In a developing nation like India in past two decades there has been seen a
rapid growth not only in the Cyber World but also in all other sectors, with
latest technologies and high speed internet, India is moving fast forward , but
along with the growth in virtual world a significant growth in number of Cyber
Crimes in India is also witnessed.
The term internet is not a new term for all . It has been in existence since
1983 . Internet has proved to be both boon and bane for the Indian people .
Internet has brought a major technological revolution in the whole India which
has completely changed the thinking process and working style of the people.
It has eased the mode of communication with people residing far away from us .
It has certainly become an essential part of our everyday lives. It has brought
everyone together , each and every information about everyone is available with
a single click on Internet. With developing technologies and advancements in our
country a new form of crime that is Cyber Crime has also increased in a past few
years various forms of cyber crime are for example:
Cyber Bullying, Cyber Stalking, Phishing, Spoofing, Identity Theft, cyber
terrorism etc. are some of the Cyber Crimes but still there is a long list
Cyber bullying is that kind of cyber offence where the person make the use of
technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person or causing
Online threats and sending someone aggressive, or rude texts, tweets, posts, or
messages with intent to harm his/ her reputation . So therefore posting
someone's personal information, pictures, or videos to hurt or embarrass someone
publically is called that an offence of cyber bullying is being committed .
In other words, it's anything that gets posted online and is meant to hurt,
harass, or upset someone else.
It is a kind of online communication in which a person or a group of persons
destroy the reputation and privacy of a person, which in consequence causes
long-lasting traumatizing impact on the mind of that person. It means if a
person uses the internet in a wrongful manner which affects the life of a
This research article focuses on what did cyber bullying means, as to why it
happens, dealing with different types of cyber bullying , and will discuss the
cyber bullying laws prevailing in different countries at global level and also
dealing with the Indian Legislations such as the Information Technology Act,
2000 & the Indian Penal Code,1860.
Nowadays, when the internet is present in every sector of our lives like in
(education, information, shopping, etc), adolescents are fascinated by the
opportunities of the new technologies. Youngsters use the internet and mobile
phones for easy access to knowledge, for better and wider communication, for
social interactions; and all of these can be done at any time or at any place.
However, all these are the benefits of the new technologies but along with this
there are some threats for the school and college going students in this virtual
world most of the today's generation instead of using internet for some
innovative and informative motive they move to wrong directions they try to have
access to pornography, doing online bullying , stalking through electronic media
etc has increased nowadays.
Young adults can also use the internet and mobile phones for doing wrongful
actions which are being prohibited by law which includes sending shameful
pictures or messages, threatening someone, spreading rumors about someone ,
sarcastic comment on physical characteristics of someone with intention to
harass him/ her, or using a fake identity or taking revenge.
Such online activities are called cyberbullying which is also defined as "an
aggressive act or anti social behavior that is done using electronic means by a
group or an individual repeatedly against a victim who cannot easily defend
So therefore it can be said that, cyberbullying is a type of bullying occurring
by the use of digital technology . The term cyberbullying can be called by
different names such as : cyber bullying, e-bullying, cyber harassment, text
bullying, SMS bullying, mobile bullying, digital bullying, internet bullying. In
this paper we will use "cyberbullying" to refer to the harassment of the others
through new electronic technologies, first of all by the internet and smart
Meaning Of Bullying
The term Cyber bullying was for the first time coined by Bill Belsey, who was a
Canadian educator. Cyber bullying means using both information and communication
technology beyond the limit with the intention to harm a person's reputation,
state of mind, or to humiliate a person. It is an act by which the person being
bullied suffers an adverse effect.
Cyber bullying is bullying that takes place through the medium of digital
devices like cell phones, computers, and tablets, I pads laptops etc . Cyber
bullying can occur through SMS, Text messages, and on chat rooms , forums, or
online games where people can view, participate in, or share contents.
Cyberbullying means sending, posting, or sharing negative thoughts , harmful,
false, or mean content about someone else. It can include sharing personal or
private information of someone else causing embarrassment or humiliation. Some
of the acts of cyber bullying also include unlawful or criminal behavior.
The most common places where cyber bullying occurs are:
- On Social Media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Tik
Tok, whatssap , v chat, skype etc.
- On Text messages and messaging apps on mobile or tablet devices
- Instant messaging, direct messaging, and online chatting over the
- Online forums, chat rooms, and message boards, such as Reddit
- Online gaming communities.
Bullying is unwanted, aggressive and anti social behavior among school aged
children who commits cyber bullying with their classmates which involves teasing
, embarrassing , making sexually colored remarks to girl child or discloses the
private information regarding someone to cause annoyance . This behavior is
frequently repeated by the perpetrator .
