Ottoman Empire: (1st phase)
Ottoman Empire starts in 12th centuries. OE includes Israel, Turkey, Egypt,
Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Jorden, Lebanon, Syria and some
part of North Africa was included.
Reason of raising Ottoman Empire - all countries are very weak and unorganized;
OE have advanced military in during late 1800s and early 1900s.
Reason of falling Ottoman Empire - Social and Political instability, Poor
leadership, Balkan Wares and International negativity.
(1516 - 1917) - Palestine under Ottoman Empire where Jews, Muslims, christen but
after 1900 Jews start Zionism Movement start taking about Jew's home. It's
basically starts in 1897 in Switzerland by Theodor Herzl. In main time Palestine
also wants they're on homeland.
Britain got know about their wants and their use this situation on his interest.
1914 - Britain and Ottoman Empire fought against each other in time of 1st World
1915 - Henry McMahon's Proposal to Arab.
1917 - Arthur Balfour writes a letter to Walter Rothchild (Head of Jews
Community) it's called Balfour Declaration.
After 1st World War: - (2nd Phase)
1918 - 1st World War was finish and OE felled down. Then middle east divided
between Allied Powers.
Agreement which is exaggerated Palestine Problem:
Sykes - Picot Agreement/Asia Minor Agreement (May 1916) - This agreement name on
French and Britain deployment Mark Sykes and Francois Georges Picot. The place
divided in three place -
"A" Zone - French
"B" Zone - British
"Palestine" - International Administration because it is a holy place.
Mandate for Palestine (1922) - Palestine faced lot of problem after WW1.
Implementation of Balfour Declaration (1920). 16000 Jewish Immigrants came +
18000 Jewish Immigrants came. Arab start protest, Britain assured limitation on
Jewish immigrant that's called Mandate of Palestine. This is enforced on 1923.
After Agreement Situation: - (3rd Phase)
Jewish and Arab understand that:
At the end of Mandate two factors will play main rolled:
- Ownership over land
(1926 - 1930) - Jewish immigration limited by Britain. Later limitation is
removed due to international pressure.
1933 - Hitler's rise to power. Jewish Holocaust in 1930's & 1940's. that so why
Jewish immigration rise in Palestine. The population became in 1936, 4000,00
White paper of 1939 - because of two main parties Jewish and Arab. Where talk
about two states and limitation about Jewish immigration but this not help,
because of illegal immigration.
UN Deliration: - (4th Phase)
That so why Britain decides to hand over this situation UN. United Nation
Resolution 181, Palestine Partition Plan where in 1947 due to rising conflicts
UN decide divide the area in two parts Independent Arab and Jewish State.
Palestine divide in 8 area:
- Three area for Arab
- Three area for Jewish
- One area for Jafa (Arab area in Jewish side) Source
- Jerusalem (UN Control)
Time of the voting in UN 33 countries approved the plan 13 denied the plan (one
of the India to). Arab countries do not like this UN plan about Palestine. Arab
said this full place should be called as a Palestine. That so why they are walk
out from the voting. The plan was adopted. After 1 day of adoption civil war
start in Palestine between Jew's and British people which is called 1st Arab
Israeli War. Britisher move from Palestine 14th may 1948. Jew's people do not
have any problem about this that so why they make new country called Israel in
14th may 1948. US and Russia approved this is as a country.
After the Independence of Israel: - (5th phase)
Arab wants whole Palestine, that so why 15th may 1948, 7th country became
together and start a war against Israel. This war lasted for 10 months; Israel
wins this war. Israel taken over 78% Palestine land, Gaza strip taken over by
Egyptian Military, West Bank taken over by Jorden.
Due to that reason 7 lakh Palestine's have to leave their homeland they are
became refugees on their country. This situation called "Nakba" which
means "Disaster or Catastrophic".
After watching the widespread displacement, the response of Nakba the UN General
assembly adopted resolution 194.
Allow Palestine refuges to come back.
Compensation to those who don't want to come back.
After that many Armistices Agreement signed by Israel with Egypt, Lebanon,
Jordan, Syria to finish the War.
2nd Arab - Israel war: - (6th Phase)
This war happened in 1956 due to "Suez Canal" which is made by France in Egypt.
Suez Canal is very important international tread point and the war happened in
matter of its ownership. One side was Britain, Israel, France - other side was
Egypt and Soviet Union. In this conflict Russia's threatened to fire Nuclear
Missile on Western Europe. US urged to everyone to end the conflict and warned
all of them to be fined the economic sanctions.
Egypt won this war Abdul Nasser
emerged as a powerful leader. This war shifted world power became US and SU.
Where US established its position as Israel's friend and SU got influence over
other Arab country.
1967 6 day's War: - (7th Phase)
The war stared 13th may 1967 when SU gave intelligence report to Egypt that
Israel is preparing for Syria invasion and collecting army over there to protect
Syria from invasion, Egyptian President Abdul Naser also send their army on
Sinai Peninsula. On 5th June 200 military jets of Israel attacked on Egyptian
air fields due to which Egypt's air force was totally destroyed, Israel also did
same thing with Jorden, Syria and Iraq. 7th June Israel successfully took over
East Jerusalem and West Bank from Jorden and 4th day of the war they acquired
the territory up to the Suez Canal in which Egypt's Gaza-Strip and Sinai
Peninsula was also conquered. End of the Israel became 3 times bigger than his
size and established its military superiority in the middle east.
