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The Impact Of Dark Web On Individual Rights

In the late 1990s, amid the evolving landscape of the digital age, two research organizations within the US Department of Defence embarked on a mission to create a clandestine network designed to safeguard sensitive communications of US intelligence agents. The goal was to establish an encrypted and anonymized platform beyond the reach of ordinary internet users.

This initiative laid the foundation for what would become the Tor network, short for "The Onion Router," named for its multiple layers of encryption. While the original intention of creating a secret network for spies was not fully realized, the Tor network found an unexpected calling. Researchers saw its potential as a tool for safeguarding privacy and anonymity, leading to the establishment of a nonprofit focused on providing these features for human rights activists and privacy advocates.

The Tor network, operating on the fringes of the internet, became the underlying technology of the dark web-a collection of hidden sites inaccessible via regular browsers and unindexed by popular search engines like Google.

Today, the Tor network hosts over 65,000 unique URLs ending with onion, with various functions ranging from communication platforms to marketplaces[1]. A significant portion of these functions supports legal and legitimate activities in free societies, providing a lifeline for individuals living under oppressive regimes, allowing access to information, and protecting against political persecution.

However, the same privacy and anonymity that make the dark web a haven for political dissidents and privacy advocates also create fertile ground for illicit activities. Arms trafficking, drug dealing, and the dissemination of exploitative content, including pornography and violent images, are prevalent on the dark web.

The integration of dark web services with cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, has further fuelled expectations of a boom in criminal activities. Despite the growth of illicit transactions on the dark web, it remains a small fraction of global illicit commerce. Yet, the challenges posed by the dark web activities-ranging from child exploitation to arms trafficking-require international attention from regulators, financial institutions, and law enforcement agencies. Striking a delicate balance between protecting liberal principles and eradicating criminal activities on the dark web is the overarching challenge faced by authorities.

Efforts to address these challenges have seen progress, including improved information sharing, enhanced technical capabilities of law enforcement agencies, and regulation of cryptocurrency transactions. Global initiatives, such as those by Interpol and the European Union, have led to the identification and shutdown of major illicit dark web sites.

Law enforcement agencies, including the FBI, have conducted operations to "de-anonymize" Tor servers, resulting in the takedown of prominent dark web marketplaces. The growing recognition of the role of cryptocurrencies in fuelling dark web activities has prompted regulatory responses. International bodies, such as the Financial Action Task Force, have issued guidance to enhance the scrutiny of cryptocurrency transfers.

However, the fast-evolving landscape, including the impending launch of Facebook's cryptocurrency, Libra, underscores the need for ongoing efforts to regulate and monitor virtual assets. In navigating the complex terrain of the dark web, liberal societies face the challenge of protecting free expression and privacy while preventing illegal and immoral activities.

This requires a nuanced approach that acknowledges the dual nature of the dark web-anonymity for those in need and a platform for criminal enterprises-demanding constant vigilance from regulators and law enforcement agencies to preserve the benefits of an anonymized network while curbing its potential for abuse.

Overview of Individual Rights

Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

The Constitutional foundation of India, deeply rooted in Part III, establishes fundamental rights that serve as the bedrock of individual liberties[2]. These rights, ranging from the right to equality and freedom of speech to the right to life, create a robust framework empowering citizens and safeguarding them from unwarranted state intrusion. Among these fundamental rights, the recognition of the right to privacy stands out as particularly noteworthy.

The Constitution provides a broad spectrum of fundamental rights, and within this framework, the right to privacy emerges as a pivotal component, intricately linked to the broader concept of personal liberty. The judicial affirmation of the right to privacy as a fundamental right, as exemplified in the landmark case of K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India (2015), marks a transformative moment in the evolution of individual rights in India.

This judicial recognition acknowledged the inherent link between personal liberty and the right to privacy, elevating privacy to the status of a fundamental right. The interrelation is evident - the constitutional foundation establishes a comprehensive array of fundamental rights, and within this spectrum, the right to privacy emerges as a crucial facet, influencing and shaping the contours of personal liberty, especially in the context of the digital age.

Digital Rights and Privacy

The emergence of the digital age brings forth a new dimension to individual rights - digital rights. As individuals increasingly engage with digital platforms, the protection of personal information becomes paramount. The evolution of technology demands an extension of traditional rights into the digital realm, recognizing the need to adapt legal frameworks to address contemporary challenges.