One student shared that "all bullying hurts, whether in person or through
technology, the ultimate output is that bullying in any form is causing
emotional damage to the victim "Some of the most common cyber bullying tactics
- Posting rude comments or rumors about someone online that are mean,
hurtful, or embarrassing in nature
- Threatening to hurt someone
- Posting a mean or hurtful picture or video.
- Pretending to be someone else online in order to solicit or post
personal or false information about someone else.
- Posting mean or hateful names, comments, or content about any race,
religion, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics online.
- Creating a mean or hurtful webpage about someone.
A few cyber bullying examples are provided here to help you understand what
cyber bullying or anti-bullying is.
Cyber bullying may take many different forms across a variety of internet
- Humiliating/embarrassing content posted online about the victim of
- Hacking of account
- Posting vulgar messages
- Threatening the victim to commit an act of violence
- Child pornography or threats of child pornography
- Doxing, an acronym for "doxing," is a type of online harassment used to
exact retribution and to threaten and obliterate people's privacy by making
their private information, such as addresses, social security numbers,
credit card numbers, phone numbers, links to social media accounts, and
other details, public.
- Bullying includes actions such as making threats, spreading rumors,
attacking someone verbally, and excluding someone from a group for specific
Causes Of Cyber Bullying
- The primary cause of cyberbullying is when a person who commits the
offence is completely unknown , in which a person who is bullying can easily
target anyone over the internet by hiding his/her original identity.
- There are various other factors which are responsible for a person to
become a cyberbully such as Personality traits are responsible for
cyberbullying behavior or anti social behavior.
- Another primary cause is online shyness or hampering , in which a person
bullies others with the motives of causing harm, domination, or taking
revenge, or just for fun
- Other causes are moral disentanglement as the findings imply that,
regardless of the contemporaneous victimization status, moral disengagement
has an equal impact on bullying perpetration for those who are most engaged.
- The next one is egotism which means individuals consider social status
and authority dominant over their human relations.
- The last is aggression, which refers to overcoming negativities and
failures by force, triggering them to do cyber bullying for satisfaction.
Types Of Cyberbullying
Exclusion is the deliberate exclusion of someone. Exclusion is a factor in
both online bullying and physical bullying scenarios where a victim is
targeted. For instance, your child may be left out of message threads or
chats with people they both know while other friends are invited or involved
in groups or events.
Harassment is a broader term under which includes many types of
cyberbullying , but it generally refers to constant pattern of sending
hurtful or threatening online messages with the intention of doing harm to
Basically the term doxing, refers to the act of openly revealing sensitive
or personal information about someone without their consent with the
objective of embarrassing or humiliating them. This can also extend to
spreading of personal pictures or documents of public figures to sharing an
individual's saved personal messages in an online private group. The key is
the lack of consent from the victim.
Trickery incorporates the element of deception and is comparable to the idea
of doxing. In this type of cyberbullying, the bully would develop cordial
relationships with the victim in an effort to give them a false sense of
security. Once the bully obtains the target's trust, they take advantage of
it by disclosing the victim's secrets and personal information to one or
more third parties5. Cyberstalking.
is the recurrent contact and harassment of someone through technology, such
as social media, emails, and text messages, making them fear for their
safety. Cyberstalking is a type of cyberbullying that is similar to
in-person stalking in that it invades the privacy of the target and has the
potential to be emotionally damaging.
Frapping is when a bully posts offensive stuff using the name of your child
on social media. When friends publish amusing things to each other's
profiles, it can be innocent but also extremely dangerous. For instance, a
bully posting homophobic or racial remarks through another person's profile
to harm that person's reputation.
Masquerading occurs when a bully creates a false online identity or profile
with the intent to bully someone online. This can entail choosing a new
identity and set of images to deceive the victim, as well as creating a
false email account and social media presence. In these situations, the
bully is frequently someone the victim knows well.
Dissing refers to the act of a bully spreading cruel information about their
target through public posts or private messages to either ruin their
reputation or relationships with other people. In these situations, the
bully tends to have a personal relationship with the victim, either as an
acquaintance or as a friend.
Trolling is when a bully will seek out to intentionally upset others by
posting inflammatory comments online. Trolling may not always be a form of
cyberbullying, but it can be used as a tool to cyberbully when done with
malicious and harmful intent. These bullies tend to be more detached from
their victims, and do not have a personal relationship.
Flaming or roasting is the act of using abusive language or using profanity
to publish insults online. This phrase shouldn't be confused with trolling,
which refers to the behaviour of someone who stirs up conflict offline or
online. Flaming evolved as a result of how Internet forums' anonymity allows
users to act more violently.
Psychological Effects Of Cyber-Bullying In Adolescence
Researchers laid down in their research work that being involved in cyber
bullying has psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences both on the
victims and upon the perpetrators too:
- Many of the cyber victims feel angry, frustrated, sad and depressive.
