10th schedule (Anti-defection Law)
Those who switch between political parties are discouraged by the 10th Schedule
of the Indian Constitution. It serves as a check on members of one political
party who would otherwise defect to another. Additionally, it enables MPs and
MLAs to switch parties without suffering any repercussions. 10th schedule of the
Indian constitution is commonly referred to as the Anti-Defection Law.
Anti-Defection Law was introduced to make sure that a party member does not
violate the party's objective, and if he does, he will lose his membership of
the House. The anti-defection statute was enacted in 1985 as part of the 52nd
Amendment Act and also it was included in the Tenth Schedule of the Indian
BACKGROUND OF ANTI-DEFECTION LAW
An MLA named Gaya Lal of Haryana in 1967, changed his party thrice in a day and
after which the phrase "Aya Ram Gaya Ram
" became popular in Indian
Politics. Insecure conditions were established for the operation of state and
federal governments as a result of the frequent defections of elected and
nominated party members.
An anti-defection statute was recognised as being necessary in order to try and
stop such political defections. When Rajiv Gandhi served as India's prime
minister from 1984 to 1989, he put out a measure to end the ills of defecting.
The 52nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution, which took effect in 1985, added
the 10th Schedule, also known as the "Anti-Defection Law". Eventually, one
modification to the Tenth Schedule provisions was made by the 91st Amendment Act
of 2003. It removed an exemption clause that specified that in the case of a
split, the defection-related disqualification would not apply.
PROVISION UNDER ANTI-DEFECTION LAW
There are certain provisions that have been suggested by the 10th schedule of
the Indian Constitution.
The candidates can be disqualified on the basis of certain grounds such
- If an elected member gives up his membership of a political party
- If he votes or abstains from voting in the House, contrary to any
direction issued by his political party.
- If any member who is independently elected joins any party.
- If any nominated member joins any political party after the end of 6
- The decision on disqualification questions on the ground of defection is
referred to the Speaker or the Chairman of the House, and his/her decision
- All proceedings in relation to disqualification under this Schedule are
considered to be proceedings in Parliament or the Legislature of a state as
is the case.
EXCEPTION UNDER ANTI-DEFECTION LAW
In unambiguous circumstances, lawmakers can switch parties without taking a
chance with preclusion. The counter deserting regulation allows any political
gathering to join with or into another in the event that at least two-thirds of
its lawmakers support the consolidation. Neither the people that are being
referred to who select to blend nor the individuals who are faithful to the old
party will be precluded for this situation.
Any elected Chairman has the option to withdraw from his party and reunite it if
he relinquishes his position. Previously, the legislation permitted the
splitting of parties, but this is now prohibited.
In 1985, a 'merger' was defined as a 'defection' by one-third of the elected
representatives pertaining to a political party.
Therefore, the 91st Constitutional Law Act of 2003 presented the amendments,
mandating at least two-thirds of a party's members to support a "merger" in
order for it to be legal.
91st AMENDMENT ACT (2003)
The 91st Amendment Act of 2003 included the following changes to limit the size
of the Council of Ministers, prohibit defectors from holding public office, and
tighten anti defection legislation. The entire number of ministers in the
Central Council of Ministers, including the Prime Minister, should not exceed
15% of the Lok Sabha's total strength.
A member of either House of Parliament belonging to any political party who is
disqualified on the premise of defection will likewise be ineligible to be
appointed as a minister. The overall number of ministers in a state's Council of
Ministers, including the Chief Minister, should not exceed 15% of the entire
strength of that state's Legislative Assembly. However, the number of ministers
in a state, including the Chief Minister, cannot be less than 12.
A member of either House of a state legislature from any political party who is
disqualified for defection is likewise disqualified for appointment as a
minister. A member of either House of Parliament or either House of a State
Legislature from any political party who is disqualified on the basis of
defection is likewise barred from holding any remunerative political job.
The term "remunerative political post" refers to:
- Any office under the Central Government or a state government where the
salary or remuneration for such office is paid out of the public revenue of
the concerned government;
- Any office under a body, whether incorporated or not, which is wholly or
partially owned by the Central Government or a state government and the
salary or remuneration for such office is paid by such body, except where
The clause in the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection statute) relating to
exemption from disqualification if one-third of the legislature party separated
has been removed. It means that defectors are no longer protected on the basis
SOME LANDMARK JUDGEMENTS OF SUPREME COURT
- In the Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillu and others Instance of 1992,
the High Court held that legal survey can't be accessible at a phase
preceding the creation of a choice by the Speaker/Director. Nor would
impedance be allowable at an interlocutory phase of the procedures conveyed
by the Speaker/Executive. Nonetheless, before this case the choice of the
Speaker/Executive was viewed as last and was not expose to legal audit. This
arrangement was delivered unlawful by the High Court.
- In the Ravi S Naik vs Union of India Case of 1994, the Supreme
Court cleared that the phrase "voluntary gives up membership of a political
party" had wider connotations and was not synonymous with resignation.
- In the Rajendra Singh Rana versus Master Prasad Maurya case of 2007,
the High Court expressed that assuming that the Speaker neglects to follow
up on a grumbling, or acknowledges cases of parts or consolidations without
making a finding, he neglects to go about according to the 10th Timetable.
He is likewise viewed as infringing upon his protected obligations.
- In Mannadi Satyanarayan Reddy v Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
and Or The inquiry was raised in regards to the jurisdiction of Speaker
or Presiding Officials. The court held that there isn't anything in
paragraphs 1, 2, and 6 of the 10th Schedule which fetters exercise of
jurisdiction by the Speaker to choose this inquiry.
ROLE OF SPEAKER
After establishment, a few lawmakers and gatherings took advantage of provisos
in the law. There was proof that the law didn't satisfy the motivation behind
carrying an end to political defection, and as a matter of fact legitimized mass
defection by excluding from its provisions acts that it termed splits. For
instance, in 1990, Chandra Shekhar and 61 different parliamentarians didn't get
punishments when they at the same time changed loyalty.
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha didn't permit the defecting members from the
breakaway group of Janata Dal to make sense of their point of view. One more
part of the law which was reprimanded was the job of the Speaker in concluding
the cases emerging out of political defections. Unprejudiced nature of the
Speakers of different houses was addressed with respect to giving authority
acknowledgment to various groups of political parties.
Questions were raised about the impartial job of the Speaker because of his/her
political foundation with the party from which he/she was chosen as the Speaker.
In 1991, Janata Dal was blamed for sabotaging the soul of the Anti-Defection Law
by continuing to abscond individuals in ministerial posts.
Afterward, all the Opposition members from the house presented an affidavit to
the President of India, interesting to him to excuse the priests. At last,
answering strain to save the fallen respect of the Speaker and of the House, the
Prime Minister released the defecting members from their ministerial posts.
A few lawful illuminators of the time proposed that a genuine cure be made open
to lawmakers to look for insurance from the Speaker's choice. They further
suggested that the Speaker's choice relating to disqualification on the grounds
of defection ought not be conclusive, and suggested that a process of Judicial
review be made accessible to the members by enabling a Judicial Tribunal for
managing such cases.