However, this digital landscape also poses challenges. Issues such as data breaches and online surveillance underscore the evolving nature of individual rights. The interrelation lies in the dynamic relationship between technology and legal frameworks. The challenges in the digital sphere emphasize the necessity of adapting legal safeguards to address contemporary issues, ensuring that the protection of individual rights remains relevant and robust in the face of technological advancements.

Legal Framework for Individual Rights Protection

The legal framework, deeply rooted in the Constitution, serves as the backbone for individual rights protection in India. Constitutional safeguards, enshrined in Part III, create a delicate balance between individual freedoms and the state's authority. These safeguards act as a shield against arbitrary state actions, ensuring that the rights of citizens are not unduly curtailed.

Legislative measures, such as the Information Technology Act, 2000, and the recent introduction of the Data Protection Act, 2023, reflect a dynamic response to the challenges posed by technological advancements. These legislative frameworks address issues like data protection and cybersecurity, aligning legal provisions with the realities of the digital era. The Data Protection Act, in particular, aims to regulate the processing of personal data and establish rights for individuals over their data, reinforcing the commitment to privacy and data security.

The Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, introduced in response to the shortcomings of previous bills, holds significance in shaping the legal landscape. Arising from the Supreme Court's affirmation of the 'Right to Privacy' in the K.S. Puttaswamy case (2015), the Act establishes a comprehensive framework for the protection and processing of personal data. Its applicability extends to digital personal data within India and extraterritorially in connection with goods or services offered to Indian data principals[3]. The Act introduces principles governing consent, rights and duties of data principals, obligations of data fiduciaries, and provisions for the transfer of personal data outside India.

Judicial pronouncements, exemplified by cases like K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India (2015), play a pivotal role in interpreting and reinforcing constitutional principles in the context of emerging challenges. The judiciary ensures that legal frameworks, including specialized legislation like the Data Protection Act, remain adaptive and responsive to the changing landscape of individual rights. The interrelation between constitutional safeguards, legislative measures, judicial decisions, and specific acts like the Data Protection Act creates a comprehensive framework ensuring the protection and evolution of individual rights in an ever-changing socio-technological landscape.

The Dark Web: An Overview[4]
The dark web constitutes a hidden part of the internet, intentionally kept out of the reach of conventional search engines and necessitating the use of an anonymizing browser known as Tor for access. This section delves into the intricacies of the dark web, shedding light on its definition, structure, functionality, and the diverse activities that unfold within its concealed digital corridors.

What is the Dark Web?
The dark web stands as an unindexed segment of the internet, remaining invisible to standard search engines. It necessitates specialized tools like the Tor browser to navigate its depths. In a study conducted over five weeks in 2015, researchers identified that 57% of 2,723 live dark web sites hosted illicit material, showcasing its association with various forms of criminal activity.

Contrary to its ominous reputation, not all activities on the dark web are illegal. Legitimate facets coexist, allowing users to engage in activities such as joining a chess club or participating in Black Book, termed as the "Facebook of Tor." It's crucial to recognize the dual nature of the dark web, encompassing both illicit dealings and lawful interactions within its clandestine realms.

Structure and Functionality
The dark web is a subset of the deep web, intentionally concealed and necessitating Tor for access. The deep web comprises internet content not indexed by standard search engines, including password-protected or subscription-based content. Estimates place the dark web at around 5% of the total internet, hidden beneath the surface of the clear web accessible through conventional browsers.

Navigating the dark web is not a straightforward task. The Tor browser, functioning as an anonymizing tool, routes web requests through a series of global proxy servers operated by volunteers. This process renders the user's IP address unidentifiable and untraceable, contributing to the unpredictable and often slow experience akin to the dark web's chaotic nature.

Activities on the Dark Web
The dark web hosts a spectrum of activities, ranging from legitimate to nefarious. Criminal elements exploit its anonymity for various purposes, such as trading credit card numbers, drugs, firearms, counterfeit money, and stolen credentials. It serves as a marketplace for hacking services, allowing individuals to hire hackers for diverse cyber activities. Despite its association with illegal transactions, the dark web also accommodates legitimate endeavours.

Users can access encrypted communication channels, privacy-focused tutorials, and services catering to those seeking anonymity in regions with restricted internet access. Intriguingly, the dark web is not only a hub for illegal commerce but also a space where individuals can learn about privacy protection, cryptocurrency, and engage in discussions on diverse topics anonymously. Legitimate entities, including law enforcement and media organizations, actively monitor the dark web for valuable insights, making it a multifaceted and complex digital landscape.

