employment, guide monetary and social change, foster sustainable and equitable growth, lessen vulnerability, and raise monetary and social development.

One of the important of to bring social protection to the Development Agenda. Social protection is the key element in national strategy in promoting human rights, gender equality, political stability, and inclusive growth.[3]

Tanzania's social protection is based on a formal and informal social protection system. This is among the developing country with the low-income country behind in social protection coverage, relevant and different policies and guidelines, and well-organized social protection programs and intervention systems. This program is based on how to take care of ourselves and each other to manage the risk.

Formal social protection in Tanzania is based on social insurance which is based on a contributions system such as the social security system and social assistance system such as a Productive social safety net program under a scheme known as Tanzania social action fund (TASAF). Social Assistance based on the non-Contribution system.

The social security scheme in Tanzania started back in 1945 when all national social security schemes were handled by National Provident Fund (NPF). The National Provident Act of enacted in 1964 and amended in 1968. NPF become defunded in 1997 and Act parliament No 28 of 1997 was replaced by the National social security fund (NSSF).

By the way, social assistance in Tanzania is non-contributory that provided to the targeted group (The elders, children, people with desirability, working age, women, and vulnerable groups) in the country. There is different social assistance program, implemented in both Mainland and Zanzibar. The program is designed to promote human rights, equality, and social protection to all for the effects and eradicate poverty in the community for a long time. It is based on productive social safety net, cash transfer, Kind transfer, etc.

Component And Core Instrument Of Social Protection In Tanzania;

From the perspective of the National social protection Framework (NSPF) in the Vision of social protection in Tanzania which influences the development Agenda.

In 2003, the government enacted the National Social Security Policy under the Ministry of Labor, Youth Development, and Sports. This process started in 2001 and was done in consultation with a range of stakeholders (URT, 2003). The document's definition of social security is in line with the ILO conceptualization of social security being a three-tier system consisting of:
  1. Social assistance, which is-contributory assistance to poor and vulnerable groups;
  2. Mandatory schemes, which are contributory insurance payments through employment; and
  3. Private savings, as in voluntary savings schemes for retirement and insurance against events such as ill health and loss of income.[4]

To have the nation protect their citizen from poverty (poor), Vulnerable people and promote inclusive growth, and provide a minimum acceptable standard of living to all of Tanzania.

Tanzania's component and core instrument of social protection comprises different instruments and implementation programs in the promotion of social protection.

From the following chart:
Social Insurance Schemes/Social Security Schemes Social Assistance Schemes Labour
Old age pension Cash transfer (conditional or non-conditional or public work) Active labour market
Disability In-kind transfer (school, feeding, fertilizer, and seeds Regulation.
Maternity Tax, Fees waves, and incentive  
Unemployment subsidies  
Informal saving pooling.    

Social Insurance Schemes.

Much of the literature on social protection in Tanzania has described social protection because the safety supplied via way of means of society to its individuals via public measures towards the financial and social misery that could in any other case be resulting from the stoppage or discount of income springing up from contingencies.

In maximum cases, the contingencies are related to both a transient or everlasting lack of income (Hauled 1994; Omari 1994; Mallya 1994). Examples of contingencies that might reason financial and social misery consist of sickness, employment injury, occupational disease, maternity, vintage age, invalidity, death, and unemployment.

Tanzania social security schemes based on contribution. The Social security act of 2018 applied in Tanzania's Mainland. Social protection in Tanzania which based on social security schemes and comprises National Social Security schemes and the public service social security fund (PSSF).
  1. National Social Security Fund (Nssf);

    The national social security fund was established under the National social security act [Cap 50. R.E 2018] to provide social security services to the member of the Private sector and Informal sector.