- They also feel fear, confusion, guilt, shame, stress, and anxiety.
- Researchers who studied the correlation between involvement of the
adolescents in cyber bullying and self-esteem found that both victims and
perpetrators have lower self-esteem than the adolescents.
- It creates the feeling of depression, self harm, suicide or sometimes
suicidal thoughts also comes into the mind of the victims.
- In most of the cases it creates high level of social anxiety in the
minds of cyber victims.
- However, cyber bullying can have social effects on victims such as
isolation from friends and colleagues.
- cyber victims faces a higher risk related to school problems for example
suspension, copying out at tests, absenteeism, school aggression, lower
academic achievement and not feeling safe in school and some other
destructive behaviours are developed among such children who becomes the
victim of cyber bullying such as alcohol abuse, substance abuse, running
away from home.
- Cyberbullying can effect the physical health of a victim such as causing
weight loss or gain, headaches, abdominal pain and sleeping problems.
Indian Laws On Cyber Bullying
Information Technology Act 2000 The Information Technology Act, 2000 (Amended
in 2008), is an Indian legislation passed by the Government of India for dealing
with crimes related to the internet or cyberspace, and punishments for these
offences are also provided under rthe same act.
This act describes the cyber offences and punishment for each offence,
Cyberbullying is one such offence which causes mental agony in the mind of the
victim for life time, they cannot get over it easily, sometimes the effects of
such cyber crimes are so much extreme that the victim may commit suicide also.
It is hard to believe that there is no specific law to deal with cyberbullying
in India, but it is true. In the Amendment made in 2013 in the act, the offence
of cyberstalking was introduced as a criminal offence but cyberbullying has not
been yet introduced . Nevertheless, there are certain sections under Chapter XI
of the act which may provide remedy for the actions of cyberbullying to some
Section 66 (A):
This section deals with the punishment for the offence of sending objectionable,
derogatory, abusive, hurtful messages or material online through the internet on
any social media or any other web chat room or platform.
Section 66 (D):
"Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource" 10 If a
person deceives, cheats someone through the internet on a social media or any
other online platform, that person should be punished for up to 3 years of
imprisonment and fine of up to 1 lakh rupees.
Section 66 (E):
This section deals with the punishment for infringement of privacy, if a person
violates someone's privacy digitally, using their pictures, sharing information,
he is guilty for cyberbullying in a way and that person must be charged with a
fine up to 3 lakh rupees or imprisonment for up to 3 years under this section.
This section of the act deals with the punishment for uploading, transferring,
circulating offensive, vulgar, indecorous material on the internet / cyberspace,
with a fine up to 10 lakh rupees or imprisonment for up to 5 year.
Cyberbullying & Covid-19
- Youth are spending more time online for school, connecting with peers,
and socially interacting with friends
- Kids are still adjusting to learning and interacting with their peers
- Many young people may be feeling new and uncertain emotions due to the
pandemic, such as anxiety, anger, fear, isolation, or stress
- This unprecedented period, as well as more time spent online, have the
potential to cause an increase in cyber bullying behaviour.
Cyberbullying Laws In Different Countries:
Canada is the only country in the world which is having strictest laws to deal
with Cyber bullying . They have a legislation called the "Education Act" which
deals with cyber bullying , under which if a person is found guilty of
cyberbullying, he/she may be charged a fine of $500 or 6 months of imprisonment
To deal with cyber bullying, online harassment, Masquerading or any other
Cybercrime, all European countries have the European Data Protection
For dealing with Cyber bullying cases, the United Kingdom has the
Malicious Communications Act legislation under which, if found a person is
involved in cyber bullying, it could lead to burly fine or imprisonment for six
months or more. There are other laws like Computer Misuse Act, 1990 and various
other legislations for dealing with it.
In USA, the Central Legislation for Cyberbullying crimes is the Magna carta
Cyber bullying Prevent Act , though there are different legislations in
different states, Hawaii: As per the Law, if a student gets involved in the act
of cyber bullying, A sampling of cyber bullying laws around the world he/she may
be charged with $100 fine.
As per the H.B. 1259 Act, 989, if a student is found blameable of cyber bullying
he may be charged with a $500- or six-months imprisonment.
According to the Grace's Law, the cyber bullies must be charged with a $500
fine, Wrongdoing and one year imprisonment.
As per the 14-458.1, the cyber bullies are charged with misdemeanour for one
year in a major and class two misdemeanour if a minor.
Case Laws On Cyber Bullying
In the case of Sazzadur Rahman v. The State of Assam and Ors
accused created a fake Facebook profile of a 15-year-old victim. In the fake
profile, the accused mentioned the victim's name, uploaded obscene pictures, and
posted some derogatory remarks against her, which caused her to be mentally
unstable and hampered her academic growth. The trial court rejected the
application made by the accused under Section 311 of CrPC.