Challenges to Individual Rights on the Dark Web[5]
Navigating the dark web introduces individuals to a spectrum of challenges that encroach upon their rights in a multifaceted manner. This section delves into the myriad challenges faced by individuals attempting to preserve their rights while engaging with the intricate dynamics of the dark web.

Cybercrime and Fraud
Within the dark web, a significant challenge emerges in the form of escalating cybercrime and fraudulent activities. Illicit marketplaces become conduits for the illicit trade of stolen personal information, credit card details, and other sensitive data, thereby exposing individuals to the threats of identity theft and financial harm.

The covert nature of transactions complicates the task of victims seeking to trace and recover losses, exacerbating the jeopardy posed to their digital security and privacy rights. Perpetrators exploit online system vulnerabilities, deploy malware, and orchestrate phishing attacks, compromising individuals' rights to digital security and privacy.

The clandestine environment of the dark web serves as a breeding ground for the creation and distribution of sophisticated cyber threats, continually challenging the protection of individual rights in the digital realm.

Illicit Trade and Transactions
The dark web acts as a hub for illegal trade, offering an array of prohibited goods and services, ranging from drugs to firearms and hacking tools. The anonymity provided by the dark web facilitates these transactions, making it arduous for law enforcement agencies to intervene effectively. The trade in such items not only endangers public safety but also infringes upon individuals' rights to live in a secure and lawful society.

The surreptitious nature of these transactions poses a direct challenge to regulatory frameworks designed to shield individuals from harm. As a result, individuals may find their rights to physical safety and well-being compromised by the unregulated and illicit activities prevalent on the dark web.

Threats to Privacy and Anonymity
While the dark web offers a sanctuary for those seeking privacy in regions with restricted internet access, it concurrently poses threats to the privacy and anonymity of individuals navigating its depths. Malicious actors exploit the veil of anonymity to engage in activities violating the rights of others, such as cyberstalking, doxing, and harassment.

The challenge lies in striking a balance between the legitimate use of the dark web for privacy protection and the prevention of malicious activities that infringe upon the rights of individuals. As technology evolves, ensuring the preservation of privacy rights becomes an ongoing challenge, especially in an environment where individuals may inadvertently become victims or unwitting participants in illicit schemes.

Instances of data breaches in India
  • In January 2021, Juspay fell victim to a data breach, resulting in the exposure of sensitive information belonging to approximately 10 crore cardholders. The compromised data, including email IDs, mobile numbers, and card transaction details, was openly traded on the dark web, with the transaction amount remaining undisclosed.[6]
  • March 2021 witnessed the Mobikwik data breach, exposing sensitive details of 3.5 million users. The data, available for sale on the dark web, encompassed KYC details, addresses, phone numbers, and Aadhar card information. In response to the incident, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) directed the digital wallet firm to undergo a forensic audit facilitated by a CERT-IN (Indian Computer Emergency Response Team)-empanelled auditor.[7]
  • April 2021 saw Domino's India grappling with a data breach involving the compromise of sensitive information related to around 18 crore orders. The breached data was made available on the dark web for purchase, presented as a searchable database. Alon Gal, CTO of cybersecurity firm Hudson Rock, disclosed on Twitter that the data was traded for approximately Rs 4.5 crore in bitcoins.[8]
  • Big Basket, a victim of a confirmed November 2020 data breach, faced another setback in April 2021 when its data was allegedly leaked on the dark web. The exposed information, affecting over 20 million customers, included email addresses, names, birth dates, hashed passwords, and phone numbers. The database's size was estimated at around 3.25 GB, and the hacker group Shiny Hunters facilitated the distribution of this data on the dark web for download.[9]
Regulatory Challenges
Law enforcement agencies and policymakers grapple with formidable regulatory challenges concerning the dark web, primarily due to its encryption techniques and pervasive anonymity. The entirely anonymous nature of the dark web environment complicates efforts to gather sufficient information for combating cybercrimes and tracking criminals exploiting this space.

The absence of a universal definition of cyber terrorism further confounds intelligence agencies, making it difficult to determine the jurisdiction of these crimes. The multi-dimensional dangers of cyberspace, interlinked and complex, pose additional hurdles in regulatory efforts. In addition to robust encryption techniques, most financial transactions on the dark web are conducted in cryptocurrencies, further enhancing anonymity.

Cryptocurrency's underlying technology, blockchain, serves as a digital ledger of transactions distributed across the network, cryptographically securing blocks of information in a way that makes system modification or hacking challenging. Cybercriminal groups, such as Darkside and REvil, demand ransom amounts in cryptocurrency, making it challenging for law enforcement to follow the money trail and gather evidence.