    The core function of this scheme is based on the contribution. Member should contribute through his employer 20% twenty per centum of the employee's monthly wages as follow:
    • Employees contribute 10%
    • Employers contribute 10%
    • Employer may opt to contribute at a greater rate.[6]
    Under the National social security act section 6 Employer and employees are registered by the Fund from different categories like the private sector which include companies, non-organization, and religious organization and other is an employee employed in international organization in Tanzania Mainland, Foreigners employed in Tanzania Mainland, Self-employed and any other categories explain and specified by Minister.

    The National social security fund investment activity is conducted according to the fund's investment policy guidelines of social security schemes the Bank of Tanzania (BOT),2021(Made under section 26(6) and 48(a) of the social security (Regulatory Authority) Act cap 135).

    The schemes have different benefits as a long-term benefit and short-term benefits as followed:
    1. Benefit according to (NSSF) National Social Security Fund Act [CAP. 50. R. E. 2017] Part IV section 21 (1)
      1. retirement pension (b) invalidity pension; (c) survivors' pension; (d) funeral grants; (e) maternity benefit (f) unemployment benefit; and (g) health insurance benefit (2) The benefits payable under this Act may be segmented in accordance with the provisions of this Act[7]
      2. Pension is a term that expresses all long-term benefits offered by the Fund. It defines periodical payments given to a retired member, invalid persons, and survivors of the deceased member to replace the loss of income resulting from old age, disability, or death.[8]
  2. Public Service Social Security Fund (Pssf);

    The Public Service Social Security Fund was established by the Public Service Social Security Fund Act, Cap 371 ("PSSSF Act"). The Act repealed the Public Service Retirement Benefits Act, the LAPF Pensions Fund Act, the GEPF Retirement Benefits Fund Act, and the PPF Pensions Fund Act and applies in Mainland Tanzania in respect of all employers and employees in the Public Service.

    The main purpose of the Fund is to provide for the collection of contributions and payment of benefits to its members. Under the Act, the contributions payable by an Employer are 20% of the employee's monthly salary constituting 5% deducted from the employee's salary and 15%contributed by the employer. These rates can be varied by the Minister responsible for finance by an order published in the Government Gazette.[9]

    This regulation turned assented through the President of Tanzania Hon John Joseph Pombe Magufuli the eighth of February 2018 and posted on the ninth of February 2018, vide GN No. 6, Vol. ninety-nine of 2018. The Act applies in Mainland Tanzania in appreciation of all employers and personnel withinside the Public Service.

    Public Service is described beneath neath the Act with the aid of using connection with the means ascribed to it beneath Neath the Public Service Act and which definition consists of judicial provider, parliamentary provider, police pressure, and prison provider and provider withinside the exact corporations. Under the Public service social security act 2018 section 2.

    The member or claimant must apply for benefits/grants by submitting the corresponding applications. All the application forms are available online to download and they must be presented for processing at the branch offices.[10]

    The following benefits shall be payable under:
    This Act: [11]
    1. retirement benefit;
    2. survivors' benefit;
    3. invalidity benefit;
    4. maternity benefit;
    5. unemployment benefit;
    6. sickness benefit; and
    7. death gratuity.[12]
The main function of the Public social security fund (PSSF) is the Collection of contributions and the payment of the terminational of employees of public services.

Social Assistance Schemes.

In terms of social assistance in Tanzania is based on the Product social safety net program (PSSNP) implemented in Tanzania's mainland and Zanzibar.

Social Assistance (Social Safety Net) Programs;

are non-contributory applications designed to goal bad /targeted people and susceptible humans and assist them to deal with continual poverty and destitution. Examples of those packages include unconditional and conditional coin transfers, noncontributory social pensions, meals and in-type transfers, college meal packages, public works, and rate waivers. They may additionally encompass orphanages, systems for disabled people, and care for aged people.

The government of Tanzania has developed different programs for poverty reduction for the year 2000-2003 with the help of different donors introducing a Poverty reduction strategic program known as the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP)[13] this program is also known as MKUKUTA -1 and MKUKUTA -2 for the year 2005-2010 and 2010-2015. This program worked for five years in both Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar. NSGRP was implemented with the aim of reduction of poverty and growth of income, Improving the life standard of people and social well-being, and promoting good governance and accountability. MKUKUTA-I AND II were based on implementing the Millennium development goals and Sustainable development goals vision 2025 in Tanzania.

