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Career opportunities for law graduates in Indian Judiciary

Today we are here to discuss career opportunities for law graduates in Indian Judiciary. First, let me share my personal experiences with you. I believe it is an Amazing field to explore the rules and regulations of the nation and how it is beneficial for the whole society or world.

When I started off with my graduation, I was told that there are very less opportunities, but after the guidance and direction provided by my teacher and research work done by me, I am able to say that it is just the starting point and lots more to happen in the coming time in this sector, which not only will enhance the opportunities for the people but also sets the right path for the citizens of the country to be followed upon by.

In every field or sector, what is most important proper planning, policies and its execution and make necessary changes as per the demands or requirements of the society.

Legal Profession is the fast growing profession. It is undergoing through various changes like it has been expanded to Corporate Law, Litigation, etc.

Career in Indian Judiciary

Indian Judiciary is the structured system to deal with the problems in the society. It provides wide variety of opportunities to the Young Generation to become part of this system and helps in serving the nation in the best manner. Only law graduates can adorn the offices in all the three organs of the government; namely the legislature, Executive and the judiciary. Other graduates may occupy the higher offices of legislature and executive but not in the judiciary. This is precisely the reason why it is often said that a Law degree can open the door to a wide variety of careers, which other degree might not.

For the proper implementation of law the existence of judiciary is important. All Indians are depend on the Indian judiciary without judiciary the administration of justice is difficult.

Career as a Judge

It is the most important position in the Judicial System of India. Judges are responsible for administrating, interpreting and applying laws and article of the Constitution. It requires lot of hard work and dedication and determination towards the Judicial System. In India all the decision which is bad or good is taken by the judiciary. This Profession not only Provides Challenges in one’s life but also brings financial and social gains attach with it. In this Profession there is lot of respect and power to decide on the matter relating to the nation.

Like Nirbhaya Case or Some Terrorist case which made the whole world realize the power of the judges. Judges, in India seems to be like God for Victims as they solve various critical issues relating to the offences or serious crimes done by the Convict.

Abilities of Judge

i. Honesty towards the nation.
ii. Sense of Responsibility and Commitment.
iii. Focused mind.
iv. Passion and dedication towards the work.
Last but not least to be able to make Judgment at right time and solve the problem by studying the situation.

How to became a Judge

One can become a judge by qualifying the exam of Judicial Service Examination conducted by a Public Service Commission. For this exam the age limit varies from state to state .Every state has their age limit and the person should hold the legal degree from any recognized university or institution or the person has enrolled as an advocate with membership in the state bar council.

# Appointment of Judges

Indian constitution follows 3-tier Judicial System which involve the Union Judiciary, the State Judiciary or the Subordinate Judiciary

I. The Union Judiciary

The Supreme Court The Supreme Court of India is the apex court and is the final interpreter of the constitution and the laws. Any law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India. The Supreme Court consists of a chief Justice of India and the thirty (30) other Judges. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President after consultation with other judges of the Supreme Court and High courts Qualifications for Appointment as a judge:

Person to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court

1. He must be a citizen of India.
2. He has been for at least five years a Judge of a High Court or of two or more High Court in succession.
3. Has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more High Court in succession.
4. He is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist. The person shall hold office until he attains the age of 65 years.

II. The State Judiciary:

The High Court The State Judiciary consist of a High Court and a system of Court subordinate to the High Court within the territory of the State. Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the president may from time to time deem necessary to appoint. Every judge in a High Court is appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the state and the Chief Justice of the High Court.

Qualifications for Appointment as a Judge

A person to be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court:
1. Must be a citizen of India;
2. Must have for at least ten years held a Judicial office in the territory of India;
3. Must have for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in succession.
Judge of the High Court holds office until he attains the age of 62 years.

III. The Subordinate Judiciary : The District Court

The Subordinate Judiciary consist of a District Court. In every District there is one or more District Court. District Court also known as Succession Court when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters under the Code of Criminal procedure. The Judge of Subordinate Court (District or Succession Court) in any state shall be made by the Governor of the State, in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such state.