Regulating cryptocurrencies is feasible only in terms of their legitimate use, leaving a substantial portion susceptible to illegitimate purposes. Monitoring the cryptocurrency chain necessitates a well-defined categorization of centralized and decentralized roles in financial transactions.

Blockchain, an emerging technology, demands increased expertise in the field for effective regulation. Another regulatory challenge involves the transient nature of most dark web sites, active for periods ranging from 200 to 300 days or less than two months. Tracking these ephemeral sites adds to the complexity of regulatory efforts.

Successful Takedowns of Dark Web Sites
  • Operation Paris (OpParis): Launched by Anonymous in the aftermath of the 2015 Paris attacks, OpParis led to the takedown of hundreds of dark web websites associated with ISIS.[10]
  • Kirill Victorovich Firsov: A Russian citizen imprisoned for 30 months for his role in selling stolen credit card information and other data on the dark web, contributing to various criminal activities.[11]
  • Slilpp' Takedown: On June 11, 2021, the Tor-based market on the Dark Web known as 'Slilpp,' involved in dealing stolen credentials, was shut down.[12]
  • FIN7 Cybercrime Group: A Ukrainian national linked to the FIN7 cybercrime group, responsible for stealing over $1 billion from U.S. citizens and organizations, was sentenced to seven years imprisonment and ordered to pay $2.5 million.[13]
  • Binance Cryptocurrency Exchange: Ukrainian police, aided by advanced data analytics from Binance cryptocurrency exchange, tracked down money launderers associated with criminal scams on the dark web.[14]
  • REvil Gang Data Sites: On July 13, 2021, data sites associated with the REvil gang on the dark web became unreachable, sparking speculation about prohibitions imposed by law enforcement or potential self-disbandment.[15]

Way Forward
The dark web presents a nuanced landscape, offering both advantages and disadvantages contingent on its use or exploitation by individuals. While the darknet safeguards the right to freedom of information and online privacy, journalists and activists worldwide use it for secure communication.

A nuanced approach by law enforcement agencies is imperative, simultaneously preserving the benefits of this space and eradicating illegal activities. Collaborative efforts between public and private organizations can address emerging technological challenges posed by the dark web, introducing solutions such as innovative encryption tools.

The proactive integration of sophisticated technologies like artificial intelligence and machine learning is essential for law enforcement agencies. Addressing recurrent data breach incidents requires specific regulations on the collection of personal data by companies, with automatic deletion after a stipulated time period. Such regulations can enhance the efficiency of cyber systems, securing data and preventing future incidents.

The challenges posed by the trans-border nature of the dark web can be mitigated through intelligence data sharing across sectors, agencies, and organizations. International cooperation, facilitated through multilateral exchanges, seminars, forums, and joint capacity-building exercises, proves highly beneficial in addressing these challenges.

Ethical Considerations
Balancing privacy and security is a critical ethical consideration in the realm of the dark web. While the dark web is often associated with illicit activities and poses significant security concerns, it is essential to navigate the fine line between enhancing security measures and respecting individuals' right to privacy. Striking this balance requires a nuanced approach that acknowledges the legitimate uses of the dark web, such as safeguarding freedom of information and enabling secure communication for journalists and activists.

In addressing the ethical dilemma, policymakers and law enforcement agencies must develop frameworks that prioritize privacy without compromising overall security. This involves implementing targeted measures that specifically target illegal activities without infringing on the privacy rights of law-abiding individuals. Transparency in the implementation of such measures is crucial to maintaining public trust and ensuring that privacy considerations are at the forefront of decision-making processes.

 Moreover, fostering public awareness about the ethical considerations of balancing privacy and security is paramount. Educating individuals about the potential risks and benefits associated with the dark web can empower them to make informed choices regarding their online activities. This, in turn, contributes to a more vigilant and privacy-conscious online community.

Ethical Use of Dark Web Intelligence
The ethical use of dark web intelligence is another dimension that demands careful consideration. While the dark web harbours criminal activities, the information obtained from this space should be handled ethically and responsibly. Law enforcement agencies, cybersecurity professionals, and other entities engaged in monitoring the dark web must adhere to strict ethical guidelines to prevent misuse of the gathered intelligence.

Respecting privacy rights extends to the ethical handling of information acquired from the dark web. This includes ensuring that only relevant and necessary data is collected, avoiding indiscriminate surveillance, and safeguarding the anonymity of individuals not involved in criminal activities. Striking a balance between the need for intelligence gathering and ethical considerations requires the establishment of clear protocols and oversight mechanisms.