UN and any other country don't support this action by Israel. Abdul Naser
resigned from his post after the lost. 1970's Egypt's new president is Prez
Anwar Al Sadat. 1973 in the day of Yom Kippur or Atonement (Jew's holly day)
Egypt attack on Israel, Israel on the war.
The Camp David Accords:- (8th Phase)
The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli
Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of
secret negotiations at Camp David, the country retreat of the President of the
United States in Maryland.
The condition of the agreement is that -
Israel will give the Sinai to Egypt
Egypt and Israel can use the Suez Canal
Egypt was the first country to recognize Israel as a country
Other country appreciates the step taken by Egypt where Arab Countries became
angry about this step. 1979 Arad League suspend Egypt from their community.
1st Intifada, Israel - Palestine Conflict: - (9th Phase)
"Intifada" is an Arabic ward which means "To shake of" Palestine's use it as
"Uprising". 1st Intifada 1987 - 1993. There wear terror attacks at the Israeli
border from many years so those Arabs who were living in Gaza and West Banks
they became violent with time and their claim was to go back the territories
from Israel which they acquired in 1967 and from here only it was born of Hamas
who killed an Israeli military officer and after few moths they killed 6 more
soldiers from Israeli defense force and they motivated Palestine's to stand
against Israeli soldiers.
December 1987 an Israeli truck driver accidentally
meet a car which Palestine worker were present the roomers spared that it was
done by Israeli intentional after that widespread demonstration was started
Israelis was attacked 700 times, Israeli's army to stop the protest use tear
gas, mas arrest etc. First time Palestine's saw Israeli as oppressors and from
here Palestine Liberation Organization became a political organization to terror
Oslo Accord, Israel - Palestine Peace Agreement: (10th Phase)
The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between the Government of Israel and
the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in
Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in
The Oslo Accords marked the start of the Oslo process, a peace process aimed at
achieving a peace treaty based on United Nations Security Council Resolutions
242 and 338, and at fulfilling the "right of the Palestinian people to
self-determination." The Oslo process started after secret negotiations in Oslo,
resulting in the recognition by the PLO of the State of Israel and the
recognition by Israel of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people
and as a partner in negotiations.
The Oslo Accords created a Palestinian
Authority tasked with limited self-governance of parts of the West Bank and Gaza
Strip; and acknowledged the PLO as Israel's partner in permanent-status
negotiations about remaining questions. The most important questions relate to
the borders of Israel and Palestine, Israeli settlements, the status of
Jerusalem, Israel's military presence in and control over remaining territories
after Israel's recognition of Palestinian autonomy, and the Palestinian right of
return. The Oslo Accords, however, did not create a Palestinian state. The
Accords were strongly opposed by Palestinians and Israeli.
2nd Intifada and Suicide Bombings and Ariel Sharon: (11th Phase)
2nd Intifada was happened 2000 - 2005. The Second Intifada was a Palestinian
uprising against Israel. The general triggers for the violence were proposed as
the failure of the 2000 Camp David Summit to reach final agreement on the
Israeli-Palestinian peace process in July 2000. The violence started in
September 2000, after Ariel Sharon made a highly provocative visit to the Temple
Mount. The visit itself was peaceful, but, as anticipated, it sparked protests
and riots which the Israeli police put down with rubber bullets and tear gas.
High numbers of casualties were caused among civilians as well as combatants.
The Israelis engaged in gunfire, tank and air attacks, and targeted killings
while the Palestinians engaged in suicide bombings, rock throwing, gunfire and
rockets attacks. The death toll, including both combatants and civilians, is
estimated to be about 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis, as well as 64
Many consider the Sharm el-Sheikh Summit on 8 February 2005 to be the end of the
Second Intifada. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister
Ariel Sharon agreed that all Palestinian factions would stop all acts of
violence against all Israelis everywhere, while Israel would cease all its
military activity against all Palestinians everywhere. They also reaffirmed
their commitment to the Roadmap for peace process. Sharon also agreed to release
900 Palestinian prisoners of the 7,500 being held at the time, and to withdraw
from West Bank towns that had been reoccupied during the intifada.
Operation Defensive Shield: (End Phase)
The main objective of the operation was to strike Palestinian terrorist
infrastructures and put an end to the wave of terrorist attacks against Israeli
One of the main triggers of the operation was the March 27, 2002 attack at the
Park Hotel in Netanya. Hamas claimed to have organized this attack in which 30
Israeli civilians were killed.
The operation was concentrated on the cities in Judea and Samaria, in particular
Nablus, Ramallah, Jenin and Bethlehem, which housed most of the terrorist
The battle in Jenin was the most difficult one and therefore is most remembered
At the end of the operation, several goals had been achieved.
Israel Promise himself that they are not given any land to anyone for Peace.