In MKUKUTA II the operational objectives for social safety are I) the Proportion of inclined children [...], disabled, and eligible adults blanketed with social safety measures increased, and ii) the Proportion Of eligible aged human beings reached with minimal social safety increased (URT 2010: 70- 71).

The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania started implementing Tanzania Social Action Fund in 2000, offering an approach to poverty alleviation that also supported the decentralization agenda. During 2009 � 2012, under Tanzania Social Action Fund a conditional cash transfer (CCT) was piloted in three districts Kibaha, Bagamoyo, and Chamwino in Tanzania Mainland. The impact evaluation of the pilot showed significant impacts on health, education, and household asset creation. On the basis of this, the traditional Social Action Fund interventions evolved into a comprehensive and integrated social safety net system since 2012 with the implementation of the first phase of the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN I)

The objective of PSSN I was to enable poor households to increase incomes and opportunities while improving consumption. PSSN, I achieved its target of reaching and registering its intended beneficiary population of one million households by September 2015. Through PSSN I (2013 � 2019) Cash transfers have been provided to over one million households in 10,000 villages in 161 Project Area Authorities (City/Municipal/District/Town Councils) in Unguja and Pemba in Zanzibar.[14]

The cash benefit offered to beneficiary households includes a basic transfer for all targeted households, an additional unconditional transfer for households with children, and a conditional cash transfer with co-responsibilities related to the uptake of health services for the youngest children and to school attendance for school-age children. In addition, two more components of public works and livelihood enhancement were implemented and the public works program reached nearly 300,000 households in 44 PAAs with over 3,500 subprojects completed. The livelihoods component was piloted in 8 PAAs with more than 5,000 savings groups with 74,000 savers formed.[15]

PSSN, I established appropriate institutional structures for program management at the national, PAA, ward, and community levels. The computerized management information system (MIS) is functional; whilst beneficiaries still largely receive their transfers in cash, mechanisms for making electronic payments have been pilot tested; there is a grievance redress mechanism (GRM) in place; and the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system has demonstrated its capacity to generate timely information on inputs, outputs, and results.[16]


Policies and initiatives aimed at promoting employment, the effective functioning of labor markets, and worker protection are known as labor market interventions.

For the impoverished who are able to find work, labor market interventions, which include both active and passive measures, offer protection. While passive programs like income support, unemployment insurance, and labor law amendments help the unemployed with their financial requirements, they are not intended to increase their employability. Active programs, on the other hand, concentrate on enhancing unemployed workers' ability to immediately reach the labor market.

Active labor market policies (ALMPs) have two main goals: economic, which includes lowering the risk of unemployment, and improving job seekers' employability, and social, which includes enhancing social inclusion and participation in productive employment. Thus, these initiatives seek to broaden employment options and solve

Although Tanzania has undergone structural changes and several economic reforms have been initiated, the most labor-intensive sectors � agriculture, tourism, and infrastructure - have not fully benefitted from these reforms.[17]

The Tanzanian lab our marketplace has tremendous challenges. The majority of Tanzanians who input the labor marketplace every year are hired withinside the agriculture and casual sectors in which productiveness and remunerations are low thanks to constrained training and skills, insufficient infrastructure investment, and absence of get entry to farm inputs, extension services, credit, current era application, alternate and advertising, and marketing.

That the term "discrimination" must not be interpreted in a way that prevents the government from taking deliberate actions to address impairments in society.

The Employment and Labor Relations Act of 2004 forbids discrimination against employees, either directly or indirectly, based on their race, national origin, social origin, political opinion, or religion, as well as their gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, or parental responsibilities, disability, HIV/AIDS, age, or station in life. Affirmative action, however, is not prejudice.