Additionally, international collaboration is vital to establish a unified set of ethical standards for the use of dark web intelligence. Shared ethical frameworks can facilitate effective cooperation among different countries and organizations, ensuring that the fight against cybercrime is conducted with integrity and respect for human rights.

Ethical considerations in the dark web domain involve finding the delicate equilibrium between enhancing security measures and upholding individuals' right to privacy. This necessitates informed policymaking, public awareness, and ethical guidelines for the responsible use of intelligence gathered from the dark web.

Future Trends and Recommendations
Predictions for the Evolution of the Dark Web[16]
Darknet markets have experienced significant growth in popularity, particularly following the well-publicized takedown of the Silk Road marketplace in October 2013. This event led to a surge in users seeking drugs and various illicit services on Darknet platforms worldwide.

The demand for such items prompted the emergence of numerous marketplaces across the Darknet. Initially centred around drugs, these markets expanded to include forbidden items like weapons, credit cards, and malicious services such as malware, DDoS-as-a-service, and data dumps, as they ventured into territories the Silk Road avoided.

Presently, an estimated 2 million users access the Tor network daily, showcasing the widespread popularity of Darknet markets. The network's appeal is attributed to significant funding and academic scrutiny over the years. Accessing and running a hidden service on the Onion network is relatively straightforward, contributing to its accessibility. However, this ease of access comes with real-life consequences.

Many individuals turn to the Onion network seeking anonymity and obfuscation for their activities, aiming to operate with minimal traces. Despite these intentions, users, including criminals, are susceptible to errors and face challenges. The year 2017 has been marked by various events within the Onion network, with an increase in raids and takedowns as global law enforcement intensifies its efforts. Market operators and vendors are not only subject to law enforcement scrutiny but also face threats from competition, rogue users, vigilantes, and extortionists aiming to profit by exposing administrators' personal details and marketplace vulnerabilities.

One notable incident occurred in February, where a vigilante hacker targeted Freedom Hosting 2, a major Dark web hosting provider, which hosted child pornography. The hacker not only took down the hosting provider but also exposed databases and private keys in a public dump, affecting over 10,000 hidden services-approximately a fifth of the Onion network. This incident illustrates the complex landscape of Darknet markets, where legal actions and internal conflicts intertwine with the constant pursuit of anonymity.

The evolution of the dark web is anticipated to follow several trends in the coming years:
  • Increased Use of Decentralized Technologies: The adoption of decentralized technologies, such as blockchain, may become more prevalent on the dark web. These technologies provide enhanced anonymity and security, making it challenging for authorities to trace and monitor activities.
  • Rise of Alternative Cryptocurrencies: While Bitcoin has been the preferred currency for transactions on the dark web, the emergence of alternative cryptocurrencies may diversify financial transactions. Privacy-focused cryptocurrencies may gain popularity, further complicating efforts to track and regulate illicit financial activities.
  • Expansion of Illicit Marketplaces: Dark web marketplaces are likely to evolve and expand, offering a broader range of illegal goods and services. The anonymity provided by the dark web attracts various criminal elements, and as technology advances, these marketplaces may become more sophisticated in their operations.
  • Integration of Artificial Intelligence: Cybercriminals may leverage artificial intelligence (AI) for more sophisticated attacks and to optimize their operations. AI tools could be employed for tasks such as automating cyber-attacks, evading detection, and enhancing the overall efficiency of criminal activities on the dark web.

Strategies for Strengthening Individual Rights Protection

  1. Enhanced Cybersecurity Education: Individuals should be educated about the risks associated with the dark web, emphasizing the importance of cybersecurity measures. This includes promoting the use of strong, unique passwords, implementing two-factor authentication, and staying informed about potential threats.
  2. Collaborative International Efforts: Governments and law enforcement agencies should engage in collaborative international efforts to combat cybercrime originating from the dark web. Sharing intelligence, coordinating investigations, and establishing common legal frameworks can enhance the collective ability to protect individual rights.
  3. Technological Innovations for Privacy: The development and promotion of privacy-focused technologies can empower individuals to protect their online privacy. This includes the use of encrypted communication tools, virtual private networks (VPNs), and privacy-focused browsers to mitigate the risks associated with the dark web.
  4. Adaptive Legal Frameworks: Legal frameworks must adapt to the evolving nature of the dark web and cyber threats. Regular updates to legislation and the introduction of new laws that specifically address emerging challenges can provide authorities with the necessary tools to combat illegal activities while safeguarding individual rights.
  5. Promotion of Ethical Hacking: Ethical hacking practices can be encouraged to identify vulnerabilities in online systems, including those on the dark web. By collaborating with ethical hackers and security researchers, organizations can proactively address potential weaknesses and enhance overall cybersecurity.