Qualifications for Appointment as a Judge:

To appoint a Judge in Subordinate Judiciary there are two ways mainly:
1. For Additional District Judges
a. Must be a citizen of India.
b. Must have an advocate at-least for a seven years.
c. Must have attained an age of 35 years( Age differs from state to state).
d. Qualify the exam conducted by the Higher Judicial Service.

2. For Civil Judge/ Magistrate
a. Must be a citizen of India
b. Must have an age between 21 to 35 years (Age varies from State to State ).
c. Qualify the exam conducted by the State Judicial Service.

Judicial Service Examination

The Judicial Services Examination provides a secure and comfortable tenure. Judicial Services Examination or the PCS (J)-Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Examination which they are commonly referred to, are entry-level exams for law graduates to become members of the subordinate judiciary. The state governments under the supervision of the respective high courts appoint members of the lower judiciary based on the competitive examination. Judicial Service Examination is conducted by the every state. Every State has different criteria.

Judicial Services Examination- Eligibility Criteria

Lower Judiciary Service:
* Candidates must have a law degree.
* They has enrolled or qualified to be enrolled as an advocate under Advocates Act 1961.
* No experience is required and final year candidates can also appear.
* Usually the age limit between 21 to 35 years. ( Varies According to State)

Higher Judiciary Service:
#Candidates must have a law degree.
#They have a minimum number of years of litigating practice; usually seven years.

Judicial Services Examination- Structure of the exam Judicial Service Examination is held in three successive stages namely
i. Preliminary Examination
ii. Main Examination
iii. Inter-view

I. Preliminary Examination: The preliminary examination serves as a screening for mains exam. The type of question is Multiple Choice question with negative marking. The Subject of this exam is depending on the State The marks secured in the preliminary examination are not counted for the final selection. The percentages of qualifying marks vary as per state. The minimum qualifying marks in the preliminary examination is 60 percent for general and 55 percent for reserved categories..

II. Main Examination: It is a written examination. The exam comprises three to four papers. The marks secured by candidates are counted for the final selection. Candidates equal to three times the number of vacancies are called for viva-voce.

III. Inter-view: This is the final stage of selection where candidates are assessed on general interest, personality and intelligence among other factors. It tells about the personal view of the candidate (Oral Exam).

Judicial Services Examination– Syllabus
The syllabus varies across states. It is broadly divided into Civil law, Criminal Law and Language paper. The weight given to the language paper is around 20 percent to 35 percent. The mains examination constitutes six to seven papers and almost 70 percent of the questions are of law.

Benefits and allowances
Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowance and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by Parliament, by law and until so determined, to such allowance and rights as were specified in the second Schedule. Some of the allowances that a Judge gets are:
i. House Rent Allowance
ii. Travel Allowance
iii. Electricity Bill
iv. Phone Bill
v. Vehicle Maintenance
vi. Pension after retirement

All these are some of the many allowances that the judge gets along with their basic pay scale. Also all of the judge get their own houses to live in with security guard. They also get education facility for their children and other benefits for their spouses as well.

A Supreme Court judge also gets high amount of Grade pay and allowance. The Chief Justice gets more than that. The Supreme Court Judge, like the high court Judge also gets high amount of allowance along with their basic pay scale. The Grade Pay of High Court judge will be depending on the year experience of the concerned judge. As per the responsibility of the Judge from the high Court is much higher than any other government employee as per the recommendation of the National Judicial Pay Commission the Salary of the District Judge. Civil Judge is fixed and they will not get any grade pay.

At the end, I want to conclude by narrating in the form of story my personal experiences. I love this field as it helps me serving the Country by following the law and Constitution in the best manner and practices. It helps every person involved in the judicial system to work for the society by giving the right judgment such that victim trust can be build upon for the entire life.

It requires complete dedication and passion towards the Judiciary System. As many cases in India are pending, but there are various instances which display the spirit of the people being part of Indian Judiciary when time and situation demands, Judges are ready to make difficult decisions and give judgments which are best suitable for society.

It is the direct Platform provided by the nation to the people of the country to make judgments in order to provide justice and build long term trust and healthy relationship between the Judicial System and people of the Country.

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