To distinguish, exclude, or favor any person based on a job's inherent requirements; to employ citizens in accordance with the National Employment Promotion Services Act, 1999; or to take other actions consistent with the promotion of equality or the elimination of discrimination in the workplace. any individual who violates these rules and breaks the law. If found guilty, the offender would face a punishment of up to five million Tanzanian shillings.

Tanzania's labor regulation is controlled by the Employment and Labor Relations Act, 2004 it explains the different right to have to labor, the Right to exercise freedom of association, the Right to be supplied with the Contract of Service/Statement of Particulars, the Right to annual leave, Right to maternity/paternity/sick leave.

Right to certificate of service on termination, Right to remuneration and written statement of particulars supporting each payment of remuneration, Right to payment for the overtime worked and night work allowance, Right to daily and weekly rest periods as provided for in the Act, Right to be repatriated to the place of recruitment on termination and right to daily subsistence allowance between the termination date and the date of transporting an employee and family to the place of recruitment.

There are a lot of challenges facing social protection in Tanzania which brings to poor coverage of social protection. even as a popular loss of monetary sources and ability each inside authorities and civil society have been compounding factors, A 'loss of political willing lead to failure to offer adequate social safety to the poor' (Lerisse et al. 2003; Mchomvu et al. 2002). In fact, as past due as 2009.

Tanzania most effectively spent 0.29 in line with cent of its GDP on social protection nets, which become tons much less than any of its neighboring countries (World Bank 2015). Thus, even though financial constraints are considerable, Tanzania nonetheless spent significantly much less than different nations on a comparable monetary level.

Due lack of political willing lead to the failure to offer adequate and strong social protection in the country. Tanzania's government should establish strong social protection policies and promote awareness among the citizen. From this perspective, Government initiates different implementation programs in the fight agist poverty since 2000 as MKUKUTA I and II but still cover a low number of the population of the country. In terms of social security coverage in Tanzania less than 1 percent of the entire population and about 6.5 percent of the formal working population.

The above data show a clear picture of low coverage of social security in terms of old age pension, unemployment, maternity, and health care system. With regard to social protection and social security would be that in order to achieve universal coverage, which is generally acknowledged as the keystone of the anti-poverty strategy, the state must intervene in production, redistribution, and reproduction in addition to providing protection.

It reaffirms the value of a comprehensive and all-encompassing strategy to social policy in reducing inequality and poverty. Reproduction would be the only method capable of addressing the issues with the currently dominant approach to social policy, privatization, and targeting in developing countries. This approach is based on the universalism principle and intervenes in all of the major functions of society, such as production, redistribution, protection, and Reproduction.

  1. Financing Social Protection in Tanzania, World Bank 2018
  3. visited on 15/03/23,20:00 IST
  4. The development of social protection policies in Tanzania, 2000-2015, University of cape town, Centre of social science research.
  5. visited on 15/03/23,19;00 IST
  6. visited on 16.03.23,2:32 IST
  7. National Social Security Fund Act [CAP. 50. R. E. 2017] Part IV section 21 (1)
  8. visited on 16.03.23:3:00 IST
  9. Report Of The Controller And Auditor General On The Audit Of Financial Statements Of The Public Service Social Security Fund (Psssf) For The Financial Year Ended 30th June, 2020.
  10. visited on 17.03.23 4;30 IST
  11. Public Service Social Security Fund Act, (No. 2), 2018 (PSSSF, "the Act")
  12. visited on 17.03.23 05;00 IST
  13. The development of social protection policies in Tanzania, 2000-2015, University of cape town, Centre of social science research.
  14. TASAF ( visited 17.03.23,18;00 IST
  15. TASAF
  16. TASAF
  17. ILO ( on18.03.23 ,21:00 IST
Written By:
  1. Laurance Judica Mlay, Student of MA (Political Science) - University of Mysore
    Email: [email protected]
  2. Amanullah Shahzada, Executive Member, Voice of Differently Abled Persons, Afghanistan
    Email: [email protected]

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