The intricate interplay between the Tor network, individual rights, and the dark web presents a multifaceted landscape that demands careful consideration and balanced approaches. The Tor network, born out of a government initiative for secure communication, evolved into a tool offering both refuge and risk.

While it provides a sanctuary for privacy seekers and those living under oppressive regimes, the dark web, operating within its folds, poses significant challenges to individual rights. The constitutional foundation of individual rights in India, particularly the right to privacy, has been reinforced through landmark judicial decisions and legislative measures like the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023.

These frameworks aim to strike a delicate balance between protecting citizens' freedoms and addressing the challenges posed by the digital age. However, the dark web introduces a new dimension to these challenges, testing the efficacy of legal safeguards in a realm intentionally designed to elude conventional oversight.

Challenges to individual rights on the dark web manifest in the form of cybercrime, illicit trade, and threats to privacy and anonymity. Incidents of data breaches in India underscore the real-world consequences of these challenges, exposing individuals to identity theft and financial harm. Regulatory efforts to combat dark web activities face formidable obstacles, from encryption techniques to the transitory nature of dark web sites.

Successful takedowns of dark web sites, while commendable, highlight the persistent cat-and-mouse game between law enforcement and those exploiting the anonymous environment. Looking ahead, the dark web's evolution is anticipated to involve increased use of decentralized technologies, alternative cryptocurrencies, and the integration of artificial intelligence. Strengthening individual rights protection in this evolving landscape requires a holistic approach.

This includes enhanced cybersecurity education, collaborative international efforts, the development of privacy-focused technologies, adaptive legal frameworks, and the promotion of ethical hacking practices. In navigating the complexities of the dark web, governments, law enforcement agencies, and individuals must remain vigilant.

Striking a balance between preserving the benefits of privacy and anonymity and curtailing criminal activities requires ongoing cooperation, technological innovation, and a commitment to upholding fundamental rights. The future calls for a proactive and adaptive approach to safeguard individual rights in the face of emerging challenges posed by the ever-evolving landscape of the dark web.

  1. The Truth About The Dark Web � IMF F&D (Visited on 1st November, 2023)
  2. Fundamental Rights in India and Technology laws ( (Visited on 2nd November, 2023)
  3. [The Viewpoint] Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 � A Brief Analysis ( (Visited on 2nd November, 2023)
  4. What is the dark web? How to access it and what you'll find | CSO Online (Visited on 3rd November, 2023)
  5. The Dark Web and Regulatory Challenges | Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses ( (Visited on 4th November, 2023)
  6. Ashwin Manikandan and Anandi Chandrashekhar, "Juspay Data Leak fallout: RBI swings into action to curb cyberattacks", The Economic Times, January 6, 2021.
  7. RBI orders forensic audit of Mobikwik systems after data breach allegations, Mint, March 31, 2021.
  8. Jagmeet Singh, "Domino's India Data Allegedly Breached by Hacker Selling It on the Dark Web", Gadgets360, April 19, 2021.
  9. Sudhanshu Singh, "Big Basket data breach: email IDs, phone numbers, home addresses of two crore Indians allegedly leaked on the web", Business Insider, April 26, 2021.
  10. Abby Ohlheiser, "What you need to know about Anonymous's 'war' on the Islamic State", The Washington Post, November 17, 2015.
  11. Russian Hacker Sentenced to 30 Months for Running a Website Selling Stolen, Counterfeit and Hacked Accounts, Department of Justice, U.S. Attorney's Office, Southern District of California, May 24, 2021.
  12. Slilpp Marketplace Disrupted in International Cyber Operation, Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, June 10, 2021.
  13. High-Level Member of Hacking Group Sentenced to Prison for Scheme that Compromised Tens of Millions of Debit and Credit Cards, Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs, June 24, 2021.
  14. John Leyden, "Binance reveals how data analytics led to ransomware-linked money laundering bust', PortSwigger, June 28, 2021.
  15. Cameron Camp and Aryeh Goretsky, "Kaseya supply‑chain attack: What we know so far", WeLiveSecurity, July 3, 2021; Latest ransomware attack appears to hit hundreds of American businesses, The Guardian, July 3, 2021.
  16. The Evolution of the Dark Web � Radware Blog (Visited on 8th of November, 2023)

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