Thereafter, a petition under section 482 read with sections 401/397 of CrPC was
filed before the Gauhati High court for quashing the order of the trial court.
The Gauhati High Court, while dismissing the application, held that discretion
of the trial Court, which, ex facie, has been exercised judiciously on the basis
of relevant materials, cannot be interfered with either in revisional
jurisdiction or under Section 482 CrPC.
In the case of Shubham Bansal v. The State (Govt of NCT Delhi)
 , the
accused created a false Facebook account in the name of Nidhi Taneja and
included the telephone number of the victim, which caused her annoyance, insult,
and harassment and, therefore an FIR was registered against the accused.
The victim further moved another application under Section 173 (8) of CrPC
requesting further investigation by the investigating officer on account of
which the matter was remanded to the Metropolitan Magistrate for consideration.
Thereafter, an application was made by the accused for dropping the proceedings
against him under Section 66A of the IT Act and Section 509 of IPC.
The Delhi High court while refusing to entertain the application of the accused,
ordered that the investigating officer refrain from submitting his final report
till the Magistrate issued directions on the pending application filed by the
victim. The honourable court noted that the alternative course available to the
investigating officer was to file a report based on the investigation carried
out until then, reserving the right to file a supplementary challan/report in
response to the pending application made by the victim under Section 173 (8) of
CrPC seeking further investigation.
In the case of Jitender Singh Grewal v. The State of West Bengal
The accused created a fake Facebook account of the victim and uploaded her
obscene pictures to such fake Facebook account. The accused was charged under
the following Sections 354A/354D/500/509/507 of IPC and Section 67A of the IT
Act, he filed a bail application. The trial court rejected the bail application
of the accused and the Calcutta High court upheld the trial court's decision.
In the case of Prakhar Sharma v. The State of Madhya Pradesh
In addition to posting some filthy remarks and images of the victim that had
been downloaded from her original Facebook account, the accused also constructed
a phoney Facebook account for the victim. The IT Act's Sections 66(c), 67, and
67(a) were used to bring charges against the defendant. The Madhya Pradesh High
Court rejected the accused's request for bail.
In the case of Hareesh v. State of Kerala 
The applicant created a fake Facebook profile and posted the morphed obscene
pictures of the victim online and also posted her mobile number so that unknown
persons contact her and sexually exploit her. Thereafter, an anticipatory bail
application was made by the applicant apprehending arrest in respect of offences
punishable under Section 354(D) of IPC and Sections 67 and 67E of the IT Act.
The Kerala High court denied the application for anticipatory bail on the ground
that materials on record affirmed the involvement of the applicant in the
offences and it would not be proper for the court to interfere with the
Parents, children and administrators can take steps to stop cyber bullying
before it starts or becomes worse. Few suggestions are given here to prevent
cyber bullying. Discuss the serious issue of cyber bullying with your children
before it occurs:
- It's a duty of parents to tell there children not to disclose any
personal information such as name, address, phone number, pictures, e-mail
address and password at any cost .Convince your children not to open any
messages from people they do not know.
- Advise your children to come to you if they receive any messages that
make them feel uncomfortable, or causes harassment .
- Whatever circumstances may arise no response should be made to the
bullying messages online immediately .
- Do not delete bullying messages-save them for evidence, or either take
the screen shots of such messages.
- just make Print out of those offending messages.
- Try to avoid much use of internet by the children at home
- Computer should be in an open, central location.
- Monitor your child/children's computer activities.
- Set up a Google alert on your child's name.
- Be supportive to your child; you might be the first person they've told
- It's the duty of the parents to develop a friendly behaviour with your
- Document the situation and keep a detailed record with screenshots and
- Parents should teach their children regarding such kind of cybe crimes
Cyber bullying has an impact on every aspect of society. Campaigns, laws,
administrative initiatives in schools, and other activities to identify and
eliminate cyber bullying are a solid place to start when trying to solve this
issue. Promoting the wise use of technology will produce positive outcomes.
Consider banning the bully and formally reporting their behaviour on the social
media platform if the bullying is occurring there. Social media firms have a
responsibility to protect their users. To demonstrate what has been happening,
it can be useful to gather documentation, such as screenshots of social media
posts and text conversations.
By enhancing learning flexibility, creativity, and accessibility, technology has
been successfully employed to enable impressive, positive, and effective
learning as well as to improve the sense of personalised learning.
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Effects Of Cyberbullying In Adolescence Theoretical Analysis A*Mioara Boca-Zamfir
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Award Winning Article Is Written By: Ms.Shikha Bhatnagar
Authentication No: MR307801457797-19-0323
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