Reorganization Act of states 1956
The state reorganization act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change
in state boundaries after the independence of India. The act came into effect
when the seventh amendment act was enacted. Political integration after
independence and the constitution of 1950
During the time of Indian independence in 1947,it was divided into two sets of
Territories. One was under the British rule and the other under suzerainty of
British crown. The latter included 562 princely states, having different types
of revenue sharing arrangements with the British, often depending on their size,
population and local conditions. In addition, there were several colonial
enclaves controlled by France and Portugal.
The political integration of these territories into India was a declared
objective of the Indian National Congress, and the Government of India pursued
this over the next decade. Through a combination of factors, Sardar Vallabhbhai
Patel and V. P. Menon coerced and coalesced the rulers of the various princely
states to accede to India. Having secured their accession, they then proceeded,
in a step-by-step process, to secure and extend the union government's authority
over these states and transform their administrations until, by 1956, there was
little difference between the territories that had been part of British India
and those that had been princely states.
Although this process successfully integrated the vast majority of princely
states into India, it was not as successful for a few, notably the former
princely states of Jammu and Kashmir and Manipur, where active secessionist and
separatist insurgencies continued to exist due to various reasons.
Related Changes By Other Legislation
The state reorganization act was enacted on August 1956. But before it came into
effect in November, the seventh amendment was made. The existing terminology of
part A, B, C and D states was altered. The distinction between part A and B
states was removed. Union territory replaced the classification as a part C or
part D state. Another Act also came into effect which enabled transferring
certain territories from Bihar to West Bengal.
Effect of the Changes
The state reorganization act of 1956 was a major step towards dividing India
into states and union territories. Assam was one of the states we were
reorganised in November 1956. The adjoining map depicts the scenario according
to States reorganization act of 1956. However the state of Assam has been
further divided into Arunachal pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya.Bihar
reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal ( Purulia
from Manbhum district, Islampur from Purnea district.
Kerala formed by the merger of travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district
and Kesaragod taluk of South Canara district of the Madras presidency. The
southern part of Travancore cochin, Kanyakumari
district, along with Sengottai Taluk, was transferred to Madras state. The
laccadive and minicoy islands were separated from Malabar district to form a new
union territory namely laccadive, Amindivi and Minicoy Islands.
Related Changes And Reasons
The whole process of struggle involves continuous negotiation on the part of
minorities in particular and regions in general with the center on one hand and
the state on the other.The regions that have raised the demand for boundary
bifurcation from their parent states blame the central government for not
listening to their request.If their demand for a new state is fulfilled then the
people of the parent state start accusing the union government of the whole
The states from which new states' demands emerge have not been very positive
towards them and ample reasons can be explored behind this.It indicates a
failure on the part of the state government to tackle the issue of prevalent
regional inequalities.Lack of success to provide welfare and equal opportunities
to its entire people within the state.
Further, bifurcation would mean the division of monetary resources, water
natural resources, and so on.Thus, the bifurcation of the state would hit hard
on the economy of the state.Such a division would also have an impact on the
bargaining power of the state at the center. In India, the number of seats
allocated to states depends on the size of their population.Obviously, the
division of the population would have an adverse impact on the number of MPs
going to the union government.
India's federal structure is a one-of-a-kind example in which the state has been
constantly fiddling with its inner boundaries in order to maintain its 'unity in
Written By: Sibonginkosi Kositina, A Student At Lovely Professional
University Studying BA LLB.
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